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Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana

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ANNONACEAE

6. DUGUETIA A. St.-Hil., Fl. Bras. Merid. 1: 35, t. 7. 1827 [1824].

by Paul J. M. Maas

Trees or shrubs with subentire, stellate, or lepidote scales or stellate hairs. Inflorescences ± opposite the leaves, or rarely produced from older branches or from the trunk (flagelliform from base of trunk in D. flagellaris), 1--many-flowered. Flowers medium-sized or large, bisexual. Sepals 3, valvate; petals 6, biseriately imbricate. Stamens numerous; anthers not locellate; connective expanded into a truncate or capitate disk over the anther locules, rarely minute or absent; receptacle conical. Carpels numerous, the outer ones sterile and forming a basal collar; ovule solitary, erect, basal. Carpels sessile, separate or rarely partly fused, strongly coherent (making the fruit pseudosyncarpous), fleshy or woody.

Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay; ca. 75 species, 19 species in Venezuela, 18 of these in the flora area.

Key to the Species of Duguetia

1. Inflorescence flagelliform, arising from the base of the trunk and trailing over the forest floor, inflorescence branches to 2 m long; petals pink to red...D. flagellaris

1. Inflorescence not flagelliform; petals creamy to yellowish white...2

2(1). Young stems and leaves covered with stellate hairs...3

2. Young stems and leaves covered with lepidote or stellate scales...7

3(2). Stems and fruits densely covered with a woolly indument of ferrugineous hairs...D. sp. B

3. Stems and fruits with a different indument than above...4

4(3). Leaves 2-colored, the lower surface with a dense indument of white hairs; fruit composed of 150--200 strongly flattened carpels...D. uniflora

4. Leaves 1-colored, the lower surface never with an indument of white hairs...5

5(4). Young stems and lower surface of leaves sparsely hairy to glabrous; leaves 30--40 × 7--15 cm; petals 3--5 cm long; fruits blackish when dry, with ca. 50 carpels, the apical portion of the carpels irregularly wrinkled...D. macrophylla

5. Young stems and lower surface of leaves densely hairy; leaves and petals smaller than above; fruits never blackish when dry, nor the apical portion of the carpels wrinkled...6

6(5). Leaves 10--30 × 5--12.5 cm, symmetrical, long-acuminate; sepals and petals of the same length, 1--1.5 cm long; fruit 1.5--2.5 cm diameter, com-posed of 10--20 carpels...D. pycnastera

6. Leaves 8--20 × 2.5--6 cm, often slightly oblique, acute; petals 1.5--3.5 cm long, much longer than the sepals; fruit ca. 6 cm diameter, composed of ca. 200 carpels...D. sp. C

7(2). Leaves with a distinct marginal vein sunken on the upper surface like the secondary veins; cauliflorous trees (rarely cauliflorous in other species such as D. megalophylla); pedicels to 5 cm long; fruit 5--7 cm diameter, with ca. 100 carpels, the apical portion pyramidal, 6-ribbed, brownish velutinous, pungent...D. cauliflora

7. Leaves without a distinct, marginal vein; trees usually not cauliflorous...8

8(7). Lower surface of leaves sparsely to rather densely covered with scales, never completely covering the surface...9

8. Lower surface of leaves densely covered with scales, completely (or almost so) covering the surface...13

9(8). Sepals 3--5 cm long; pedicels 2.5--4 cm long; fruit 4--6 cm long, with ca. 100 carpels...D. megalophylla

9. Sepals and pedicels much shorter...10

10(9). Fruit with 10--15 carpels, 1.5--2 cm diameter, the apical portion of the carpels broadly rounded, apiculate; leaves shiny above, 15--23 × 6--9 cm...D. pauciflora

10. Fruit with 40--100 carpels...11

11(10). Fruit of shiny brown, narrowly to broadly pyramidal carpels; sepals 1--1.5 cm long; petals 1--2 cm long...D. quitarensis

11. Fruit of nonshiny carpels...12

12(11). Leaves coriaceous, 2-colored; small savanna shrubs 1--2(--5) m tall...D. dimorphopetala12. Leaves chartaceous, 1-colored; forest trees 2--10 m tall...D. calycina

13(8). Upper surface of leaves shiny; fruits red when ripe, 4--6 cm diameter, of ca. 100 carpels, the apical portion of the carpels broadly pyramidal, distinctly whitish ribbed; inflorescence 1--6(--many)-flowered...D. lucida

13. Upper surface of leaves not shiny; fruit never red...14

14(13). Inflorescence 1--9-flowered; fruit of 150--350 carpels, fused over most of their length, 5.5--8 cm diameter, the apical portion of the carpels mushroom-shaped...D. lepidota

14. Inflorescence 1- or 2-flowered; fruit of up to 120 mostly free carpels, the apical portion not as above...15

15(14). Fruit 4--7 cm diameter, with 50--120 carpels, the apical portion of the carpels pungent, pyramidal, and brownish velutinous...D. sp. A

15. Fruit 1.5--3.5 cm diameter; the apical portion of the carpels not pungent...16

16(15). Lower surface of leaves sparsely covered with stellate scales; leaves 4.5--10 cm wide; montane forests to 2000 m...D. rigida

16. Lower surface of leaves densely to totally covered with stellate scales; leaves 1.5--5 cm wide; lowland forests and savannas...17

17(16). Leaves papery; fruit with 35--60 carpels; seasonally flooded lowland forests...D. argentea

17. Leaves coriaceous; fruit with ca. 100 carpels; savannas and shrublands onwhite sand...D. venezuelana

Duguetia argentea (R.E. Fr.) R.E. Fr., Acta Horti Berg. 6: 16. 1919. ---Aberemoa argentea R.E. Fr., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl. n.s. 34(5): 23. 1900. ---Majagua, Majagua anón de hoja fina, Majagua rebalsera.

Shrub or tree 3--8 m; young branches densely lepidote; leaves papery, 2-colored, apex acuminate to acute, 7--20 x 1.5--5 cm, the lower surface densely silvery-lepidote below; flowers solitary, pedicels ca. 1 cm long; sepals 1.5--2 cm long; petals 2--3 cm long, white to yellowish white; fruit subglobose, 2--3 × 2--3.5 cm, with 35--60 carpels. Periodically flooded riparian forests, ca. 100 m; Amazonas (Río Casiquiare, Río Negro). Amazonian Colombia and Brazil.

Duguetia calycina Benoist, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 4: 57. 1923.

Tree 2--10 m; young branches densely lepidote; leaves chartaceous, apex acuminate, narrowly elliptic to narrowly obovate, 10--25 × 2.5--8 cm, the lower surface sparsely to densely lepidote; inflorescence 1--10-flowered, pedicels to 1.5 cm long; sepals 1--1.5 cm long, petals creamy white, 1--3 cm long; fruit very broadly ovoid, 2--5.5 cm long, of 40--100 carpels. Evergreen lowland forests, 200--400 m; Delta Amacuro (Río Toro), Bolívar (Serranía de Imataca), Amazonas (Salto Yureba in lower Río Ventuari basin). Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Amazonian Brazil.

Duguetia cauliflora R.E. Fr., Acta Horti Berg. 12: 57. 1934. ---Araira, Yarayara, Yarayara negra.

Tree 8--12 m with densely lepidote stems; leaves papery, narrowly elliptic, long-acuminate at apex, 10--25 × 3--7 cm, marginal vein distinct, like the secondary veins strongly impressed on upper surface, the lower surface lepidote; sepals 1.2--2 cm long; petals to 2.5 cm long, yellowish white, densely covered on outer surface with large orbicular scales; inflorescence fasciculately compound, many-flowered, cauliflorous, pedicels 1--5 cm long; fruit globose, 5--7 cm diameter, with ca. 100 carpels. Evergreen lowland and riparian forests, ca. 50--500 m; Bolívar (near Cerro Abismo, near Río Botanamo, upper Río Paragua), Amazonas (Boca Mavaca, Río Cataniapo, Río Cunucunuma, San Carlos de Río Negro, near San Fernando de Atabapo). Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Amazonian Brazil.

Duguetia dimorphopetala R.E. Fr., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 326. 1957. ---Anoncillo, Majagua anón, Majagua negra.

Monopodial shrub or tree 1--5 m; young branches densely stellate-lepidote; leaves thick-coriaceous, 2-colored, ovate-oblong, apex acute to acuminate, 6--17 × 2--6 cm, the lower surface sparsely to densely lepidote; inflorescence 1-flowered, pedicels to 1 cm long; sepals 1--1.5 cm long; petals creamy to yellow, 2--4 cm long, the inner ones narrower than the outer ones; fruit subglobose, 2.5--4 cm diameter, of 50--60 carpels. Shrub savannas, white-sand savannas, 100--200 m; Amazonas (Río Atabapo, Río Guainía, Río Pasimoni, Río Puruname, near San Carlos de Río Negro). Adjacent Colombia, Brazil.

Duguetia flagellaris Huber, Bol. Mus. Paraense Hist. Nat. 5: 355. 1909. ---Palo de vara, Vara.

Shrub or tree 1.5--6 m; young branches rather densely covered with stellate scales; leaves papery, apex acute to acuminate, narrowly elliptic, 13--24 × 4--8 cm, marginal vein present, the lower surface sparsely lepidote; inflorescence arising from base of trunk, flagelliform, 0.5--2 m long; sepals 0.5--1 cm long, petals red to pink, 0.5--2 cm long; fruit globose, 3--4.5 cm diameter, of ca. 20 carpels. Evergreen lowland forests, ca. 100 m; Amazonas (near San Carlos de Río Negro). Colombia, Amazonian Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil.

Duguetia lepidota (Miq.) Pulle, Enum. Vasc. Pl. Surinam 176. 1906. ---Anona lepidota Miq., Linnaea 19: 129. 1847.

Tree 7--25 m or rarely a shrub; young branches completely covered with yellow-orange scales; leaves chartaceous, narrowly ovate or narrowly ovate-elliptic, apex acute to acuminate, 9--20 × 2.5--5 cm, the lower surface densely lepidote; inflorescence 1--9-flowered, pedicels 1.5--3.5 cm long; sepals 1--1.5 cm long, petals greenish yellow, inner base red, 1--2.5 cm long; fruit ovoid or broadly so, 5.5--8 cm long, carpels 150--350, fused over most of their length. Gallery forests, 100 m; Bolívar (east of T&;riba), Amazonas (Isla Ratón, Puerto Ayacucho to Samariapo). Colombia, Suriname, Amazonian Brazil.

Duguetia lucida Urb., Symb. Antill. 1: 308. 1899. ---Adada (Yekwana), Anoncillo, Yarayara, Yarayara amarilla, Yarayara negra.

Tree or shrub 6--20 m; young branches densely covered with silvery lepidote scales; leaves chartaceous, shiny on upper surface, apex acute, obtuse, or acuminate, the lower surface densely lepidote, narrowly elliptic, 8--24 × 3--8 cm; inflorescence 1--6(--many)-flowered, pedicels 0.7--2 cm long; sepals 1--1.5 cm long, petals greenish yellow, inner base red, 1.4--1.5 cm long; fruit red when ripe, globose, 4--6 cm diameter, of ca. 100 carpels. Evergreen lowland, riparian, and semideciduous forests, ca. 100--500 m; Delta Amacuro (near Los Castillos), Bolívar (Río Botanamo, upper Río Erebato, Río Paragua, Río Parguaza, near Upata), Amazonas (San Carlos de Río Negro). Eastern Venezuelan Coastal Cordillera, western Andean Venezuela, Apure, Falcón, Zulia; Trinidad, Guyana, possibly in Brazil (Acre). Fig. 367.

Duguetia macrophylla R.E. Fr., Acta Horti Berg. 12: 63. 1934. ---Anón, Majagua, Majagua dura, Majagua hoja fina, Majagua negra.

Tree 2--10 m; young branches sparsely covered with stellate hairs; leaves chartaceous, narrowly elliptic, apex shortly to long-acuminate, marginal vein and secondary veins strongly impressed on upper surface, 30--40 × 7--15 cm, the lower surface sparsely covered with stellate hairs; inflorescence 1- or 2-flowered, pedicels to 1 cm long; sepals 1--2.5 cm long, petals creamy to yellowish white, 3--5 cm long; fruit subglobose, 4--5 cm diameter, of ca. 50 carpels. Evergreen lowland and lower slopes forests, 100--400 m; Amazonas (Río Mawarinuma, base of Sierra de la Neblina). Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil.

Duguetia megalophylla R.E. Fr., Kew Bull. 1948: 233. 1948. ---Yarayara, Yarayara negra.

Tree 3--15 m; young branches densely lepidote; leaves chartaceous or coriaceous, apex acuminate, narrowly elliptic, 20--40 × 6--12 cm, secondary veins impressed on upper surface, the lower surface sparsely lepidote; flowers both cauline on the old trunk as well as on leafy branches, in several-flowered inflorescences, pedicels 2.5--4 cm long; sepals 3--5 cm long, petals yellowish white to white, 3--5 cm long; fruit ellipsoid, 4--6 cm long, of ca. 100 carpels. Semideciduous, riparian, and evergreen lowland forests, ca. 200--300 m; Delta Amacuro (Serranía de Imataca), Bolívar (Altiplanicie de Nuria, Río Botanamo, Río Cuyuní, Río Yuruani). Táchira; Guyana, Amazonian Brazil. Fig. 363.

The boiled bark is used as a remedy for snake bites and for the Paraponera clavata ant bite.

Duguetia pauciflora Rusby, Descr. S. Amer. Pl. 18. 1920. ---Yarayara amarilla, Yarayara negra.

Duguetia rostrata Rusby, Descr. S. Amer. Pl. 19. 1920.

Tree 5--10 m; young branches sparsely covered with tiny stellate scales; leaves chartaceous, apex acuminate, elliptic, 10--23 × 3--7 cm, the upper surface shiny, lower surface glabrous or sparsely covered with tiny stellate scales; inflorescence 1--5-flowered, pedicels 0.2--0.6 cm long, to 0.7 cm long in fruit; sepals 0.5--1.2 cm long, petals creamy white to yellowish, 1.5--2.5 cm long; fruit globose, 2--2.5 cm diameter, of 10--20 carpels, the carpels broadly rounded and apiculate. Evergreen lowland forests, 200--500 m; Delta Amacuro (Río Toro basin, Santa Catalina), Bolívar (Serranía de Imataca). Guyana.

Duguetia pycnastera Sandwith, Bull. Misc. Inform. 1930: 471. 1930. ---Chiquita, Mokay-king, Yarayara, Yarayara amarilla, Yarayara blanca.

Tree 2--20 m; young twigs densely covered with stellate hairs; leaves chartaceous, apex long-acuminate, narrowly obovate to narrowly elliptic, 10--30 × 5--12.5 cm, the lower surface sparsely covered with stellate hairs; inflorescence 1-flowered, pedicels 1.5--2 cm long; sepals 1--1.5 cm long, petals creamy white, inner base red, 1--1.5 cm long; fruit globose, densely covered with stellate hairs, 1.5--2.5 cm diameter, of 10--20 carpels. Evergreen lowland and montane forests, 100--1500 m; Delta Amacuro (Serranía de Imataca), north-central Bolívar, Amazonas (Río Mawarinuma). Monagas, Sucre; Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil.

The straight slender tips of the branches are locally used as fishing poles.

Duguetia quitarensis Benth., London J. Bot. 2: 361. 1843.

Tree 4--6 m; young branches densely covered with pale brownish scales; leaves chartaceous, apex acuminate, narrowly elliptic, 8--20 × 2--6 cm, the lower surface sparsely to rather densely covered with scales; inflorescence 1- or 2-flowered, pedicels 0.5--1 cm long, to 2 cm long in fruit; sepals 1--1.5 cm long, petals creamy white, 1--2 cm long; fruit ellipsoid to globose, 2--5 cm long, of 50--100 carpels. Riparian forests, ca. 100 m; Amazonas (near San Fernando de Atabapo). Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia.

Duguetia rigida R.E. Fr., Acta Horti Berg. 12: 54. 1939. ---Araira-yek, Aray-ra-yek (Arekuna), Motati, Yarayara, Yarayara amarilla.

Tree 2--20 m; young branches densely covered with stellate scales; leaves chartaceous to coriaceous, apex acuminate, narrowly elliptic (to narrowly obovate), 10--27 × 4.5--10 cm, the lower surface sparsely, rarely densely, covered with stellate scales; inflorescence 1(2)-flowered, pedicels 0.5--1 cm long; sepals 1--2 cm long, petals white to yellowish white, 2--3 cm long; fruit globose, 1.5--3.5 cm long, of ca. 40--60 velvety carpels. Montane forests, (300--)800--2000 m; Bolívar (Gran Sabana and included tepuis, Serranía Marutaní), Amazonas (Cerro Huachamacari, Río Matacuni). Guyana, Brazil. Fig. 364.

The bark of this species is boiled in water to cure intestinal worm infestations. The twigs are used as fishing poles, and the bark is used for tying and for head bands for packs.

Duguetia uniflora (Dunal) Mart., Fl. Bras. 13(1): 24. 1841. ---Annona uniflora Dunal, Monogr. Anonac. 76. 1817. ---Majagua anón rebalsera, Majagua blanca.

Tree 5--20 m; young branches densely covered with spreading stellate hairs; leaves chartaceous, apex acuminate, narrowly elliptic, 15--30 × 4--10 cm, the lower surface densely covered with white stellate hairs; inflorescence 1(2)-flowered, pedicels 1--1.5 cm long; sepals 1--2 cm long, petals yellowish white, inner base red, 2--3 cm long; fruit globose, 5--6 cm diameter, of 150--200 carpels. Mostly in flooded forests, ca. 100--200 m; Amazonas (Río Guainía, San Carlos de Río Negro, near Tamatama). Colombia (Guainía), Amazonian Brazil. Fig. 365.

Duguetia venezuelana R.E. Fr., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 326. 1957.

Tree 0.3--4 m; young branches densely lepidote; leaves coriaceous, gray-green on lower surface, apex acute to obtuse, oblong-elliptic to elliptic, 6--12 × 2--4 cm, densely lepidote on lower surface; inflorescence 1-flowered, pedicels 0.5--1 cm long; sepals 2--2.5 cm long, petals grayish green, 2.5--4.5 cm long; fruit globose, of ca. 100 carpels. Shrublands and savanna margins on white sand, ca. 100 m; Amazonas (Caño Caname, Caño Cot&;a near base of Cerro Yapacana, southwest of Cerro Autana). Amazonian Brazil. Fig. 368.

Duguetia sp. A ---Anón morrocoy, Anoncillo, Majagua.

Tree 6--14 m; young branches very densely covered with scales; leaves coriaceous, apex acute to acuminate, narrowly elliptic, 9--23 × 3.5--7 cm, lower surface rather densely covered with large and small scales; inflorescence 1- or 2-flowered, pedicels 1--3 cm long; sepals ca. 1.5 cm long, petals not seen; fruit globose, 4--7 cm diameter, of 50--120 velvety-brown carpels. Nonflooded evergreen lowland forests, 100--200 m; Amazonas (near San Fernando de Atabapo and San Carlos de Río Negro). Endemic.

This is probably a new species, but additional flowering material is desirable before it is described.

Duguetia sp. B ---Majagua anón.

Tree 7 m; young branches, sepals, and fruits with a dense, ferrugineous, woolly indument of stellate hairs; leaves chartaceous, acuminate at the apex, narrowly elliptic, 18--25 × 6--7.5 cm, secondary veins impressed on upper surface, the lower surface sparsely covered with brownish stellate hairs; inflorescence few-flowered, pedicels ca. 1 cm long; sepals ca. 1.5 cm long, petals creamy, ca. 2 cm long; fruit with few carpels. Riparian forests, ca. 100 m; Amazonas (near San Carlos de Río Negro).

This is an odd plant known from a single collection (Liesner 6230; MO, U, VEN); it is probably a new species, but additional collections are needed before it can be described.

Duguetia sp. C ---Anoncillo.

Tree 6--20 m; young branches densely covered with white to brown stellate scales; leaves chartaceous, acute, often slightly oblique, narrowly elliptic, 8--20 × 2.5--6 cm, lower surface densely covered with stellate hairs; inflorescence 1- or 2-flowered, pedicels 1--2 cm long; sepals 1--1.2 cm long, petals green to cream, inner base red, 1.5--3.5 cm long; fruit globose, ca. 6 cm diameter, of ca. 200 carpels. Riparian and gallery forests, 50--200 m; northern Bolívar. Fig. 366.

The flowers of this species are similar to Duguetia vallicola J.F. Macbr., but the fruit is very different. With further study, it will likely be described as a new species. The fruit is edible, and the wood is used for house and furniture construction.

Scientific Comments:
Paul Berry (peberry@facstaff.wisc.edu) or Kay Yatskievych (kay.yatskievych@mobot.org).

 
 
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