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Articles or books by two or more authors are cited as follows. When there are two authors, citation is alphabetical after the second author's name. When there are three or more authors, references are cited in the body of the text as (e.g.) Chase et al. 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, and are listed following these sometimes alphabetically qualified dates of publication immediately after all the single- or two-authored articles by the first author.

Qi, X. [et al. 2018], Kuo, L,-Y., Guo, C., Li, H., Li, Z., Qi, J., Wang, L., Hu, Y., Xiang, J., Zhang, C., Guo, J., Huang, C.-H., & Ma, H. 2018. A well-resolved fern nuclear phylogeny reveals the evolution history of numerous transcription factor families. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 127: 961-977. doi:

Qi, X. S. [et al. 2012], Chen, C., Comes, H. P., Sakagushi, S., Liu, Y.-H., Tanaka, N., Sakio, H. & Qiu, Y.-X. 2012. Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal a highly dynamic evolutionary history of the East Asian Tertiary relict Cercidiphyllum (Cercidiphyllaceae). New Phytol. 196: 617–630.

Qi, Z. [et al. 2012], Li, P., Zhao, Y., Cameron, K., & Fu, C. 2012. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Smilacaceae (Liliales), a cosmopolitan family of monocots. P. 197, in Botany 2012: The Next Generation. July 7-11 - Columbus, Ohio. Abstracts.

Qi, Z. [et al. 2013], Cameron, K. M., Li, P., Zhao, Y., Chen, S., Chen, G., & Fu, C. 2013. Phylogenetics, character evolution, and distribution patterns of the greenbriers, Smilacaceae (Liliales), a near cosmopolitan family of monocots. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 173: 535-548.

Qian, H. 2014. Contrasting relationships between clade age and temperature along latitudinal versus elevational gradients for woody angiosperms in forests of South America. J. Veget. Sci. 25: 1208–1215. doi: 10.1111/jvs.12175

Qian, H., & Ricklefs, R. E. 2004. Taxon richness and climate in angiosperms: Is there a globally consistent relationship that precludes region effects? American Naturalist 163: 773-779 [see Electronic Appendix for plant distributions].

Qian, H., & Ricklefs, R. E. 2016. Out of the tropical lowlands: Latitude versus elevantion. Trends Ecol. Evol.31: 738-741.

Qian, H., & Zhang, J. 2014. Using an updated time-calibrated family-level phylogeny of seed plants to test for non-random patterns of life forms across the phylogeny. J. Syst. Evol. 52: 423-430.

Qian, H. [et al. 2023], Zhang, J. Jin, Y., & Deng, T. 2023. Effects of evolutionary history on assembly of flowering plants in regions across Africa. Ecography 2023(9):e06775.

Qiao, X. [et al. 2019], Li, Q., Yin, H., Li, L., Wang, R., Zhang, S., & Paterson, A. H. 2019. Gene duplication and evolution in recurring polyploidization-diploidization cycles in plants. Genome Biol. 20:38.

Qin, A.-L. [et al. 2013], Wang, M.-M., Cun, Y.-Z., Yang, F.-S., Wang, S.-S., Ran, J.-R., & Wang, X.-Q. 2013. Phylogeographic evidence for a link of species divergence in Ephedra in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and adjacent regions to the Miocene Asian aridification. PLoS ONE 8(2):e56243. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056243

Qin, H.-N. 1998. A taxonomic revision of the Lardizabalaceae. Cathaya 8-9: 1-214.

Qin, J. [et al. 2019], Li, J., Gao, Q., Wilson, J.-J., & Zhang, A.-B. 2019. Mitochondrial phylogeny and comparative mitogenomics of closely related pine moth pests (Lepidoptera: Dendrolimus). PeerJ 7:e7317.

Qin, L. [et al. 2021], Hu, Y., Wang, J., Wang, X., Zhao, R., Shan, H., Li, K., Xu, P., Wu, H., Yan, X., Liu, L., Yi, Z., Wanke, S., Bowers, J. E., Leebens-Mack, J. H., dePamphilis, C. W., Soltis, P. S., Soltis, D. E., Kong, H., & Jiao, Y. 2021. Insights into angiosperm evolution, floral development and chemical biosynthesis from the Aristolochia fimbriata genome. Nature Plants 7: 1239-1253.

Qin, Q.-M. [et al. 2020]. Tong, Y.-H., Zheng, X.-R., Ni, J.-B., & Xia, N. H. 2021 [= 2020]. Sinosasa (Poaceae: Bambusoideae), a new genus from China. Taxon 70: 27-47.

Qiu, H., & Gilbert, M. G. 2003. Loranthaceae. Pp. 220-239, in Wu, Z., Raven, P. H., et al. (eds), Flora of China. 5. Ulmaceae through Basellaceae. Science Press, Beijing.

Qiu, H. [et al. 2023], Zhang, Z.-H., Wang, M.-Z., Jin, X.-J., Lin, J.-D., Comes, H. P., Chen, J.-X. Cui, R.-N., Duan, R.-Q., & Li, P. 2023. Plastome evolution and phylogenomics of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). Planta 257:45.

Qiu, J. 2016. Trouble in Tibet. Nature 529: 142-145.

Qiu, R.-L. [et al. 2012], Tang, Y.-T., Zeng, X.-W., Thangavel, P., Tang, L., Gan, Y.-Y., Ying, R.-R., & Wang, S.-Z. 2012. Mechanisms of Cd hyperaccumulation and detoxification in heavy metal hyperaccumulators: How plants cope with Cd. Prog. Bot. 73: 127-.

Qiu, T. [et al. 2023], Aravena, M. C., Ascoli, D., Bergeron, Y., Bogdziewicz, M., Boivin, T., Bonal, R., Caignard, T., Cailleret, M., Calama, R., Calderon, S. D., Camarero, J. J., Chang-Yang, C.-H., Chave, J., Chianucci, F., Courbaud, B., Cutini, A., Das, A. J., Delpierre, N., Delzon, S., Dietze, M., Dormont, L., Espelta, J. M., Fahey, T. J., Farfan-Rios, W., Franklin, J. F., Gehring, C. A., Gilbert, G. S., Gratzer, G., Greenberg, C. H., Guignabert, A., Guo, Q., Hacket-Pain, A., Hampe, A., Han, Q., Holik, J., Hoshizaki, K., Ibanez, I., Johnstone, J. F., Journé, V., Kitzberger, T., Knops, J. M. H., Kunstler, G., Kurokawa, H., Lageard, J. G. A., LaMontagne, J. M., Lefevre, F., Leininger, T., Limousin, J.-M., Lutz, J. A., Macias, D., Marell, A., McIntire, E. J. B., Moore, C. M., Moran, E., Motta, R., Myers, J. A., Nagel, T. A., Naoe, S., Noguchi, M., Oguro, M., Parmenter, R., Pearse, I. S., Perez-Ramos, I. M., Piechnik, L., Podgorski, T., Poulsen, J., Redmond, M. D., Reid, C. D., Rodman, K. C., Rodriguez-Sanchez, F., Samonil, P., Sanguinetti, J. D., Scher, C. L., Seget, B., Sharma, S., Shibata, M., Silman, M., Steele, M. A., Stephenson, N. L., Straub, J. N., Sutton, S., Swenson, J. J., Swift, M., Thomas, P. A., Uriarte, M., Vacchiano, G., Whipple, A. V., Whitham, T. G., Wion, A. P., Wright, S. J., Zhu, K., Zimmerman, J. K., Zywiec, M., & Clark, J. S. 2023. Masting is uncommon in trees that depend on mutualist dispersers in the context of global climate and fertility gradients. Nature Plants

Qiu, Y. [et al. 2014], Filipenko, S. J., Darracq, A., & Adams, K. L. 2014. Expression of a transferred nuclear gene in a mitochondrial genome. Curr. Plant Biol. 1: 68-72.

Qiu, Y. L., & Estabrook, G. F. 2008. Inference of phylogenetic relationships among key angiosperm lineages using a compatabilty method on a molecular data set. J. Syst. Evol. 46: 130-141.

Qiu, Y.-L., & Palmer, J. D. 2004. Many independent origins of trans splicing of a mitochondrial group II intron. J. Molec. Evol. 59: 80-89.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1995], Chase, M. W., & Parks, C. R. 1995. A chloroplast DNA phylogenetic study of the eastern Asia - east North America disjunct section Rhytidospermum of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae). American J. Bot. 82: 1582-1588.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1998a], Chase, M. W., Hoot, S. B., Conti, E., Crane, P. R., Sytsma, K. J., & Parks, C. R. 1998a. Phylogenetics of the Hamamelidae and their allies: Parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 159: 891-905.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1998b], Cho, Y., Cox, J. C., & Palmer, J. D. 1998b. The gain of three mitochondrial introns identifies liverworts as the earliest land plants. Nature 394: 671-674.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1999], Lee, J., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Zimmer, E. A., Chen, Z., Savolainen, V., & Chase, M. W. 1999. The earliest angiosperms: Evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genes. Nature 402: 404-407.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2000], Lee, J., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Zimmer, E. A., Chen, Z., Savolainen, V., & Chase, M. W. 2000. Phylogeny of basal angiosperms: Analyses of five genes from three genomes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 161(6: suppl. [Current Perspectives on Basal Angiosperms]): S3-S27.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2001], Lee, J., Whitlock, B. A., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., & Dombrovska, O. 2001. Was the ANITA rooting of the angiosperm phylogeny affected by long-branch attraction? Molec. Biol. Evol. 18: 1745-1753.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2005], Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Li, L., Whitlock, B. A., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Rest, J. S., Davis, C. C., Borsch, T., Hilu, K. W., Renner, S. S., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Cannone, J. J., Gutell, R. R., Powell, M., Savolainen, V., Chatrou, L. W., & Chase, M. W. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of basal angiosperms based on nine plastid mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 166: 815-842.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2006a], Li, L., Wang, B., Chen, Z., Knoop, V., Groth-Malonek, M., Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Kent, L., Rest, J. S., Estabrook, G. F., Hendry, T. A., Taylor, D. W., Testa, C. M., Ambros, M., Crandall-Stotler, B., Duff, R. J., Stech, M., Frey, W., Quandt, D., & Davis, C. C. 2006a. The deepest divergences in land plants inferred from phylogenomic evidence. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 103: 15511-15516.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2006b], Li, L., Hendry, T, Li, R., Taylor, D. W., Issa, M. J., Ronen, A. J., Vekaria, M. L., & White, A. M. 2006b. Reconstructing the basal angiosperm phylogeny: Evaluating information content of mitochondrial genes. Taxon 55: 837-856.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2007], Li, L., Wang, B., Chen, Z., Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Kent, L., Li, R., Jobson, R. J., Hendry, T. A., Taylor, D. W., Testa, C. M., & Ambros, M. 2007. A nonflowering land plant phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences of seven chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 168: 691-708.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2010], Li, L., Wang, B., Xue, J.-Y., Hendry, T. A., Li, R.-Q., Brown, J. W., Liu, Y., Hudson, G. T., & Chen, Z.-D. 2010. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from sequences of four mitochondrial genes. J. Syst. Evol. 48: 391-425.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2012], Taylor, A. B., & McManus, H. A. 2012. Evolution of the life cycle in land plants. J. Syst. Evol. 50: 171-194.

Qiu, Z.-J. [et al. 2015], Lu, Y.-X., Li, C.-Q., Smith, J. F., & Wang, Y.-Z. 2015. Origin and evolution of Petrocosmea (Gesneriaceae) inferred from both DNA sequence and novel findings in morpholoogy with a test of morphology-based hypotheses. BMC Plant Biol. 15:167. doi: 10.1186/s12870-015-0540-3

Qu, X.-J. [et al. 2017], Wu, C.-S., Chaw, S.-M., & Yi, T.-S. 2017. Insights into the existence of isomeric plastomes in Cupressoideae (Cupressaceae). Genome Biol. Evol. 9: 1110-1119. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evx071

Qu, X.-J. [et al. 2019], Fan, S.-J., Wicke, S., & Yi, T.-S. 2019. Plastome reduction in the only parasitic gymnosperm Parasitaxus is due to losses of photosynthesis but not housekeeping genes and apparently involves the secondary gain of a large Inverted Repeat. Genome Biol. Evol. 11: 2789-2796.

Qu, X.-J. [et al. 2022], Zhang, X.-J., Cao, D.-L., Guo, X.-X., Mower, J. P., & Fan, S.-J. 2022. Plastid and mitochondrial phylogenomics reveal correlated substitution rate variation in Koenigia (Polygonoideae, Polygonaceae) and a reduced plastome for Koenigia delicatula including loss of all ndh genes. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 174:107544.

Quach, Q. N. [et al. 2023], Clay, K., Lee, S. T., Gardner, D. R., & Cook, D. 2023. Phylogenetic patterns of bioactive secondary metabolites produced by fungal endosymbionts in morning glories (Ipomoeeae, Convolvulaceae). New Phytol. 238: 1351-1361.

Quandt, D., & Stech, M. 2003. Molecular systematics of bryophytes in context of land plant phylogeny. Pp. 267-295, in Sharma, A. K., & Sharma, A. (eds), Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution. Volume 1, part A. Phanerogams. Scientific Publications, Enfield, NH.

Quandt, D. [et al. 2004], Müller, K., Stech, M., Frahm, J.-P., Frey, W., Hilu, K. W., & Borsch, T. 2004. Molecular evolution of the chloroplast trnL-F region in land plants. Pp. 15-37, in Goffinet, B., Hollowell, V., & Magill, R. (eds), Molecular Systematics of Bryophytes. Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, MO.

Quattrocchio, M. E. 2017. New fossil record of Lactoridaceae in the Paleogene of southern Patagonia (South America). Revista Mus. Argentino Cienc. Nat. N.S. 19: 71-84.

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Quental, T. B., & Marshall, C. R. 2010. Diversity dynamics: Molecular phylogenies need the fossil record. Trends Ecol. Evol. 25: 434-441.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. F. 1991c. The floral nectaries of Polygonum s.l. and related genera (Persicarieae and Polygoneae): Position, morphological nature and semophylesis. Flora 185: 165-185.

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Ronse Decraene, L. P., & Smets, E. 1995d. The floral development of Neurada procumbens L. (Neuradaceae). Acta Bot. Neerlandica 44: 439-451. [Reprinted with better illustrations - Acta Bot. Neerlandica 45: 229-241. 1996.]

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1998b. The floral development and anatomy of Carica papaya (Caricaceae). Canadian J. Bot. 77: 583-598.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1998c. Meristic changes in gynoecium morphology, exemplified by floral ontogeny and anatomy. Pp. 85-112, in Owens, S. J., & Rudall, P. J. (eds), Reproductive Biology in Systematics, Conservation and Economic Botany. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 2000. Floral development of Galopina tomentosa with a discussion of sympetaly and placentation in the Rubiaceae. Syst. Geog. Plants 70: 155-170.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 2001a. Floral developmental evidence for the systematic relationships of Tropaeolum (Tropaeolaceae). Ann. Bot. 88: 879-892.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 2001b. Staminodes: Their morphological and evolutionary significance. Bot. Review 67: 351-402.

Ronse De Craene, L.-P., & Stuppy, W. 2010. Floral development and anatomy of Aextoxicon punctatum (Aextoxicaceae-Berberidopsidales): An enigmatic tree at the base of core eudicots. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 171: 244-257.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Wanntorp, L. 2006. Evolution of floral characters in Gunnera (Gunneraceae). Syst. Bot. 31: 671-688.

Ronse De Craene, L.-P., & Wanntorp, L. 2008. Morphology and anatomy of the flower of Meliosma (Sabiaceae): Implications for pollination biology. Plant Syst. Evol. 271: 79-91.

Ronse De Craene, L.-P., & Wanntorp, L. 2009. Floral development and anatomy of Salvadoraceae. Ann. Bot. 104: 913-923.

Ronse de Craene, L.-P., & Wei, L. 2019. Floral development and anatomy of Macarthuria australis (Macarthuriaceae): Key to understanding the unusual initiation sequence of Caryophyllales. Australian Syst. Bot. 32: 49-60.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1998b], Smets, E. F., & Vanvinckenroye, P. 1998b. Floral development and anatomy of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae): What is the evidence for a Capparalean or Sapindalean affinity? Ann. Bot. 82: 273-284.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 2000a], Linder, P. H., & Smets, E. F. 2000a. The questionable relationship of Montinia (Montiniaceae): Evidence from a floral ontogenetic and anatomical study. American J. Bot. 87: 1408-1424.

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Silva, A. de L. [et al. 2021a], Stützel, T., Trovó, M., & Ike Coan, A. 2021a. Floral structure of Mesanthemum radicans (Eriocaulaceae, Poales): Morphological and anatomical novelties. South African J. Bot. 139: 306-317.

Silva, A. de L. [et al. 2021b], Trovó, M., Stützel, T., Rudall, P. J., Sajo, M. das G., & Ike Coan, A. 2021b. Floral development and vasculature in Eriocaulon (Eriocaulaceae) provide insights into the evolution of Poales. Ann. Bot. 126: 605-626.

Silva, B. P. [et al. 2022], Saballo, H. M., Lobo, A. K. M., & Neto, M. C. L. 2023 [= 2022]. The plasticity of the photosynthetic apparatus and antioxidant responses are critical for the dispersion of Rhizophora mangle along a salinity gradient. Aquatic Bot. 185:103609.

Silva, C. [et al. 2015], Snak, C., Schnadelbach, A. S., van den Berg, C., & Oliveira, R. P. 2015. Phylogenetic relationships of Echinolaena and Ichnanthus within Panicoideae (Poaceae) reveal two new genera of tropical grasses. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 93: 212-233.

Silva, C. [et al. 2019], Snak, C., Davidse, G., van den Berg, C., & Oliveira, R. P. 2020 [= 2019]. Assessing the molecular diversity of Hildaea (Poaceae, Panicoideae): Reaching a compromise between the splitter and the lumper. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 192: 121–147.

Silva, C. A. [et al. 2010], Vieira, M. F., & do Amaral, C. H. 2010. Floral attributes, ornithophily and reproductive success of Palicourea longepedunculata (Rubiaceae), a distylous shrub in southeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira Bot. 33: 207-213.

Silva, E. O. [et al. 2016], Feio, A. C., Cardoso-Gustavson, P., Milward-de-Azevedo, M. A., Dos Santos, J. U. M., & Dias, A. C. A. de A. 2017 [= 2016]. Extrafloral nectaries and plant—insect interactions in Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae). Brazilian J. Bot. 40: 331-340. doi: 10.1007/s40415-016-0329-0

Silva, G. B. [et al. 2011], Ionashiro, M., Carrara, T. B., Crivellari, A. C., Tiné, M. A. S., Prado, J., Carpita, N. C., & Buckeridge, M. S. 2011. Cell wall polysaccharides from fern leaves: Evidence for a mannan-rich Type III cell wall in Adiantum raddianum. Phytochem. 72: 2352-2360.

Silva, G. M. [et al. 2021], Lopes, A. S., Pacheco, T. G., Machado, K. L. G., Silva, M. C., Oliveira, J. D., Baura, V. A., Balsanelli, E., Souza, E. M., Pedrosa, F. O., & Rogalski, M. 2021. Genetic and evolutionary analyses of plastomes of the subfamily Cactoideae (Cactaceae) indicate relaxed protein biosynthesis and tRNA import from cytosol. Revista Brasiliera Bot. 44: 97–116.

Silva, J. M. [et al. 2012], Andreata, R. H. P., & Appezzato-da-Glória, B. 2012. Aerial organ anatomy of Smilax syphilitica (Smilacaceae). Revista Biol. Trop. 60: 1137-1148.

Silva, K. M. M. [et al. 2019], Luna, B. N., Joffily, A., Paiva, S. R., & Barros, K. F. 2019. Revealing the development of secretory structures in the leaves of Clusia fluminensis and Clusia lanceolata (Clusiaceae). Flora 256: 69-78.

Silva, K. R. [et al. 2018], Romero, R., & Simão, D. G. 2018. Leaf characters of Lavoisiera, Microlicia and Trembleya (Microlicieae, Melastomataceae) and their implications for taxonomy. Feddes Repert. 129: 123-136.

Silva, K. R. [et al. 2020], Stützel, T., & Oriani, A. 2020. Seed development and its relationship to fruit structure in species of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) with fleshy fruits. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 192: 868-886.

Silva, L. L. [et al. 2017], Santos, R. C. O., & Fernandes, M. E. B. 2017. Linking Avicennia germinans (Acanthaceae) architecture to gall richness and abundance in Brazilian Amazon mangroves. Biotropica 49: 784-791.

Silva, L. R. de O., & Oriani, A. 2022. Ecological and evolutionary aspects of seed coat and seedling development in Juncus tenuis (Juncaceae, Poales). Plant Syst. Evol. 308:31.

Silva, L. R. de O. [et al. 2023], Trevisan, R., & Oriani, A. 2023. Understanding the seedling development in sedge species (Cyperaceae, Poales) from micromorphological and anatomical perspectives. Flora 301:152238.

Silva, M. de S. [et al. 2022], Coutinho, Í. A. C., & Dalvi, V. C. 2022. Anatomical and histochemical characterization of glands associated with the leaf teeth in Raphiolepis loquata B. G. Liu & J. Wen (Rosaceae Juss.). Flora 193:152110.

Silva, M. dos S. [et al. 2017a], Coutinho, Í. A. C., Araújo, M. N., & Meira, R. M. S. A. 2017a. Colleters in Chamaecrista (L.) Moench sect. Chamaecrista and sect. Caliciopsis (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae): Anatomy and taxonomic implications. Acta Bot. Brasilica 31: 382-392.

Silva, M. dos S. [et al. 2017b], Coutinho, Í. A. C., Araújo, M. N., & Meira, R. M. S. A. 2017b. Morphoanatomy of nectaries in Chamaecrista (L.) Moench sections Chamaecrista, Caliciopsis and Xerocalyx (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae). Acta Bot. Brasilica 31: 445-458.

Silva, M. dos S. [et al. 2020], Funch, L. S., da Silva, L. B., & Cardoso, D. 2021 [= 2020]. A phylogenetic and functional perspective on the origin and evolutionary shifts of growth ring anatomical markers in plants. Biol. Reviews 96: 842-876.

Silva, N. F. [et al. 2018], Arruda, R. do C. de O., Alves, F. M., & Sartori, A. L. B. 2018. Leaflet anatomy of the Dipterygeae clade (Faboideae: Fabaceae): Evolutionary implications and systematics. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 187: 99-117.

Silva, O. L. M. [et al. 2020], Riina, R., & Cordeiro, I. 2020. Phylogeny and biogeography of Astraea with new insights into the evolutionary history of Crotoneae (Euphorbiaceae). Molec. Phyl. Evol. 145:106738.

Silva, P. E. S. [et al. 2019], de Abreu, F. V., Correia, A. I. D., & Godinho, M. H. 2019. Handedness in plant tendrils. Pp. 179-192, in Bahadur, B., Krishamurthy, K. V., Ghose, M., & Adams, S. J. (eds), Asymmetry in Plants: Biology of Handedness. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Silva, K. R. [et al. 2020], Stützel, T., & Oriani, A. 2020. Seed development and its relationship to fruit structure in species of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) with fleshy fruits. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 192: 868-886.

Silva, S. C. de M. [et al. 2020], Machado, S. R., Nepi, M., & Rodrigues, T. M. 2020. Structure and function of secretory glochids and nectar composition in two Opuntioideae (Cactaceae) species. Botany 98: 425-437.

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Silva, S. R. [et al. 2017a], Gibson, R., Adamec, L., Domínguez, Y., & Miranda, V. F. O. 2017a. Molecular phylogeny of bladderworts: A wide approach of Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae) species relationships based on six plastidial and nuclear DNA sequences. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 118: 244-264.

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Silva, S. R. [et al. 2018], Michael, T. P., Meer, E. J., & Miranda, V. F. O. 2018. Comparative genomic analysis of Genlisea (corkscrew plants - Lentibulariaceae) chloroplast genomes reveals an increasing loss of the ndh genes. PLoS ONE 13(1):e0190321.

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Simon, M. F. 2008. Systematics and Evolution of Mimosa L. (Leguminosae) and the Assembly of a Neotropical Plant Diversity Hotspot. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Oxford.

Simon, M. F., & Pennington, T. 2012. Evidence for adaptation to fire regimes in the tropical savannas of the Brazilian Cerrado. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 173: 711-723.

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Simon, M. F. [et al. 2011], Grether, R., de Queiroz, L. P., Särkinen, T. E., Dutra, V. F., & Hughes, C. E. 2011. The evolutionary history of Mimosa (Leguminosae): Toward a phylogeny of the sensitive plants. American J. Bot. 98: 1201-1221.

Simon, M. F. [et al. 2015], Pastore, J. F. B., Souza, A. F., Borges, L. M., Scalon, V. R., Ribeiro, P. G., Santos-Silva, J., Souza, V. C., & Queiroz, L. P. 2016 [= 2015]. Molecular phylogeny of Stryphnodendron (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae) and generic delimitations in the Piptadenia group. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 1777: 44-59.

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Simon, R. [et al. 2019], Matt, F., Santillan, V., Tschapka, M., Tuttle, M., & Halfwerk, W. 2019. An ultrasound absorbing inflorescence zone enhances echo-acoustic contrast of bat-pollinated cactus flowers. bioRχiv doi:

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Simonsen, T. J. 2008. Phylogeny of the cactus-feeding phycitines and their relatives (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) based on adult morphology: Evaluation of adult character-systems in phycitine systematic and evidence for a single origin of Cactaceae-feeding larvae. Insect Syst. Evol. 39: 303-325.

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Simpson, A. G. [et al. 2022], Wing, S. L., & Fenster, C. B. 2022. Diversification in the Rosales is influenced by dispersal, geographic range size, and pre-existing species richness. American J. Bot. 109: 922-938.

Simpson, B. B. 1982. Krameria (Krameriaceae) flowers: Orientation and elaiophore morphology. Taxon 31: 517-528.

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Simpson, B. B. 2009. Economic importance of Compositae. pp. 45-58, in Funk, V. A., Susanna, A., Stuessy, T. F. & Bayer, R. J. (eds), Systematics, Evolution, and Biogeography of Compositae. I.A.P.T.

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Simpson, D. A. 1995. Relationships within Cyperales. Pp. 497-509, in Rudall, P. J., Cribb, P. J., Cutler, D. F., & Humphries, C. J. (eds), Monocotyledons: Systematics and Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Simpson, D. A. [et al. 2003], Furness, C. A., Hodkinson, T. R., Muasya, A. M., & Chase, M. W. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in Cyperaceae subfamily Mapanioideae inferred from pollen and plastid DNA sequence data. American J. Bot. 90: 1071-1086.

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Simpson, M. G. 1985. Pollen ultrastructure of the Tecophilaeaceae. Grana 24: 77-92.

Simpson, M. G. 1988. Embryological development of Lachnanthes caroliniana (Haemodoraceae). American J. Bot. 75: 1394-1408.

Simpson, M. G. 1987. Pollen utrastructure of the Pontederiaceae; Evidence for exine homology with the Haemodoraceae. Grana 26: 113-126.

Simpson, M. G. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of the Haemodoraceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 722-784.

Simpson, M. G. 1993. Septal nectary anatomy and phylogeny of the Haemodoraceae. Syst. Bot. 18: 593-613.

Simpson, M. G. 1998a. Reversal in ovary position from inferior to superior in the Haemodoraceae: Evidence from floral ontogeny. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 159: 466-479.

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Simpson, M. G. 2019. Plant Systematics. Ed. 3. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

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Simpson, M. G. [et al. 2017a], Johnson, L. A., Villaverde, T., & Guilliams, C. M. 2017a. American amphitropical disjuncts: Perspectives from vascular plant analyses and prospects for future research. American J. Bot. 104: 1600-1650.

Simpson, M. G. [et al. 2017b], Guilliams, C. M., Hasenstab-Lehman, K. E., Mabry, M. E., & Ripma, L. 2017b. Phylogeny of the popcorn flowers: Use of genome skimming to evaluate monophyly and interrelationshps in subtribe Amsinkiinae (Boraginaceae). Taxon 66: 1406-1420.

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Smith, G. H. 1928. Vascular anatomy of ranalian flowers II. Ranunculaceae (continued), Menispermaceae, Calycanthaceae, Annonaceae. Bot. Gaz. 85: 152-177.

Smith, G. R., & Wan, J. 2019. Resource-ratio theory predicts mycorrhizal control of litter decomposition. New Phytol. 223: 1595-1606. doi: 10.1111/nph.15884

Smith, J. A. C., & Winter, K. 1996. Taxonomic distribution of crassulacean acid metabolism. Pp. 427-436, in Winter, K., & Smith, J. A. C. (eds), Crassulacean Acid Metabolism. Springer, Berlin.

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Smith, J. A. C. [et al. 2005], Crayn, D. M., & Winter, K. 2005. Evolution of epiphytism and crassulacean acid metabolism in Bromeliaceae in relation to changing environments and palaeoclimates. Pp. 121-122, in XVII International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, Europe. [Abstracts.]

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Smith, J. F. 2001. The phylogenetic relationships of Lembocarpus and Goyazia (Gesneriaceae) based on ndhF sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 135-143.

Smith, J. F., & Clark, J. L. 2013. Molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal undiscovered monospecific genera in the tribe Episcieae (Gesneriaceae). Syst. Bot 38: 451-463.

Smith, J. F. [et al. 1997a], Brown, K. D., Carroll, C. L., & Denton, D. S. 1997a. Familial placement of Cyrtandromoea, Titanotrichum, and Sanango, three problematic genera of the Lamiales. Taxon 46: 65-74.

Smith, J. F. [et al. 1997b], Wolfram, J. C., Brown, K. D., Carroll, C. L., & Denton, D. S. 1997b. Tribal relationships in the Gesneriaceae: Evidence from DNA sequences of the chloroplast gene ndhF. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84: 50-66.

Smith, J. F. [et al. 2004a], Hileman, L. C., Powell, M. P., & Baum, D. A. 2004a. Evolution of GCYC, a Gesneriaceae homolog of CYCLOIDEA, within Gesnerioideae (Gesneriaceae). Molec. Phyl. Evol. 31: 765-779.

Smith, J. F. [et al. 2004b], Draper, S. B., Hileman, L. C., & Baum, D. A. 2004b. A phylogenetic analysis within tribes Gloxinieae and Gesnerieae (Gesnerioideae: Gesneriaceae). Syst. Bot. 29: 947-958.

Smith, J. F. [et al. 2005], Stevens, A. C., & Davidson, C. 2005. A phylogenetic analysis of Piperaceae focusing on its major geographic centers of diversification and placement of African species. P. 144, in Botany 2005. Learning from Plants. [Abstracts: Botanical Society of America, etc.]

Smith, J. F. [et al. 2006], Funke, M. M., & Woo, V. L. 2006. A duplication of gcyc predates divergence within tribe Coronanthereae (Gesneriaceae): Phylogenetic analysis and evolution. Plant Syst. Evol. 261: 245-256.

Smith, J. F. [et al. 2008], Tepe, E. J., Stevens, A. C., & Davidson, C. 2008. Placing the origin of two species-rich genera in the late Cretaceous with later species divergence in the Tertiary: A phylogenetic, biogeographic and molecular dating analysis of Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 275: 9-30.

Smith, J. F. [et al. 2013], Ooi, M. T., Schulte, L., Amaya-Márquez, M., Pritchard, R., & Clark, J. L. 2013. Searching for monophyly in the subgeneric classification systems of Columnea (Gesneriaceae). Selbyana 31: 126-142.

Smith, J. R. [et al. 2017], Queenborough, S. A., Alvia, P., Romero-Saltos, H., & Valencia, R. 2017. No strong evidence for increasing liana abundance in the Myristicaceae of a Neotropical aseasonal rain forest. Ecology 98: 456-466.

Smith, L. B., & Ayensu, E. S. 1976. A revision of American Velloziaceae. Smithsonian Cont. Bot. 30: 1-173.

Smith, L. B., & Downs, R. J. 1974. Flora Neotropica. Monograph No. 14 (Pitcairnioideae) (Bromeliaceae). Hafner Press, New York.

Smith, L. B., & Downs, R. J. 1977. Flora Neotropica. Monograph No. 14, Part 2 (Tillandsioideae) (Bromeliaceae). Hafner Press, New York.

Smith, L. B., & Downs, R. J. 1979. Flora Neotropica. Monograph No. 14, Part 3 (Bromelioideae) (Bromeliaceae). New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Smith, L. B., & Schubert, B. G. 1958. Flora of Panama. Part VII. Fascicle 1. Begoniaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45: 41-67.

Smith, L. B., & Till, W. 1998. Bromeliaceae. Pp. 74-99 in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. IV. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae). Springer, Berlin.

Smith, L. B. [et al. 1986], Wasshausen, D. C., Golding, J., & Karegeannes, C. 1986. Begoniaceae, part I: Illustrated key, Part II: Annotated species list. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 60: 1-584.

Smith, L. T. [et al. 2022], Magdalena, C., Przelomska, N. A. S., Pérez-Escobar, O. A., Melgar-Gómez, D. G., Beck, S., Negrão, R., Mian, S., Leitch, I. J., Dodsworth, S., Maurin, O., Ribero-Guardia, G., Salazar, C. D., Gutierrez-Sibauty, G., Antonelli, A., & Monro, A. K. 2022. Revised species delimitation in the giant water lily genus Victoria (Nymphaeaceae) confirms a new species and has implications for its conservation. Front. Plant Sci. 13:883151. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2022.883151

Smith, M. A. [et al. 2008], Rodriguez, J. J., Whitfield, J. B., Deans, A. R., Janzen, D. H., Hallwachs, W., & Hebert, P. D. N. 2008. Extreme diversity of tropical parasitoid wasps exposed by iterative integration of natural history, DNA barcoding, morphology, and collections. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 105: 12359-12364.

Smith, M. D., & Knapp, A. N. 2003. Dominant species maintain ecosystem function with non-random species loss. Ecol. Letters 6: 599-617.

Smith, M. E., & Pfister, D. H. 2009. Tuberculate ectomycorrhizae of angiosperms: The interaction between Boletus rubropunctus (Boletaceae) and Quercus species (Fagaceae) in the United States and Mexico. American J. Bot. 96: 1665-1675.

Smith, M. E. [et al. 2011], Henkel, T. W., Aime, M. C., Fremier, A. K., & Vilgalys, R. 2011. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and community structure on three co-occurring leguminous canopy tree species in a Neotropical rainforest. New Phytol. 192: 699-712.

Smith, M. E. [et al. 2013], Henkel, T. W., Uehling, J. K., Fremier, A. K., Clarke, H. D., & Vilgalys, R. 2013. The ectomycorrhizal fungal community in a Neotropical forest dominated by the endemic dipterocarp Pakaraimea dipterocarpacea. PLoS ONE 8(1):e55160. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055160

Smith, N. [et al. 2004], Mori, S. A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D. W., & Heald, S. V. 2004 (eds). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Smith, P. M. 1976. The Chemotaxonomy of Plants. Arnold, London.

Smith, R. A., & DePamphilis, C. W. 1998. Phylogenetic placement of the holoparasistic family Lennoaceae: Preliminary molecular evidence. American J. Bot. 65(6): 157.

Smith, R. A. [et al. 2000], Ferguson, D. M., Barkman, T. J., & Depamphilis, C. W. 2000. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the origin of Lennoaceae: A case of adelphoparasitism in the angiosperms? American J. Bot. 87 (supplement): 158.

Smith, R. M. 1985. A review of Bornean Zingiberaceae: 1 (Alpineae p.p.). Notes Royal Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 42: 261-314.

Smith, R. S. [et al. 2006], Gyomarc'h, S., Mandel, T., Reinhardt, D., Kuhlemeier, C., & Prusinkiewicz, P. 2006. A plausible model of phyllotaxis. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 103: 1301-1306.

Smith, R. Y. [et al. 2012], Basinger, J. F., & Greenwood, D. R. 2012. Early Eocene plant diversity and dynamics in the Falkland flora, Okanagan Highlands, British Columbia, Canada. Palaeobiol. Palaeoenv. 92: 309-328.

Smith, S., & Stewart, G. R. 1990. Effect of potassium levels on the stomatal behavior of the hemi-parasite Striga hermonthica. Plant Physiol. 94: 1472-1476.

Smith, S. A. 2009. Taking into account phylogenetic and divergence-time uncertainty in a parametric biogeographical analysis of a Northern Hemisphere plant clade Caprifolieae. J. Biogeog. 36: 2324-2337.

Smith, S. A., & Beaulieu, J. M. 2009. Life history influences rates of climatic niche evolution in flowering plants. Proc. Royal Soc. B, 276: 4345-4352.

Smith, S. A., & Brown, J. W. 2018. Constructing a broadly inclusive seed plant phylogeny. American J. Bot. 105: 302-314. doi: 10.1002/ajb2.1019

Smith, S. A., & Donoghue, M. J. 2008. Rates of molecular evolution are linked to life history in flowering plants. Science 322: 86-89.

Smith, S. A. [et al. 2010], Beaulieu, J. M., & Donoghue, M. J. 2010. An uncorrelated relaxed-clock analysis suggests an earlier origin for flowering plants. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 107: 5897-5902.

Smith, S. A. [et al. 2011], Beaulieu, J. M., Stamatkis, A., & Donoghue, M. J. 2011. Understanding angiosperm diversification using small and large phylogenetic trees. American J. Bot. 98: 404-414.

Smith, S. A. [et al. 2013], Brown, J. W., & Hinchliff, C. E. 2013. Analyzing and synthesizing phylogenies using tree alignment graphs. PLOS Comput. Biol. 9(9):e1003223. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003223

Smith, S. A. [et al. 2015], Moore, M. J., Brown, J. W., & Y. Yang, Y. 2015. Analysis of phylogenomic datasets reveals conflict, concordance, and gene duplications with examples from animals and plants. BMC Evol. Biol. 15:150.

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