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Articles or books by two or more authors are cited as follows. When there are two authors, citation is alphabetical after the second author's name. When there are three or more authors, references are cited in the body of the text as (e.g.) Chase et al. 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, and are listed following these sometimes alphabetically qualified dates of publication immediately after all the single- or two-authored articles by the first author.

Iakimova, E. T., & Woltering, E. J. 2017. Xylogenesis in zinnia Zinnia elegans cell cultures: Unravelling the regulatory steps in a complex developmental programmed cell death event. Planta 245: 681-705.

Iamonico, D. 2018. Nomenclatural and taxonomic notes on Acroglochin and its position in Chenopodiaceae s. str.. Phytotaxa 383: 197-205.

Iamonico, D. 2019. Remarks on the subfam. Betoideae (Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae sensu APG IV). Phytotaxa 400: 145-164.

Iason, G. R. [et al. 2011], O'Reilly-Wapstra, J. M., Brewer, M. J., Summers, R. W., & Moore, B. D. 2011. Do multiple herbivores maintain chemical diversity of Scots pine monoterpenes? Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. 366: 1337-1345.

IAWA Committee. 1989. IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification. IAWA Bull. n.s. 10: 219-332.

IAWA Committee. 2004. IAWA list of microscopic features for softwood identification. IAWA J. 25: 1-70.

Ibañez, A. C. [et al. 2018], Moré, M., Salazar, G., Leiva, S., Barboza, G. E., & Cocucci, A. A. 2019 [= 2018]. Crescendo, diminuendo and subito of the trumpets: Winds of change in the concerted evolution between flowers and pollinators in Salpichroa (Solanaceae). Molec. Phyl. Evol. 132: 90-99.

Ibáñez, F. [et al. 2016], Wall, L., & Fabra, A. 2017 [= 2016]. Starting points in plant-bacteria nitrogen-fixing symbioses: Intercellular invasion of the roots. J. Experim. Bot. 68: 1905-1918.

Ibanez, S. [et al. 2010], Dötterl, S., Anstett, M.-C., Baudino, S., Caissard, J.-C., Gallet, C., & Després, L. 2010. The role of volatile organic compounds, morphology and pigments of globeflowers in the attraction of their specific pollinating flies. New Phytol. 188: 451-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03317.x.

Ibarra-Laclette, E. [et al. 2011], Albert, V. A., Perez-Torres, C. A., Zamudio-Hernandez, F., Ortega-Estrada, M. D., Herrera-Estrella, A., & Herrera-Estrella, L. 2011. Transcriptomics and molecular evolutionary rate analysis of the Bladderwort (Utricularia), a Carnivorous Plant with a Minimal Genome. BMC Plant Biol. 11(1):101.

Ibarra-Laclette, E. [et al. 2013], Lyons, E., Hernández-Guzmán, G., Pérez-Torres, C. A., Carretero-Paulet, L., Chang, T.-H., Lan, T., Welch, A. J., Juárez, M. J., Simpson, J., Fernández-Cortés, A., Arteaga-Vázquez, M., Góngora-Castillo, E., Acevedo-Hernández, G., Schuster, S. C., Himmelbauer, H., Minoche, A. E., Xu, S., Lynch, M., Oropeza-Aburto, A., Cervantes-Pérez, S. A., de Jesús Ortega-Estrada, M., Cervantes-Luevano, J. I., Michael, T. P., Mockler, T., Bryant, D., Herrera-Estrella, A., Albert, V. A., & Herrera-Estrella, L. 2013. Architecture and evolution of a minute plant genome. Nature 498: 94-98.

Ibisch, P. L. [et al. 1996], Neinhuis, C., & Rojas N., P. 1996. On the biology, biogeography, and taxonomy of Arachnitis Phil. nom. cons. (Corsiaceae) in respect to a new record from Bolivia. Willdenowia 26: 321-332.

Ibrahim, D. G. [et al. 2009], Burke, T., Ripley, B. S., & Osborne, C. P. 2009. A molecular phylogeny of the genus Allopteropsis (Panicoideae, Poaceae), suggests an evolutionary reversion from C4 to C3 photosynthesis. Ann. Bot. 103: 127-136.

Ichihashi, Y., & Tsukaya, H. 2015. Behavior of leaf meristems and their modification. Front. Plant Sci.

Ichihashi, Y. [et al. 2011], Kawade, K., Usami, T., Horiguchi, G., Takahashi, T., & Tsukaya, H. 2011. Key proliferative activity in the junction between the leaf blade and petiole of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 157: 1151-1162.

Ichihashi, Y. [et al. 2017], Kusano, M., Kobayashi, M., Suetsugu, K., Yoshida, S., Wakatake, T., Kumaishi, K., Shibata, A., Saito, K., & Shirasu, K. 2017. Transcriptomic and metabolomic reprogramming from roots to haustoria in the parasitic plant, Thesium chinense. Plant Cell Physiol. 59: 729-738.

Ichinose, M., & Sugita, M. 2017. RNA editing and its molecular mechanism in plant organelles. Genes (Basel) 8:5. doi: 10.3390/genes8010005

Ickert-Bond, S. M., & Renner, S. S. 2016. The Gnetales: Recent insights on their morphology, reproductive biology, chromosome numbers, biogeography, and divergence times. J. Syst. Evol. 54: 1-16.

Ickert-Bond, S. M., & Rydin, C. 2011. Micromorphology of the seed envelope of Ephedra L. (Gnetales) and its relevance for the timing of evolutionary events. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 172: 36-48.

Ickert-Bond, S. M., & Wen, J. 2006. Phylogeny and biogeography of Altingiaceae: Evidence from combined analysis of five non-coding chloroplast regions. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 39: 512-528.

Ickert-Bond, S. M., & Wen, J. 2013. A taxonomic synopsis of Altingiaceae with nine new combinations. Phytokeys 39: 512-528.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2005], Pigg, K. B., & Wen, J. 2005. Comparative infructescence morphology in Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) and its evolutionary significance. American J. Bot. 92: 1234-1255.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2007], Pigg, K. B., & Wen, J. 2007. Comparative infructescence morphology in Altingia (Altingiaceae) and discordance between morphological and molecular phylogenies. American J. Bot. 94: 1094-1115.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2009], Rydin, C., & Renner, S. S. 2009. A fossil-calibrated relaxed clock for Ephedra indicates an Oligocene age for the divergence of Asian and New World clades and Miocene dispersal into South America. J. Syst. Evol. 47: 444-456.

Ickert-Bond, S. [et al. 2014a], Gerrath, J., & Wen, J. 2014a. Gynoecial structure of Vitales and implications for the evolution of placentation in the rosids. P. 216, in Botany 2014. New Frontiers in Botany. Abstract Book.

Ickert-Bond, S. [et al. 2014b], Sousa, A., Min, Y., Leitch, I. J., & Pellicer, J. 2014b. The evolution of genome size in the gymnosperm genus Ephedra: Flow cytometry and new chromosome counts support high levels of polyploidy. P. 7, in Botany 2014. New Frontiers in Botany. [Room Changes, etc.]

Ickert-Bond, S. [et al. 2014c], Gerrath, J., & Wen, J. 2014c. Gynoecial structure of Vitales and implications for the evolution of placentation in the rosids. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 175: 998-1032.

Ickert-Bond, S. [et al. 2015a], Pellicer, J., Souza, A., Metzgar, J., & Leitch, I. 2015a. Ephedra - the gymnosperm genus with the largest and most diverse genome sizes driven by a high frequency of recently-derived polyploid taxa and a lack of genome downsizing. P. 273, in Botany 2015. Science and Plants for People. Abstracts.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2015b], Pigg, K. B., & DeVore, M. L. 2015b. Paleoochna tiffneyi gen. et sp. nov. (Ochnaceae) from the late Paleocene Almont/Beicegel Creek flora, North Dakota, USA. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 176: 892-900.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2015c], Gerrath, J. M., Posluszny, U., & Wen, J. 2015c. Inflorescence development in the Vitis-Ampelocissus clade of Vitaceae: The unusual lamellate inflorescence of Pterisanthes. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 179: 725-741.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2020], Sousa, A., Min, Y., Loera, I., Metzgar, J., Pellicer, J., Hidalgo, O., & Leitch, I. J. 2020. Polyploidy in gymnosperms — insights into the genomic and evolutionary consequences of polyploidy in Ephedra. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 147:106786.

ICPT [International Committee for Phytolith Taxonomy] [Neumann, K., Strömberg, C. A. E., Ball, T., Albert, R. M., Vrydaghs, L., & Cummings, L. S. 2019. International Code for Phytolith Nomenclature (ICPN) 2.0. Ann. Bot. 124: 189-199.

Idris, N. A., & Collings, D. A. 2019. The induction and roles played by phi thickenings in orchid roots. Plants 8(12):574.

Iganci, J. R. V. [et al. 2015], Soares, M. V., Guerra, E., & Morim, M. P. 2016 [= 2015]. A preliminary molecular phylogeny of the Abarema Alliance (Leguminosae) and implications for taxonomic rearrangement. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 177: 34-43.

Igea, J., & Tanentzap, A. J. 2019. Angiosperm speciation speeds up near the poles. bioRχiv doi: = Igea, J., & Tanentzap, A. J. 2020 [= 2019]. Angiosperm speciation speeds up near the poles. Ecol. Lett. 23: 692-700.

Igea, J., & Tanentzap, A. J. 2020. Angiosperm speciation cools down in the tropics. Ecol. Lett. 23: 692-700.

Igea, J. [et al. 2015], Bogarín, D., Papadopulos, A. S. T., & Savolainen, V. 2015. A comparative analysis of island floras challenges taxonomy-based biogeographical models of speciation. Evolution 69: 482-491.

Igea, J. [et al. 2017], Miller, E. F., Papadopulos, A. S. T., & Tanentzap, A. J. 2017. Seed size and its rate of evolution correlate with species diversification across angiosperms. PLoS Biol. 15:e2002792.

Igersheim, A. 1993a. Floral development and secondary pollen presentation in Petromarula Vent. ex Hedwig f. (Campanulaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 115: 301-313.

Igersheim, A. 1993b. The character states of the Caribbean monotypic endemic Strumpfia (Rubiaceae). Nordic J. Bot. 13: 545-559.

Igersheim, A. 1993c. Gynoecium development in Rubiaceae-Vanguerieae, with particular reference to the "stylar head"-complex and secondary pollen presentation. Plant Syst. Evol. 187: 175-190.

Igersheim, A., & Endress, P. K. 1997. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of the Magnoliales and Winteroids. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 124: 213-271.

Igersheim, A., & Endress, P. K. 1998. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of the paleoherbs. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 127: 289-370.

Igersheim, A., & Robbrecht, E. 1993. The chracter states and relationships of the Prismatomeridae (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae). Comparisons with Morinda and comments on the circumscription of the Morindeae s. str.. Opera Bot. Belgica 6: 61-79.

Igersheim, A., & Rohrhofer, U. 1993. The tribal position of Otiophora (Rubiaceae): New evidence from gynoecium structure and development. South African J. Bot. 59: 431-441.

Igersheim, A. [et al. 1994], Puff, C., Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1994. Gynoecial development of Gaertnera Lam. and presumably allied taxa of Psychotrieae (Rubiaceae): Secondarily "superior" vs. inferior ovaries. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 116: 401-414.

Igersheim, A. [et al. 2001], Buzgo, M., & Endress, P. K. 2001. Gynoecium diversity and systematics in basal monocots. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 136: 1-65.

Igic, B., & Kohn, J. R. 2001. Evolutionary relationships among self-incompatibility RNases. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 98: 13167-13171.

Igic, B., & Kohn, J. R. 2006. The distribution of plant mating systems: Study bias against obligately outcrossing species. Evolution 60: 1098-1103.

Igic, B. [et al. 2006], Bohs, L., & Kohn, J. R. 2006. Ancient polymorphism reveals unidirectional breeding system shifts. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 103: 1359-1363.

Iglesias A. [et al. 2007], Wilf, P, Johnson, K. R., Zamuner, A. B., Cúneo, N. R., Matheos, S. D., & Singer, B. S. 2007. A Paleocene lowland macroflora from Patagonia reveals significantly greater richness than North American analogs. Geology 35: 947-950.

Iglesias, A. [et al. 2011], Artabe, A. E., & Morel, E. M. 2011. The evolution of Patagonian climate and vegetation from the Mesozoic to the present. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 103: 409-422.

Ignatov, M. S. 2019. Moss peristome: Problems of development and terminology. Bot. Zhurn. 104: 835-358. [In Russian.]

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1960. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche, morphologische und systematische Untersuchungen an Mesembryanthemen. Feddes Repert. 63: 1-104.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1967. Über die Abgrenzung und die natürliche Gliederung der Pedaliaceae R. Br. Mitt. Staatsinst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 12: 43-128.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1983. Dispersal of Mesembryanthemaceae in arid habitats. Sonderb. Naturwiss. Vereins Hamburg 7: 381-390. [in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), Dispersal and Distribution: An International Symposium. Paul Parey, Hamburg.]

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1994a. Diversification in an arid world: The Mesembryanthemaceae. Annual Review Ecol. Syst. 25: 521-546.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1994b. Phytogeography of Pedaliaceae R. Br. Pp. 1063-1075, in Seyani, J. H., & Chikuni, A. C. (eds), Proceedings of the 13th Plenary Meeting of AETFAT, Zomba, Malawi, vol. 2. National Herbarium and Botanic Gardens of Malawi, Zomba.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 2004. Martyniaceae, pp. 50-56, Pedaliaceae, 307-322, & Trapellaceae, 445-448, in Kadereit, J. (ed)., The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. VII. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Lamiales (except Acanthaceae including Avicenniaceae). Springer, Berlin.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 2010. Pedaliaceae - evolution and phylogeny of the succulent genera. Schumannia 6: 151-182. [Biodivers. Ecol. 3.]

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D.. & Gerbaulet, M. 1990. Untersuchungen zum Merkmalsbestand und zur Taxonomie der Gattungen Apatesia N. E. Br., Carpanthea N. E. Br., Conicosia N. E. Br., Herrea Schwantes und Hymenogyne Haw. (Mesembryanthemaceae Fenzl.). Bot Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 111: 457-498.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D., & Grabow-Seidensticker, U. 1979. The genus Sesamum and the origin of cultivated sesame. Pp. 53-60, in Kunkel, K. (ed.), Taxonomic Aspects of African Economic Botany. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D., & Hartmann, H. E. K. 1982. Leaf surfaces in Mesembryanthemaceae. Pp. 397-423, in Cutler, D. F., Alvin, K. L., & Price, C. E. (eds), The Plant Cuticle. Academic Press, London.

Iida, S. [et al. 2016], Ikeda, M., Amano, M., Sakagama, H., Kadono, Y., & Kosuge, K. 2016. Loss of heterophylly in aquatic plants: Not ABA-mediated stress but exogenous ABA treatment induces stomatal leaves in Potamogeton perfoliatus. J. Plant Res. 129: 853-862.

Ike Coan, A., & Scatena, V. L. 2004. Embryology and seed development of Blastocaulon scirpeum and Paepalanthus scleranthus (Eriocaulaceae). Flora 199: 47-57.

Ike Coan, A. [et al. 2008], Alves, M. V., & Scatena, V. L. 2008. Comparative study of ovule and fruit development in species of Hypolytrum and Rhynchospora (Cyperaceae, Poales). Plant Syst. Evol. 272: 181-195.

Ike Coan, A. [et al. 2010], Alves, M. V., & Scatena, V. L. 2010. Evidence of pseudomonad pollen formation in Hypolytrum (Mapanioideae, Cyperaceae). Australian J. Bot. 58: 663-672.

Ike Coan, A. [et al. 2012], Stützel, T., & Scatena, V. L. 2010 [= 2012]. Comparative embryology and taxonomic considerations in Eriocaulaceae (Poales). Feddes Repert. 121: 268-284.

Ikeura, H. [et al. 2010], Kobayashi, F., & Hayata, Y. 2010. How do Pieris rapae search for Brassicaceae host plants? Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 38: 1199-1203.

Iles, W. [et al. 2009], Smith, S. Y., & Graham, S. W. 2009. Robust resolution of the backbone of Alismatales phylogeny. P. 156, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Iles, W. J. D. [et al. 2013], Smith, S. Y., & Graham, S. W. 2013. A well-supported phylogenetic framework for the monocot order Alismatales reveals multiples losses of the plastid NADH dehydrogenase complex and a strong long-branch effect. Pp. 1-28, in Wilkin, P., & Mayo, S. J. (eds), Early Events in Monocot Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [Systematics Association Special Volume 83.]

Iles, W. J. [et al. 2014], Lee, C., Sokoloff, D. D., Remizowa, M. V., Yadav, S. R., Barrett, R. L., Macfarlane, T. D., Rudall, P. J., & Graham, S. W. 2014. Reconstructing the age and historical biogeography of the ancient flowering-plant family Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales). BMC Evol. Biol. 14: 102. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-102

Iles, W. J. D. [et al. 2015], Smith, S. Y., Gandolfo, M. A., & Graham, S. W. 2015. Monocot fossils suitable for molecular dating analyses. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 178: 346-374.

Iles, W. J. D. [et al. 2016], Sass, C., Lagomarsino, L., Benson-Martin, G., Driscoll, H., & Specht, C. D. 2017 [= 2016]. The phylogeny of Heliconia (Heliconiaceae) and the evolution of floral presentation. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 117: 150-167.

Illing, N. [et al. 2009], Klak, C., Johnson, C., Negrao, N., Baine, F., van Kets, V., Ramchurn, K. R., Seoighe, C., & Roden, L. 2009. Duplication of the Asymmetric Leaves 1/Rough Sheath 2/Phantastica (ARP) gene precedes the explosive radiation of the Ruschioideae. Evol. Genes Devel. 219: 331-338.

Iltis, H. H. 1999. Setchellanthaceae (Capparales), a new family for a relictual, glucosinolate-producing endemic of the Mexican deserts. Taxon 48: 257-275.

Iltis, H. H. [et al. 2011], Hall, J. C., Cochrane, T. S., & Systma, K. J. 2011. Studies in the Cleomaceae I. On the separate recognition of Capparaceae, Cleomaceae, and Brassicaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 98: 28-36.

Iluz, D. 2011. The plant-aphid universe. Pp. 93-118, in Seckbach, J., & Dubinsky, Z. (eds), All Flesh is Grass: Plant-Animal Interrelationships. Springer, Dordrecht.

Imada, Y. 2020. Moss mimicry par excellence: Integrating previous and new data on the life history and larval ecomorphology of long-bodied craneflies (Diptera: Cylindrotomidae: Cylindrotominae). Zool. J. Linnean Soc.

Imada, Y. [et al. 2011], Kawakita, A., & Kato, M. 2011. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae). Proc. Royal Soc. B, 278: 3026-3033.

Imaichi, R. 2008. Meristem organization and organ identity. Pp. 75-103, in Ranker, T. A., & Haufler, C. H. (eds), Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Imaichi, R., & Hiratsuka, R. 2007. Evolution of shoot apical meristem structures in vascular plants with respect to plasmodial network. American J. Bot. 94: 1911-1921.

Imaichi, R., & Kato, M. 1989. Developmental anatomy of the shoot apical cell, rhizophore and root of Selaginella uncinata. J. Plant Res. 102: 369-380.

Imaichi, R., & Kato, M. 1991. Developmental study of branched rhizophores in three Selaginella species. American J. Bot. 78: 1694-1703.

Imaichi, R. [et al. 2001], Inokuchi, S., & Kato, M. 2001. Developmental morphology of one-leaf plant Monophyllaea singularis (Gesneriaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 229: 171-185.

Imaichi, R. [et al. 2004], Maeda, R., Suzuki, K., & Kato, M. 2004. Developmental morphology of foliose shoots and seedlings of Dalzella zeylanica (Podostemaceae) with special reference to their meristems. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 144: 289-302.

Imaichi, R. [et al. 2007], Omura-Shimadate, M., Ayano, M., & Kato, M. 2007. Developmental morphology of the caulescent species Streptocarpus pallidiflorus (Gesneriaceae), with implications for evolution of monophylly. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 168: 251-260.

Imbert, E. 2002. Ecological consequences and ontogeny of seed hetermorphism. Persp. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 5: 13-36.

Imhof, S. 1997. Root anatomy and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllous Voyria tenella Hooker (Gentianaceae). Bot. Acta 110:298–305.

Imhof, S. 1998. Subterranean structures and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllous Triuris hyalina (Triuridaceae). Canadian J. Bot. 76: 2011-2019.

Imhof, S. 1999a. Root morphology, anatomy and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllopus Voyria aphylla (Jacq.) Pers. (Gentianaceae). Mycorrhiza 9: 33-39.

Imhof, S. 1999b. Anatomy and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllous Afrothismia winkleri. New Phytol. 144: 533-540.

Imhof, S. 1999c. Subterranean structures and mycorrhiza of the achlorophyllous Burmannia tenella Benth. (Burmanniaceae). Canadian J. Bot. 77: 637-643.

Imhof, S. 2001. Subterranean structures and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllous Dictyostega orobanchoides (Hook.) Miers (Burmanniaceae). Rev Biol. Trop. 49: 239-247.

Imhof, S. 2004. Morphology and development of the subterranean organs of the achlorophyllous Sciaphila polygyna (Triuridaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 146: 295-301.

Imhof, S. 2007. Specialized mycorrhizal colonization pattern in achlorophyllous Epirixanthes spp. (Polygalaceae). Plant Biol. 9: 786-792.

Imhof, S. 2009. Arbuscular, ecto-related, orchid mycorhizas - three independent structural lineages towards mycoheterotrophy: Implications for classification? Mycorrhiza 19: 357-363.

Imhof, S. 2010. Are monocots particularly suited to develop mycoheterotrophy? Pp. 11-23, in Seberg, O., Petersen, G., Barfod, A. S., & Davis, J. I. (eds), Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons. Aarhus University Press, Århus.

Imhof, S., & Sainge, M. N. 2008. Ontogeny of the mycoheterotrophic species Afrothisma hydra (Burmanniaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 157: 31-36.

Imhof, S., & Weber, H. C. 2000. Root structures and mycorrhiza of the achlorophyllous Voyria obconica Progel (Gentianaceae). Symbiosis 29: 201-211.

Imhof, S. (et al. 2013), Massicotte, H. B., Melville, L. H., & Peterson, R. L. 2013. Subterranean morphology and mycorrhizal structures. Pp. 157-234, in Merckx, V. S. F. T. (ed)., Mycoheterotrophy: The Biology of Plants Living on Fungi. Springer, New York.

Imhof, S. [et al. 2020], Feller, B., & Heser, A. 2020. Morpho-anatomical differences among mycoheterotrophic Afrothismia spp. (Thismiaceae) indicate an evolutionary progression towards improved mycorrhizal benefit. Mycorrhiza 30: 397-405.

Immirzi, C. P., & Maltby, E. 1992. The Global Status of Peatlands and Their Role in Carbon Cycling. Friends of the Earth, London.

Inácio, C. D. [et al. 2017], Chauveau, O., Souza-Chies, T. T., Sauquet, H., & Eggers, L. 2017. An updated phylogeny and infrageneric classification of the genus Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae): Challenges of molecular and morphological evidence. Taxon 66: 1317-1348.

Inagawa, T. [et al. 2023], Riutta, T., Majalap-Lee, N., Nilus, R., Josue, J., & Malhi, Y. 2023. Radial and vertical variation of wood nutrients in Bornean tropical forest trees. Biotropica 55: 1019-1032.

Inamdar, J. A. [et al. 1983], Shenoy, K. N., & Rao, N. V. 1983. Leaf architecture of some monocotyledons with reticulate venation. Ann. Bot. 52: 725-735.

Inamdar, J. A. [et al. 1990], Chaudhari, G. S., & Ramana Rao, T. V. 1990. Studies on the cystoliths of Acanthaceae. Feddes Repert. 101: 417-424.

Inda, L. A. [et al. 2008a], Segarra-Moragues, J. G., Müller, J., Peterson, P. M., & Catalán, P. 2008a. Dated historical biogeography of the temperate Loliinae (Poaceae, Pooideae) grasses in the northern and southern hemispheres. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 46: 932-957.

Inda, L. A. [et al. 2008b], Torrecilla, P., Catalán, P., & Ruiz-Zapata, T. 2008b. Phylogeny of Cleome L. and its close relatives Podandrogyne Ducke and Polanisia Raf. (Cleomoideae, Cleomaceae) based on analysis of nuclear ITS sequences and morphology. Plant Syst. Evol.274: 111-126.

Inda, L. A. [et al. 2010], Pimental, M., & Chase, M. W. 2010. Contribution of mitochondrial cox1 intron sequences ro the phylogenetics of the tribe Orchideae (Orchidaceae): Do the distribution and sequence of this intron in orchids also tell us something about its evolution? Taxon 59: 1053-1064.

Inda, L. A. [et al. 2012], Pimental, M., & Chase, M. W. 2012. Phylogenetics of tribe Orchideae (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae) based on combined DNA matrices: Inferences regarding timing of diversificatiion and evolution of pollination syndromes. Ann. Bot. 110: 71-90.

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Johnson, C. D. 1990. Coevolution of Bruchidae and their hosts: Evidence, conjecture, and conclusions. Pp. 27-51, in Fuji, K., Gategouse, A. M. R., Johnson, C. D., Mitchel, R., & Yoshida, T. (eds), Bruchids and Legumes: Economics, Ecology and Coevolution. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Johnson, D. [et al. 2023a], Liu, X., & Burslem, D. F. R. P. 2023a. Symbiotic control of canopy dominance in subtropical and tropical forests. Trends Plant Sci. 28: 995-1003.

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Johnson, D. M., & Murray, N. A. 2018. A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): The species of tropical Africa. PhytoKeys 97: 1-252.

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Johnson, D. S. 1914. Studies of the development of the Piperaceae. II. The structure and seed development of Peperomia hispidula. American J. Bot. 1: 323-339.

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Johnson, D. W., & Cole, D. W. 2005. Nutrient cycles in conifer forests. Pp. 427-450, in Andersson, F. (ed.), Ecosystems of the World. 6. Coniferous Forests. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Johnson, G. P., & Renzaglia, K. S. 2009. Evaluating the diversity of pteridophyte embryology in the light of recent phylogenetic analyses leads to new inferences on character evolution. Plant Syst. Evol. 283: 149-164.

Johnson, J. M., & Choinski, J. S. Jr. 1993. Photosynthesis in the TapinanthusDiplorhynchus mistletoe—host relationship. Ann. Bot. 72: 117-122.

Johnson, K. A. 2013. Are there pollination syndromes in the Australian epacrids (Ericaceae: Styphelioideae)? A novel statistical method to identify key floral traits per syndrome. Ann. Bot. 112: 141-149.

Johnson, K. A. [et al. 2012], Holland, B. R., Heslewood, M. M., & Crayn, D. M. 2012. Supermatrices, supertrees and serendipitous scaffolding: Inferring a well-resolved, genus-level phylogeny of Styphelioideae (Ericaceae) despite missing data. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 62: 146-158.

Johnson, K. R. 2002. Megaflora of the Hell Creek and lower Fort Union formations in the western Dakotas: Vegetational response to climate change, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event, and rapid marine transgression. Pp. 329-391, in Hartman, J. H., Johnson, K. R., & Nichols, D. J. (eds). The Hell Creek Formation and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Northern Great Plains: An Integrated Continental Record of the End of the Cretaceous. Geological Society of America. [Geol. Soc. America Spec. Papers 361: 329-391.]

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Johnson, L. A. [et al. 2008], Chan, L. M., Weese, T. L., Busby, L. D., & McMurry, S. 2008. Nuclear and cpDNA sequences combined provide strong inference of higher phylogenetic relationships in the phlox family (Polemoniaceae). Molec. Phyl. Evol. 48: 997-1012.

Johnson, L. A. [et al. 2012], Chan, L. M., Pozner, R., & Glazier, L. D. 2012. Allotetraploids in Patagonia with affinities to western North American diploids: Did dispersal or genome doubling occur first? Bot. Review 78: 288-306.

Johnson, L. A. S., & Briggs, B. G. 1963. Evolution in the Proteaceae. Australian J. Bot. 11: 21-61.

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Johnson, L. A. S., & Wilson, K. L. 1993. Casuarinaceae. Pp. 237-242, in Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., & Bittrich, V. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families. Springer, Berlin.

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Johnson, M. [Melissa] A. [et al. 2015], Price, D. K., Price, J. P., & Stacy, E. A. 2015. Postzygotic barriers isolate sympatric species of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) in Hawaiian montane forest understories. American J. Bot. 102: 1870-1882.

Johnson, M. A. [et al. 2017], Clark, J. R., Wagner, W. L., & McDade, L. A. 2017. A molecular phylogeny of the Pacific clade of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) reveals a Fijian origin, recent diversification, and the importance of founder events. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 116: 30-48.

Johnson, M. A. [et al. 2019], Pillon, Y., Sakashima, T., Price, D. K., & Stacy, E. A. 2019. Multiple colonizations, hybridization and uneven diversification in Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) lineages on Hawai'i Island. J. Biogeog. 46: 1178-1196.

Johnson, M. G. [et al. 2014], Granath, G., Tahvanainen, T., Pouliot, R., Stenøien, H. K., Rochefort, L., Rydin, H., & Shaw, A. J. 2014. Evolution of niche preference in Sphagnum peat mosses. Evolution 69: 90-103.

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Johnson, M. G. [et al. 2018], Pokorny, L., Dodsworth, S., Botigué, L. R., Cowan, R. S., Devault, A., Eiserhardt, W. L., Epitawalage, N., Forest, F., Kim, J, T., Leebens-Mack, J. H., Leitch, I. J., Maurin, O., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Wong, G. K.-s., Baker, W. J., & Wickett, N. J. 2018. A universal probe set for targeted sequencing of 353 nuclear genes from any flowering plant designed using k-medoids clustering. Syst. Biol. 68: 594-606. doi: 10.1093/sysbio/syy086

Johnson, M. T. J. [et al. 2009], Smith, S. D., & Rauscher, M. D. 2009. Plant sex and the evolution of plant defences against herbivores. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 106: 18071-18084.

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Johnson, N. C. 2010 [= 2009]. Resource stoichiometry elucidates the structure and function of arbuscular mycorrhizas across scales. New Phytol. 185: 631-647. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.03110.x

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Johnson, S. D. 2004. An overview of plant-pollinator relationships in southern Africa. Internat. J. Trop. Insect Sci. 24: 45-54.

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Johnson, S. D., & Edwards, T. J. 2000. The structure and function of orchid pollinaria. Plant Syst. Evol. 222: 243-269.

Johnson, S. D., & Jürgens, A. 2010. Convergent evolution of carrion and fecal scent mimicry in fly-pollinated angiosperm flowers and a stinkhorn fungus. South African J. Bot. 76: 796-807.

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Johnson, S. D., & Westra, P. 2017. Stefan Vogel's analysis of floral syndromes in the South African flora: An appraisal based on 60 years of pollination studies. Flora 232: 200-206.

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Johnson, S. D. [et al. 2009a], Griffiths, M. E., Peter, C. I., & Lawes, M. J. 2009a. Pollinators, "mustard oil" volatiles, and fruit production in flowers of the dioecious tree Drypetes natalensis (Putranjivaceae). American J. Bot. 96: 2080-2086.

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Li, J. [Jie] [et al. 2004], Christophel, D. C., Conran, J. G., & Li, H.-W. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships within the 'core' Laureae (Litsea complex, Lauraceae) inferred from sequences of the chloroplast gene matK and nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS regions. Plant Syst. Evol. 246: 19-34.

Li, J. [et al. 2008], Conran, J. G., Christophel, D. C., Li, Z.-M., Li, L., & Li, H.-W. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships in the Litsea complex and core Laureae (Lauraceae) using ITS and ETS sequences and morphology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 580-599.

Li, J. [Jingping] [et al. 2014], Tang, H., Bowers, J. E., Ming, R., & Paterson, A. H. 2014. Insights into the common ancestor of eudicots. Adv. Bot. Res. 69: 137-174.

Li, J. [Jinhong] [et al. 2011], Webster, M. A., Smith, M. C., & Gilmartin, P. M. 2011. Floral heteromorphy in Primula vulgaris: Progress towards isolation and characterization of the S locus. Ann. Bot. 108: 715-726.

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Li, J.-K., & Huang, S.-Q. 2009. Flower thermoregulation facilitates fertilization in Asian sacred lotus. Ann. Bot. 103: 1159-1163.

Li, J.-Q. 1996. On the phylogeny of the Fagaceae. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 34: 597-609.

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Li, L. [Lang] [et al. 2011], Rohwer, J. G., van der Werff, H., Wang, Z.-H., & Li, H.-W. 2011. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Persea group (Lauraceae) and its biogeographic implications on the evolution of tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunctions. American J. Bot. 98: 1520-1536.

Li, L. [et al. 2016], Madriñán, S., & Li, J. 2016. Phylogeny and biogeography of Caryodaphnopsis (Lauraceae) inferred from low-copy nuclear gene and ITS sequences. Taxon 65: 433-443.

Li, L. [Li], & Huang, H.-Y. 2015. Embryology of Swertia davidii (Gentianaceae). Guihaia 35: 631-640. [In Chinese.]

Li, L. [Lin] [et al. 2020], Chung, S.-W., Li, B., Zeng, S.-J., Yan, H.-F., & Li, S.-J. 2020. New insight into the molecular phylogeny of the genus Liparis s.l. (Orchidaceae: Malaxidae) with a new generic segregate: Blepharoglossum. Plant Syst. Evol. 306:54.

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Li, L.-F. [et al. 2010], Häkkinen, Tuan, Y.-M., Hao, G., & Ge, X.-J. 2010. Molecular systematics and phylogeny of the banana family (Musaceae) inferred from multiple nuclear and chloroplast DNA fragments, with a special reference to the genus Musa. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 57: 1-10.

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Li, M. [Meng] [et al. 2017], Ohi-Toma, T., Gao, Y.-D., Xu, B., Zhu, Z.-M., Ju, W.-B., & Gao, X.-F. 2017. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of Sorbus sensu stricto (Rosaceae). Molec. Phyl. Evol. 111: 76-86.

Li, M.-H. [et al. 2016a], Zhang, G.-Q., Liu, Z.-J., & Lan, S.-R. 2016a. Subtribal relationships in Cymbidieae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae) reveal a new subtribe, Dipodiinae, based on plastid and nuclear coding DNA. Phytotaxa 246: 37-48.

Li, M.-H. [et al. 2016b], Zhang, G.-Q., Lan, S.-R., Liu, Z.-J., & China Phylogeny Consortium. 2016b. A molecular phylogeny of Chinese orchids. J. Syst. Evol. 54: 349-362. doi: 10.1111/jse.12187

Li, M.-H. [et al. 2019], Zhang, G.-Q., Deng, H., Liu, D.-K., Tu, X.-D., Wang, W., Lan, S.-R., & Liu, Z.-J. 2019. A perspective on crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis of orchids on different continents: Dendrobium as a case study. J. Experim. Bot. 70: 6611-6619.

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Li, R., & Wen, J. 2013. Phylogeny and biogeography of Dendropanax (Araliaceae), an amphi-Pacific disjunct genus between tropical/subtropical Asia and the Neotropics. Syst. Bot. 38: 536-551.

Li, R., & Wen, J. 2014. Phylogeny and biogeography of Asian Schefflera (Araliaceae) based on nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data. J. Syst. Evol. 52: 431-449.

Li, R., & Wen, J. 2016. Phylogeny and classification of Chinese Araliaceae based on nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data. J. Syst. Evol. 54: 453-467.

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Liu, J. [et al. 2021a], Lindstrom, A. J., Chen, Y., Nathan, R., & Gong, X. 2022 [= 2021a]. Congruence between ocean‐dispersal modelling and phylogeography explains recent evolutionary history of Cycas species with buoyant seeds. New Phytol. 232: 1863-1875. doi: 10.1111/nph.17663.

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Liu, J.-X. [et al. 2011], Zhang, J., Liu, H.-J., Wang, M., Chen, Z.-K., & Xi, Y.-Z. 2011. Anther structure and pollen morphology of Hosta Tratt. and its systematic significance. Plant Syst. Evol. 29: 253-260.

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Liu, L. [Lei] [et al. 2011], Zhao, B., Tan, D., & Wang, J. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships of Brassicaceae in China: Insights from a non-coding chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA set. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 39: 600-608.

Liu, L. [Liang] [et al. 2017], Zhang, J., Rheindt, F. E., Lei, F., Qu, Y., Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., Sullivan, C., Nie, W., Wang, J., Yang, F., Chen, J., Edwards, S. V., Meng, J., & Wu, S. 2017. Genomic evidence reveals a radiation of placental mammals uninterrupted by the KPg boundary. Proc. National Acad. Sci. E7282-7290.

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Liu, M. [et al. 2003b], van Wyk, B.-E., & Tilney, P. M. 2003b. Ontogeny of the fruits of two anomalous African woody genera, Polemanniopsis and Steganotaenia (Apiaceae), and their phylogenetic relationship. Edinburgh J. Bot. 60: 249-257.

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Liu, M. [et al. 2007], van Wyk, B.-E., & Tilney, P. M. 2007. Irregular vittae and druse crystals in Steganotaenia fruit support a taxonomic affinity with the subfamily Saniculoideae (Apiaceae). South African J. Bot. 73: 252-255.

Liu, M. [et al. 2009], van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P. M., Plunkett, G. M., & Lowry, P. P. II. 2009. Evidence from fruit structure supports in general the circumscription of Apiaceae subfamily Azorelloideae. Plant Syst. Evol. 280: 1-13.

Liu, M. (R.) [et al. 2010], Plunkett, G. M., & Lowry, P. P. II. 2010. Fruit anatomy provides structural synapomoprphies to help define Myodocarpaceae (Apiales). Syst. Bot. 35: 675-681.

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Liu, Q. [Qiang] [et al. 2021], Ya, J.-D., Wu, X.-F., Shao, B. Y., Chi, K.-B., Zheng, H.-L., Li, J.-W., & Jin, X.-H. 2021. New taxa of tribe Gastrodieae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae) from Yunnan, China and its conservation implication. Plant Divers. 43: 420-425.

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Liu, W., & Ni, X. 2013. Anatomy and development of gynoecium in Tapiscia sinensis. Front. Plant Evol. Develop. 4: 421. doi: 103389/fpls.2013.00421

Liu, W.-Z. [et al. 2008], Kang, H.-Q., Zheng, H.-C., & Feng, Y-Z. 2008. An investigation on the sexual reproductive cycle in Tapiscia sinensis. J. Syst. Evol. 46: 175-182. [In Chinese.]

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Liu, X. [et al. 2016], Wang, Z., Wang, D., & Zhang, J. 2016. Phylogeny of Populus-Salix (Salicaceae) and their relative genera using molecular datasets. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 68: 210-215.

Liu, X. [Xiaoqing] [et al. 2019], Fu, W., Tang, Y., Zhang, W., Song, Z., Li, L., Yang, J., Ma, H., Yang, J., Zhou, C., Davis, C. C., & Wang, Y. 2019. Diverse trajectories of genome degradation in holoparasitic Cistanche and genomic location of the lost plastid genes. J. Exper. Bot. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erz456

Liu, X. [Xiaoyan] [et al. 2014], Manchester, S. R., & Jin, J. 2014. Alnus subgenus Alnus in the Eocene of western North America based on leaves, associated catkins, pollen, and fruits. American J. Bot. 101: 1925-1943.

Liu, X. [Xin], & Rousk, K. 2022. The moss traits that rule cyanobacterial colonization. Ann. Bot. 120: 147-159.

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Liu, X. L. [et al. 2017], Li, J. H., Yang, Y. F., & Zhu, J. Y. 2017. Floral development in Gymnospermium microrrhynchum (Berberidaceae) and its systematic significance in the Nandinoideae. Flora 228: 10-16.

Liu, X.-Q. [Xin-Quan] [et al. 2022], Xia, X.-M., Chen, L., & Wang, X.-Q. 2022. Phylogeny and evolution of Cupressaceae: Updates on intergeneric relationships and new insights on ancient intergeneric hybridization. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 177:107606. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107606

Liu, X.-Q. [Xiu-Qun] [et al. 2012], Ickert-Bond, S. M., Chen, L.-Q., & Wen, J. 2013 [= 2012]. Molecular phylogeny of Cissus L. of Vitaceae (the grape family) and evolution of its pantropical intercontinental disjunctions. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 66: 43-53.

Liu, X.-Q. [et al. 2015], Ickert-Bond, S. M., Nie, Z.-L., Zhou, Z., Chen, L.-Q., & Wen, J. 2016 [= 2015]. Phylogeny of the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade in Vitaceae supports the New World origin of the grape genus. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 95: 217-228.

Liu, Y. [Yang] [et al. 2012], Wang, B., Cui, P., Li, L., Xue, J.-Y., Yu, J., & Qiu, Y.-L. 2012. The mitochondrial genome of Huperzia squarrosa: The most archaic form in vascular plants. PLoS ONE 7(4):e35168.

Liu, Y. [et al. 2014a], Medina, R., & Goffinet, B. 2014a. 350 My of mitochondrial genome stasis in mosses, an early land plant lineage. Molec. Biol. Evol. 31: 2586-2591.

Liu, Y. [et al. 2014b], Cox, C. J., Wang, W., & Goffinet, B. 2014b. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of early land plants: Mitigating the effects of saturation, compositional heterogeneity, and codon-usage bias. Syst. Biol. 63: 862-878.

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Liu, Y. [et al. 2024], Dai, J. H., Zhuang, Q.-Y., Zou, C.-Y., & Ma, K.-N. 2024. Resurrection of Perilimnastes (Sonerileae, Melastomataceae) with description of a new species P. nana. PhytoKeys: 238: 11-31.

Liu, Y. [Yinzhe] [et al. 2019], Wang, J., Ge, W., Wang, Z., Li, Y., Yang, N., Sun, S., Zhang, L., & Wang, X. 2017. Two highly similar poplar paleo-subgenomes suggest an autotetraploid ancestor of Salicaceae plants. Front. Plant Sci. 8:571. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00571

Liu, Y. [Yu] [et al. 2015], Fang, S., Chesson, P., & He, F. 2015. The effect of soil-borne pathogens depends on the abundance of the host tree species. Nature Communic. 6:10017. doi: 10.1039/ncomms10017

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Liu, Y.-L. [et al. 2005], Xu, L.-M., Ni, X.-M., & Zhao, J.-R. 2005. Phylogeny of the Nymphaeaceae inferred from ITS sequences. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 43: 22-30. [In Chinese.]

Liu, Y.-S., & Basinger, J. F. 2000. Fossil Cathaya (Pinaceae) pollen from the Canadian High Arctic. Internat J. Plant Sci. 161: 829-847.

Liu, Y.-Y. [et al. 2014], Cao, J.-L., Kan, S. L., Wang, P.-H., Wang, J.-L., Cao, Y.-N., Wang, H.-W., Li, J.-M. 2014. Phylogenomic analyses sheds new light on the phylogeny and diversification of Corydalis DC. in Himalaya–Hengduan Mountains and adjacent regions. Molec. Phylo. Evol. 193:108023.

Liu, Z. [Zhendong] [et al. 2020], Yi Liu, Y., Xue, B., Chen, W., Xu, W., & Jiang, R.-W. 2020. The co-occurrence of bufadienolides and podophyllotoxins from Helleborus thibetanus. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 90:104042.

Liu, Z. [Zhong] [et al. 2006], Hao, G., Luo, Y.-B., Thien, L. B., Rosso, S. W., Lu, A.-M., & Chen, Z.-D. 2006. Phylogeny and androecial evolution in Schisandraceae, inferred from sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and chloroplast DNA trnL-F regions. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 167: 539-550.

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Liu, Z.-J., & Wang, X. 2015. A perfect flower from the Jurassic of China. Historical Biol. 30: 707-719. doi: 10.1080/08912963.2015.1020423

Liu, Z.-J. [et al. 2018a/2021], Chen, L.-J., & Wang, X. 2018a. A whole-plant monocot from the Early Cretaceous. bioRχiv doi: = Liu, Z.-J. [et al. 2021], Chen, L.-J., & Wang, X. 2021. A whole-plant monocot from the Lower Cretaceous. Palaeoworld 30: 169-175. [N.B. - appreciable differences between the two versions.]

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