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A Grammatical Dictionary of Botanical Latin

Achene, a dry indehiscent one-seeded pericarp; “any small, brittle, seed-like fruit, such as Linnaeus called a naked seed. Strictly, it should be confined to such fruits as those of the Rose or Strawberry, which are also one-seeded and superior” (Lindley); “a small dry and hard 1-locular 1-seeded indehiscent fruit, like the individual fruits of Ranunculus” (Fernald 1950): achenium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. achenio, nom.& acc. pl. achenia, dat. & abl.pl. acheniis; also achaenium,-ii (s.n.II) and akene, akenium [> NL. achenium, from Gk. a-, ‘not’ + chainein, to yawn (WIII), indehiscent]; see caryopsis, grain; see cypsela;

"Introduced in 1790 by Necker as achena (s.f.I) and used by him for indehiscent one-seeded coriaceous fruits in Ranunculaceae, Cyperaceae, etc. but not for the cypselae (formed from inferior ovary) of Compositae. Also spelled achaenium (s.n.II) and achaena (s.f.I)" (Stearn 1984).

- [Kentranthus] pappus plumosus achenam coronans (Necker), the pappus plumose, wreathing [i.e. crowning] the achene.

- [Mitrophora] Achena, longitudinaliter sulcata, perigynanda exteriore ccronata (Necker), the achene, longitudinally sulcate, crowned by the outer perigynanda [i.e. involucre].

- achenia capitata, sessilia vel vix stipitata, apice stylo persistente nudo v. barbato caudata (B&H), the Achenes capitate, sessile or scarcely on a stipe, caudate at the apex with a persistent style, naked or bearded.

- achenia parva 4-5 mm. longa griseo-brunnea, in parte superiore tuberculis mediocris longitudinis dense obsita et saepe tota rugulosa, in rostrum attenuata, achenes small 4-5 mm. long grey-brown in upper part with tubercles of medium length densely covered and often completely rugulose, into a beak drawn out (Stearn).

- achenia saepius compressa, faciebus 1-3-nerviis -costatisve, rarius inflata v. subtriquetra (B&H), achens more often compressed, with the faces 1-3-nerved or costate, more rarely inflated or subtriquetrous.

- achenia in eodem capitulo heteromorpha, achenes in the same head of differing shape (Stearn).

- Achenia saepius compressa, carinata v. alata, faciebus aveniis v. rarius 1-3-nerviis, rarius angulata (B&H), the achenes more often compressed, keeled or winged, with the faces lacking veins [sic] or more rarely 1-3-nerved, more rarely angled.

- achenia tenuia longitudinaliter sulcata, achenes thin longitudinally furrowed. (Stearn).

- acheniis ellipsoideo-obovoideis, apice in rostrum tenue contractis, with the achenes ellipsoid-obovoid, with the apex contracted into a delicate beak.

Nut: “a hard indehiscent pericarp, usually containing only one seed; the same as Glans, and Achaenium” (Lindley), generally, a grain: nux (s.f.III), gen.sg. nucis, acc. sg. nucem, dat. sg. nuci, abl.sg. nuce, nom.& acc. pl. nuces, gen.pl. nucum or nucerum, dat. & abl. pl. nucibus; see nut;

- [Cyperaceae: Psilocarya] nux styli (2-fidi) basi dilatata persistente rostrata (B&H), the grain [i.e. achene] of the style (2-fid) dilated at the base, persistently rostrate.

- {FIMBRISTYLIS] styli basis bulboso-incrassata v. conica, cum stylo decidua v. (in sect. Oncostyle) in nuce diu persistens (B&H), the base of the style bulbous-thickened or conic, deciduous with the style or (in section Oncostyle) long persisting on the achene.

Acenium: variant of Achaenium,-ii (s.n.II) (Lindley).

Cypsela, a dry, single-seeded, indehiscent fruit with an adnate calyx, as in some achenes in the Compositae (Asteraceae), e.g. Calendula, Senecio; “the dry one-celled one-seeded inferior fruit of Composites” (Lindley): cypsela,-ae (s.f.I), q.v.

Spermidium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg spermidio: “(obsol.) one of the names of the achaenium” (Lindley)

Xylodium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. xylodio: “(obsol.) one of the names of the Achaenium” (Lindley).

Psilachenia Benth., with naked achenes.

Sacellus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. sacello: “(obsol.) an achaenium or caryopsis inclosed within a hardened calyx, as in Marvel of Peru” [Mirabilis jalapa] (Lindley).

Tetrachaenium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. tetrachaenio: “(obsol.) a fruit formed by the adhesion of four achaenia” (Lindley).

Thecidium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. thecidio: “(obsol.) one of the forgotten names of the fruit called an Achaenium” (Lindley) [> Gk. dim. theca (s.f.I)].

Triakenium, “(obsol.) that kind of fruit called a Cremocarp (q.v.), in which the number of carpels is three” (Lindley): triachenium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. triachenio.

NOTE: thecidium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. thecidio: “(obsol.) one of the forgotten names of the fruit called an Achaenium” (Lindley) [> Gk. dim. theca (s.f.I)].

NOTE: Nut, “a hard indehiscent pericarp, usually containing only one seed; the same as Glans, and Achaenium” (Lindley).

NOTE: capsella,-ae (s.f.I) “(obsol.) the same as Achaenium” (Lindley).


A work in progress, presently with preliminary A through R, and S, and with S (in part) through Z essentially completed.
Copyright © P. M. Eckel 2010-2018

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