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Faramalala (1988, 1995; Faramalala and Conservation International, 1995) has refined the map further using modern GIS technology, updating it with the interpretation of LANDSAT satellite imagess from the 1970s, although she has continued to follow Humbert's basic approach. Du Puy and Moat (in press) have developed a simplified geology map of Madagascar, and have used it to reanalyze the relationships between broad rock type categories and existing primary vegetation as indicated on Faramalala's map. Their work shows the presence of unique vegetation types associated with specific substrates, many of which are currently unrepresented in the country's protected areas system.
All of these classifications are based on a fundamental division of the country into two distinct floristic and vegetational regions that had first been proposed by Perrier de la Bâthie (1921):
The Flore au vent (windward flora), later re-named the Région de l'Est (Eastern Region), was considered to include the areas that come under the direct influence of the moist southeast trade winds, which produce moderate to very high levels of orographic precipitation as they encounter the mountains along the N-S axis of the island. The Eastern region also included western extensions into moist areas in the Sambirano, Isalo, and elsewhere.
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