GENERAL LITERATURE

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y |Z

Back to Home


Articles or books by two or more authors are cited as follows. When there are two authors, citation is alphabetical after the second author's name. When there are three or more authors, references are cited in the body of the text as (e.g.) Chase et al. 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, and are listed following these sometimes alphabetically qualified dates of publication immediately after all the single- or two-authored articles by the first author.

Iason, G. R. [et al. 2011], O'Reilly-Wapstra, J. M., Brewer, M. J., Summers, R. W., & Moore, B. D. 2011. Do multiple herbivores maintain chemical diversity of Scots pine monoterpenes? Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 366: 1337-1345.

Ibanez, S. [et al. 2010], Dötterl, S., Anstett, M.-C., Baudino, S., Caissard, J.-C., Gallet, C., & Després, L. 2010. The role of volatile organic compounds, morphology and pigments of globeflowers in the attraction of their specific pollinating flies. New Phytol. 188: 451-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03317.x.

Ibarra-Laclette, E. [et al. 2011], Albert, V. A., Perez-Torres, C. A., Zamudio-Hernandez, F., Ortega-Estrada, M. D., Herrera-Estrella, A., & Herrera-Estrella, L. 2011. Transcriptomics and molecular evolutionary rate analysis of the Bladderwort (Utricularia), a Carnivorous Plant with a Minimal Genome. BMC Plant Biol. 11(1):101.

Ibarra-Laclette, E. [et al. 2013], Lyons, E., Hernández-Guzmán, G., Pérez-Torres, C. A., Carretero-Paulet, L., Chang, T.-H., Lan, T., Welch, A. J., Juárez, M. J., Simpson, J., Fernández-Cortés, A., Arteaga-Vázquez, M., Góngora-Castillo, E., Acevedo-Hernández, G., Schuster, S. C., Himmelbauer, H., Minoche, A. E., Xu, S., Lynch, M., Oropeza-Aburto, A., Cervantes-Pérez, S. A., de Jesús Ortega-Estrada, M., Cervantes-Luevano, J. I., Michael, T. P., Mockler, T., Bryant, D., Herrera-Estrella, A., Albert, V. A., & Herrera-Estrella, L. 2013. Architecture and evolution of a minute plant genome. Nature 498: 94-98.

Ibisch, P. L. [et al. 1996], Neinhuis, C., & Rojas N., P. 1996. On the biology, biogeography, and taxonomy of Arachnitis Phil. nom. cons. (Corsiaceae) in respect to a new record from Bolivia. Willdenowia 26: 321-332.

Ibrahim, D. G. [et al. 2009], Burke, T., Ripley, B. S., & Osborne, C. P. 2009. A molecular phylogeny of the genus Allopteropsis (Panicoideae, Poaceae), suggests an evolutionary reversion from C4 to C3 photosynthesis. Ann. Bot. 103: 127-136.

Ichihashi, Y. [et al. 2011], Kawade, K., Usami, T., Horiguchi, G., Takahashi, T., & Tsukaya, H. 2011. Key proliferative activity in the junction between the leaf blade and petiole of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 157: 1151-1162.

Ickert-Bond, S. M., & Rydin, C. 2011. Micromorphology of the seed envelope of Ephedra L. (Gnetales) and its relevance for the timing of evolutionary events. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 172: 36-48.

Ickert-Bond, S. M., & Wen, J. 2006. Phylogeny and biogeography of Altingiaceae: Evidence from combined analysis of five non-coding chloroplast regions. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 39: 512-528.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2005], Pigg, K. B., & Wen, J. 2005. Comparative infructescence morphology in Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) and its evolutionary significance. American J. Bot. 92: 1234-1255.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2007], Pigg, K. B., & Wen, J. 2007. Comparative infructescence morphology in Altingia (Altingiaceae) and discordance between morphological and molecular phylogenies. American J. Bot. 94: 1094-1115.

Ickert-Bond, S. M. [et al. 2009], Rydin, C., & Renner, S. S. 2009. A fossil-calibrated relaxed clock for Ephedra indicates an Oligocene age for the divergence of Asian and New World clades and Miocene dispersal into South America. J. Syst. Evol. 47: 444-456.

Igersheim, A. 1993. Floral development and secondary pollen presentation in Petromarula Vent. ex Hedwig f. (Campanulaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 115: 301-313.

Igersheim, A., & Endress, P. K. 1997. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of the Magnoliales and Winteroids. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 124: 213-271.

Igersheim, A., & Endress, P. K. 1998. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of the paleoherbs. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 127: 289-370.

Igersheim, A. [et al. 1994], Puff, C., Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1994. Gynoecial development of Gaertnera Lam. and presumably allied taxa of Psychotrieae (Rubiaceae): Secondarily "superior" vs. inferior ovaries. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 116: 401-414.

Igersheim, A. [et al. 2001], Buzgo, M., & Endress, P. K. 2001. Gynoecium diversity and systematics in basal monocots. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 136: 1-65.

Igic, B., & Kohn, J. R. 2001. Evolutionary relationships among self-incompatibility RNases. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98: 13167-13171.

Igic, B., & Kohn, J. R. 2006. The distribution of plant mating systems: Study bias against obligately outcrossing species. Evolution 60: 1098-1103.

Igic, B. [et al. 2006], Bohs, L., & Kohn, J. R. 2006. Ancient polymorphism reveals unidirectional breeding system shifts. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103: 1359-1363.

Iglesias A. [et al. 2007], Wilf, P, Johnson, K. R., Zamuner, A. B., Cúneo, N. R., Matheos, S. D., & Singer, B. S. 2007. A Paleocene lowland macroflora from Patagonia reveals significantly greater richness than North American analogs. Geology 35: 947-950.

Iglesias, A. [et al. 2011], Artabe, A. E., & Morel, E. M. 2011. The evolution of Patagonian climate and vegetation from the Mesozoic to the present. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 103: 409-422.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1967. Über die Abgrenzung und die natürliche Gliederung der Pedaliaceae R. Br. Mitt. Staatsinst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 12: 43-128.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1983. Dispersal of Mesembryanthemaceae in arid habitats. Sonderb. Naturwiss. Vereins Hamburg 7: 381-390. [in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), Dispersal and Distribution: An International Symposium. Paul Parey, Hamburg.]

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1994a. Diversification in an arid world: The Mesembryanthemaceae. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 25: 521-546.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 1994b. Phytogeography of Pedaliaceae R. Br. Pp. 1063-1075, in Seyani, J. H., & Chikuni, A. C. (eds), Proceedings of the 13th Plenary Meeting of AETFAT, Zomba, Malawi, vol. 2. National Herbarium and Botanic Gardens of Malawi, Zomba.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 2004. Martyniaceae, pp. 50-56, Pedaliaceae, 307-322, & Trapellaceae, 445-448, in Kadereit, J. (ed)., The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. VII. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Lamiales (except Acanthaceae including Avicenniaceae). Springer, Berlin.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D. 2010. Pedaliaceae - evolution and phylogeny of the succulent genera. Schumannia 6: 151-182. [Biodivers. Ecol. 3.]

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D., & Grabow-Seidensticker, U. 1979. The genus Sesamum and the origin of cultivated sesame. Pp. 53-60, in Kunkel, K. (ed.), Taxonomic Aspects of African Economic Botany. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

Ihlenfeldt, H.-D., & Hartmann, H. E. K. 1982. Leaf surfaces in Mesembryanthemaceae. Pp. 397-423, in Cutler, D. F., Alvin, K. L., & Price, C. E. (eds), The Plant Cuticle. Academic Press, London.

Ikeura, H. [et al. 2010], Kobayashi, F., & Hayata, Y. 2010. How do Pieris rapae search for Brassicaceae host plants? Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 38: 1199-1203.

Iles, W. [et al. 2009], Smith, S. Y., & Graham, S. W. 2009. Robust resolution of the backbone of Alismatales phylogeny. P. 156, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Iles, W. [et al. 2013], Smith, S. Y., & Graham, S. W. 2013. A well-supported phylogenetic framework for the monocot order Alismatales reveals multiples losses of the plastid NADH dehydrogenase comples and a strong long-branch effect. Pp. 1-28, in Wilkin, P., & Mayo, S. J. (eds), Early Events in Monocot Evolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [Systematics Association Special Volume 83.]

Iles, W. J. [et al. 2014], Lee, C., Sokoloff, D. D., Remizowa, M. V., Yadav, S. R., Barrett, R. L., Macfarlane, T. D., Rudall, P. J., & Graham, S. W. 2014. Reconstructing the age and historical biogeography of the ancient flowering-plant family Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales). BMC Evol. Biol. 14: 102. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-102

Illing, N. [et al. 2009], Klak, C., Johnson, C., Negrao, N., Baine, F., van Kets, V., Ramchurn, K. R., Seoighe, C., & Roden, L. 2009. Duplication of the Asymmetric Leaves 1/Rough Sheath 2/Phantastica (ARP) gene precedes the explosive radiation of the Ruschioideae. Evol. Genes Devel. 219: 331-338.

Iltis, H. H. 1999. Setchellanthaceae (Capparales), a new family for a relictual, glucosinolate-producing endemic of the Mexican deserts. Taxon 48: 257-275.

Iltis, H. H. [et al. 2011], Hall, J. C., Cochrane, T. S., & Systma, K. J. 2011. Studies in the Cleomaceae I. On the separate recognition of Capparaceae, Cleomaceae, and Brassicaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 98: 28-36.

Imada, Y. [et al. 2011], Kawakita, A., & Kato, M. 2011. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae). Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 278: 3026-3033.

Imaichi, R. 2008. Meristem organization and organ identity. Pp. 75-103, in Ranker, T. A., & Haufler, C. H. (eds), Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Imaichi, R., & Hiratsuka, R. 2007. Evolution of shoot apical meristem structures in vascular plants with respect to plasmodial network. American J. Bot. 94: 1911-1921.

Imaichi, R. [et al. 2001], Inokuchi, S., & Kato, M. 2001. Developmental morphology of one-leaf plant Monophyllaea singularis (Gesneriaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 229: 171-185.

Imaichi, R. [et al. 2007], Omura-Shimadate, M., Ayano, M., & Kato, M. 2007. Developmental morphology of the caulescent species Streptocarpus pallidiflorus (Gesneriaceae), with implications for evolution of monophylly. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 168: 251-260.

Imhof, S. 1998. Subterranean structures and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllous Triuris hyalina (Triuridaceae). Canadian J. Bot. 76: 2011-2019.

Imhof, S. 1999. Root morphology, anatomy and mycotrophy of the achlorophyllopus Voyria aphylla (Jacq.) Pers. (Gentianaceae). Mycorrhiza 9: 33-39.

Imhof, S. 2007. Specialized mycorrhizal colonization pattern in achlorophyllous Epirixanthes spp. (Polygalaceae). Plant Biol. 9: 786-792.

Imhof, S. 2010. Are monocots particularly suited to develop mycoheterotrophy? Pp. 11-23, in Seberg, O., Petersen, G., Barfod, A. S., & Davis, J. I. (eds), Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons. Aarhus University Press, Århus.

Imhof, S., & Sainge, M. N. 2008. Ontogeny of the mycoheterotrophic species Afrothisma hydra (Burmanniaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 157: 31-36.

Inamdar, J. A. [et al. 1983], Shenoy, K. N., & Rao, N. V. 1983. Leaf architecture of some monocotyledons with reticulate venation. Ann. Bot. 52: 725-735.

Inda, L. A. [et al. 2008a], Segarra-Moragues, J. G., Müller, J., Peterson, P. M., & Catalán, P. 2008a. Dated historical biogeography of the temperate Loliinae (Poaceae, Pooideae) grasses in the northern and southern hemispheres. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 46: 932-957.

Inda, L. A. [et al. 2008b], Torrecilla, P., Catalán, P., & Ruiz-Zapata, T. 2008b. Phylogeny of Cleome L. and its close relatives Podandrogyne Ducke and Polanisia Raf. (Cleomoideae, Cleomaceae) based on analysis of nuclear ITS sequences and morphology. Plant Syst. Evol.274: 111-126.

Inda, L. A. [et al. 2010], Pimental, M., & Chase, M. W. 2010. Contribution of mitochondrial cox1 intron sequences ro the phylogenetics of the tribe Orchideae (Orchidaceae): Do the distribution and sequence of this intron in orchids also tell us something about its evolution? Taxon 59: 1053-1064.

Inda, L. A. [et al. 2012], Pimental, M., & Chase, M. W. 2012. Phylogenetics of tribe Orchideae (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae) based on combined DNA matrices: Inferences regarding timing of diversificatiion and evolution of pollination syndromes. Ann. Bot. 110: 71-90.

Indriolo, E. [et al. 2010], Na, G.N., Ellis, D., Salt, D. E., & Banks, J. A. 2010. A vacuolar arsenite transporter necessary for arsenic tolerance in the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata is missing in flowering plants. Plant Cell

Ingram, A. L. 2010. Evolution of leaf blade anatomy in Eragrostis (Poaceae). Syst. Bot. 35: 755-765.

Ingram, A. L. [et al. 2011], Christin, P.-A., & Osborne, C. P. 2011. Molecular phylogenies disprove a hypothesized C4 reversion in Eragrostis walteri (Poaceae). Ann. Bot. 107: 321-325.

Ingrouille, M. J., & Chase, M. W. 2004. Becoming fruitful and diversifying: DNA sequence phylogenetics and reproductive physiology of land plants. Pp. 327-342, in Hemsley, A. R., & Poole, I. (eds), The Evolution of Plant Physiology. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Ingrouille, M. J. [et al. 2002], Chase, M. W., Fay, M. F., Bowman, D., van der Bank, M., & Bruijn, A. D. E. 2002. Systematics of Vitaceae from the viewpoint of plastid rbcL sequence data. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 138: 421-432.

Inoue, M. [et al. 2009], Ohtani, K., Kasai, R., Okukubo, M., Andriansiferana, M., Yamasaki, K., & Koike, T. 2009. Cytotoxic 16-ß-[(D-xylopyranosyl)oxy]oxohexadecanyl triterpene glycosides from a Malagasy plant, Physena sessiliflora. Phytochem. 70: 1195-1202.

Inoue, N., & Tobe, H. 1999. Integumentary studies in Menyanthaceae (Campanulales sensu lato). ActaPhytotax. Geobot. 50: 75-79.

Inouye, H., & Uesato, S. 1986. Biosynthesis of iridoids and secoiridoids. Prog. Chem. Org. Natural Products 50: 169-236.

Inselsbacher, E., & Näsholm, T. 2012. The below-ground perspective of forest plants: Soil provides mainly organic nitrogen for plants and mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol. 195: 329-34. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04169.x

InsideWood: An Internet Accessible Wood Anatomy Database. 2004 onwards. http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/insidewood/.

International Brachypodium Initiative. 2010. Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon. Nature 463: 763-768.

Intrieri, M. C., & Buiatti, M. 2001. The horizontal transmission of Agrobacterium rhizogenes genes and the evolution of the genus Nicotiana. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 20: 100-110.

Invers, O. [et al. 1999], Pérez, M., & Romero, J. 1999. Bicarbonate utilization in seagrass photosynthesis: Role of carbonic anhydrase in Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile and Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Ascherson. J. Experim. Marine Biol. Ecol. 235: 125–133.

Ionta, G. M., & Judd, W. S. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships in Periplocoideae (Apocynaceae s.l.) and insights into the evolution of pollinia. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94: 360-375.

Iqbal, M. (ed.). 1995a. The Cambial Derivatives. [Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie, Spez. Teil, IX, 4.] Borntraeger, Berlin.

Iqbal, M. 1995b. Ultrastructural differentiation of sieve elements. Pp. 241-270, in Iqbal, M. (ed.), The Cambial Derivatives. [Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie, Spez. Teil, IX, 4.] Borntraeger, Berlin.

Iqbal, M., & Zahur, M. S. 1995. Secondary phloem: Origin, structure and specialization. Pp. 187-240, in Iqbal, M. (ed.), The Cambial Derivatives. [Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie, Spez. Teil, IX, 4.] Borntraeger, Berlin.

Iqbal, M. C. M. , & Wijesekara, K. B. 2002. Cells of the connective tissue differentiate and migrate into pollen sacs. Naturwiss. 89: 39-42.

Ireland, H. [et al. 2000], Pennington, R. T., & Preston, J. 2000. Molecular systematics of the Swartzieae. Pp. 217-232, in Herendeen, P. S., & Bruneau, A. (eds), Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 9. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Irish, V. F. 2003. The evolution of floral homeotic genes. BioEssays 25: 637-646.

Irish, V. F. 2006. Duplication, diversification, and comparative genetics of angiosperm MADS-box genes. Adv. Bot. Res. 44: 129-161.

Irish, V. F. 2009. Evolution of petal identity. J. Experim. Bot. 60: 2517-2527.

Irving, L. J., & Cameron, D. D. 2009. You are what you eat: Interactions betwen root parasitic plantrs and their hosts. Adv. Bot. Res. 50: 87-138.

Isbell, F. [et al. 2011], Calcagno, V., Hector, A., Connolly, J., Harpole, W. S., Reich, P. B., Scherer-Lorenzen, M., Schmid, B., Tilman, D., van Ruijven, J., Weigelt, A., Wilsey, B. J., Zavaleta, E. S., & Loreau, M. 2011. High plant diversity is needed to maintain ecosystem services. Nature 477: 199-202.

Ishimatsu, M. [et al. 1989], Tanaka, T., Nonaka, G., Nishioka, I., Nishizawa, M., & Yamagishi, T. 1989. Tannins and related compounds. LXXIX. Isolation and characterisation of novel dimeric and trimeric hydrolyzable tannins, nuphrins C, D, E and F, from Nuphar japonicum DC. Chem. Pharmac. Bull. 37: 1735-1743.

Islam, A. S. 1950. A contribution to the life history of Ottelia alismoides Pers. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 29: 79-91.

Islam, M. B., & Simmons, M. P. 2006. A thorny dilemma: Testing alternative intrageneric classifications within Zizyphus (Rhamnaceae). Syst. Bot. 31: 826-842.

Islam, M. B. [et al. 2006], Simmons, M. P., & Archer, R. H. 2006. Phylogeny of the Elaeodendron group (Celastraceae) inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid genes. Syst. Bot. 31: 512-524.

Isnard, S., & Rowe, N. P. 2008. The climbing habit in palms: Biomechanics of the cirrus and flagellum. American J. Bot. 95: 1538-1547.

Isnard, S. [et al. 2012], Prosperi, J., Wanke, S., Wagner, S. T., Samain, M.-S., Trueba, S., Frenzke, L., Neinhuis, C., & Rowell, N. P. 2012. Growth form evolution in Piperales and its relevance for understanding angiosperm diversification: An integrative approach combining plant architecture, anatomy, and biomechanics. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 173: 610-639.

Itino, T. [et al. 2001a], Itioka, T., Hatada, A., & Hamid, A. A. 2001a. Effect of food rewards offered by ant-plant Macaranga on the colony size of ants. Ecol. Res. 16: 775-786.

Itino, T. [et al. 2001b], Davies, S. J., Tada, H., Hieda, Y., Inoguchi, M., Itioka, T., Yamane, S., & Inoue, T. 2001b. Cospeciation of ants and plants. Ecol. Res. 16: 787-793.

Ito, A., & Oikawa, T. 2004. Global mapping of terrestrial primary productivity and light-use efficiency with a process-based model. Pp. 343-358, in Shiyomi, M., Kawahata, H., Koizumi, H., Tsuda, A., & Awaya,, Y. (eds), Global Environmnetal Change on Ocean and on Land. TERRAPUB.

Ito, Y. [et al. 2010], Ohi-Toma, T., Murata, J., & Tanaka, N. 2010. Hybridization and polyploidy of an aquatic plant, Ruppia (Ruppiaceae), inferred from plastid and nuclear DNA phylogenies. American J. Bot. 97: 1156-1167.

Itoo, Z. A., & Reshi, Z. A. 2013. The multifunctional role of ectomycorrhizal associations in forest ecosystem processes. Bot. Review 79: 371-400.

Itzstein-Davey, F. 2004. A spatial and temporal Eocene palaeoenvironmental study, focusing on the Proteaceae family, from Kambalda, Western Australia. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 131: 159-180.

Iwamoto, A. [et al. 2003], Shimizu, A., & Ohba, H. 2003. Floral development and phyllotactic variation in Ceratophyllum demersum (Ceratophyllaceae). American J. Bot. 90: 1124-1130.

Iwashina, T. [et al. 1997], Kamenosono, K., & Hatta, H. 1997. Flavonoid glycosides from leaves of Aucuba japonica and Helwingia japonica (Cornaceae): Phytochemical relationship with the genus Cornus. J. Japanese Bot. 72: 337-346.

Iyengar, C. V. K. = Krisna Iyengar, C. V.

Jabaily, R. S. [et al. 2010], Gustafsson, M. H. G., & Motley, T. J. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Goodeniaceae - implications for taxonomy, morphology, and biogeography. P. 100, in Botany 2010. July 31 - August 4, Providence, Rhode Island. Scientific Abstracts.

Jabaily, R. S. [et al. 2012], Shepherd, K. A., Gustafsson, M. H. G., Sage, L. W., Krauss, S. L., Howarth, D. G., & Motley, T. J. 2012. Systematics of the Austral-Pacific family Goodeniaceae: Establishing a taxonomic and evolutionary framework. Taxon 61: 419-436.

Jabaily, R. S. [et al. 2014], Shepherd, K. A., Gardner, A. G., Gustafsson, M. H. G., Howarth, D. G., & Motley, T. J. 2014. Hitorical biogeography of the predominantly Australian plant family Goodeniaceae. J. Biogeog. doi: 10.1111/jbi.12363

Jabbour, F., & Renner, S. S. 2011. Consolida and Aconitella are an annual clade of Delphinium (Ranunculaceae) that diversified in the Mediterranean basin and the Irano-Turanian region. Taxon 60: 1029-1040.

Jabbour, F., & Renner, S. S. 2012a. A phylogeny of Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae) shows that Aconitum is nested within Delphinium and that Late Miocene transitions to long life cycles in the Himalayas and southwest China coincide with bursts in diversification. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 62: 928-942.

Jabbour, F., & Renner, S. S. 2012b. Spurs in a spur: Perianth evolution in the Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae). Internat. J. Plant Sci. 173: 1036-1054.

Jabbour, F. [et al. 2008], Damerval, C., & Nadot, S. 2008. Evolutionary trends in the flowers of Asteridae: Is polyandry an alternative to zygomorphy? Ann. Bot. 102: 153-165.

Jabbour, F. [et al. 2009], Ronse de Craene, L. P., Nadot, S., & Damerval, C. 2009. Establishment of zygomorphy on an ontogenetic spiral and evolution of perianth in the tribe Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae). Ann. Bot. 104: 809-822.

Jabbour, F. [et al. 2011], Rojas, A., & Renner, S. 2011. A phylogeny of Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae) reveals that Aconitum is embedded in Delphinium: Implications for flower evolution. P. 169, in Botany 2011. Healing the Planet, Abstracts. St Louis.

Jackson, A. P. 2004a. Cophylogeny of the Ficus microcosm. Biol. Rev. 79: 751-768.

Jackson, A. P. 2004b. A reconciliation analysis of host switching in plant-fungal symbioses. Evolution 58: 1909-1923.

Jackson, A. P. [et al. 2008], Machado, C. A., Robbins, N., & Herre, E. A. 2008. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis of neotropical figs does not support co-speciation with the pollinators: The importance of systematic scale in fig/wasp cophylogenetic studies. Symbiosis 45: 57-72.

Jacobs, B. [et al. 2008], Donoghue, M. J., Bouman, F., Huysmans, S., & Smets, E. 2008. Evolution and phylogenetic importance of endocarp and seed characters in Viburnum (Adoxaceae). Internat. J. Plant Sci. 169: 409-431.

Jacobs, B. [et al. 2010a], Bell, C., & Smets, E. 2010a. Fruits and seeds of the Valeriana clade (Dipsacales): Diversity and evolution. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 171: 421-434.

Jacobs, B. [et al. 2010b], Huysmans, S., & Smets, E. 2010b. Evolution and systematic value of fruit and seed characters in Adoxaceae (Dipsacales). Taxon 59: 850-866.

Jacobs, B. [et al. 2010c], Pyck, N., & Smets, E. 2010c. Phylogeny of the Linnaea clade: Are Abelia and Zabelia closely related? Mol. Phyl. Evol. 57: 741-752.

Jacobs, B. [et al. 2011], Geuten, K., Pyck, N., Huysmans, S., Jansen, S., & Smets, E. 2011. Unraveling the phylogeny of Heptacodium and Zabelia (Caprifoliaceae): An interdisciplinary approach. Syst. Bot. 36: 231-252.

Jacobs, B. F. 2004. Palaeobotanical studies from tropical Africa: Relevance to the evolution of forest, woodland and savannah. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B, 359: 1573-1583.

Jacobs, B. F. [et al. 1989], Kingston, J. D., & Jacobs, B. L. 1999. The origin of grass-dominated ecosystems. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 86: 590-643.

Jacobs, H. 2003. Comparative phytochemistry of Picramnia and Alvaradoa, genera of the newly established family Picramniaceae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 31: 773-783.

Jacobs, M. 1960. Capparidaceae. Pp. 61-105, in Steenis, C. G. G. J. (ed.), Flora malesiana, ser. 1, vol. 6. Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen.

Jacobs, S. W. L. 2001. Review of leaf anatomy and ultrastructure in the Chenopodiaceae (Caryophyllales). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128: 236-253.

Jacobs, S. W. L. [et al. 2008], Bayer, R., Everett, J., Arriaga, M. O., Barkworth, M. E., Sabin-Badereau, A., Torres, M. A., Vásquez, F. M., & Bagnall, N. 2008. Systematics of the tribe Stipeae using molecular data. Pp. 49-361, in Columbus, J. T., Friar, E. A., Porter, J. M., Prince, L. M., & Simpson, M. G. (eds), Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution. Poales. [Aliso 23: 349-361.]

Jacobsen, A. L. [et al. 2012], Pratt, R. B., Tobin, M. F., Hacke, U. G., & Ewers, F. W. 2012. A global analysis of xylem vessel length in woody plants. American J. Bot. 99: 1583-1591.

Jacobson, K. M. [et al. 1993], Jacobson, P. J., & Miller, O. K. Jr. 1993. The mycorrhizal status of Welwitschia mirabilis. Mycorrhiza 3: 13-17.

Jacquemin, H. [et al. 2013], Brys, R., Merckx, V. S. F. T., Waud, M., Lievens, B., & Wiegand, T. 2013. Coexisting orchid species have distinct mycorrhizal communities and display strong spatial segregation. New Phytol.

Jacques, F. M. B. 2006. Histoire Evolutive des Menispermaceae. These, Botanique Systématique, Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Jacques, F. M. B. 2009a. Fossil history of the Menispermaceae (Ranunculales). Ann. Paléont. 95: 53-69.

Jacques, F. M. B. 2009b. Survey of the Menispermaceae endocarps. Adansonia Sér 3, 31: 47-87.

Jacques, F. M. B., & Bertolino, P. 2008. Molecular and morphological phylogeny of Menispermaceae (Ranunculales). Plant Syst. Evol. 274: 83-97.

Jacques, F. M. B., & de Franceschi, D. 2005. Endocarps of Menispermaceae from Le Quesnoy outcrop (Sparnacian facies, Lower Eocene, Paris Basin). Rev. Paleobot. Palynol. 135: 61-70.

Jacques, F. M. B., & de Franceschi, D. 2007. Menispermaceae wood initials and cambial variants. IAWA J. 28: 139-172.

Jacques, F. M. B., & Zhou, Z. 2010. Geometric morphometrics: A powerful tool for the study of shape evolution in Menispermaceae endocarps. Taxon 59: 881-895.

Jacques, F. M. B. [et al. 2007], Gallut, C., Vignes-Lebbe, R., & Zaragüeta i Bagils, R. 2007. Resolving phylogenetic reconstruction in Menispermaceae (Ranunculales) using fossils and a novel statistical test. Taxon 56: 379-392.

Jacques, F. M. B. [et al. 2011], Wang, W., Ortiz, R. del C., Li, H.-L., Zhou, Z.-K., & Chen, Z. D. 2011. Integrating fossils in a molecular-based phylogeny and testing them as calibration points for divergence time estimates in Menispermaceae. J. Syst. Evol. 49: 25-49.

Jadin, F. 1901. Contribution à l'étude des Simarubacées. Ann. Sci. Naturelles, Bot. Sér. 8, 13: 201-304.

Jaén-Molina, R. [et al. 2009], Caujapé-Castells, J., Reyes-Betancort, J. A., Akhani, H., Fernández-Palacios, O., de Paz, J. P., Febles-Hernández, R., & Marrero-Rodríguez, Á. 2009. The molecular phylogeny of Matthiola R. Br. (Brassicaceae) inferred from ITS sequences, with special emphasis on the Macaronesian endemics. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 53: 972-981.

Jäger, E. J. 1970. Charakterische Typen mediterran-mitteleuropäischer Pflanzenareale. Feddes Rep. 81: 67-92.

Jäger, E. J. 1992. Die Verbreitung von Frankenia in der Mongolei, in Westeurasien und in Welmaßstab. Flora 186: 177-186.

Jäger, E. J. [et al. 1985], Hanelt, P., & Davazmac, C. 1985. Zur Flora der Dsungarischen Gobi (Mongolische Volksrepublik). Flora 177: 45-89.

Jäger, I. 1961. Vergleichend-morphologische Untersuchungen des Gefäß-büundelsystems peltater Nektar- und Kronblätter sowie Staubblätter. Österreichische Bot. Zeitschr. 108: 433-504.

Jäger-Zürn, I. 1965. Zur Frage zur systematische Stellung der Hydrostachyaceae auf Grund ihrer Embryologie, Blüten und Inflorescenzenmorphologie. Österreichische Bot. Zeitschr. 112: 621-639.

Jäger-Zürn, I. 1966. Inflorescenzmorpholgische und blütenmorphologische, sowie embryologische, Untersuchungen an Myrothamnus Wellw. Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 42: 241-272.

Jäger-Zürn, I. 1997. Embryological and floral studies in Weddellina squamulosa Tul. (Podostemaceae, Tristichoideae). Aquatic Bot. 57: 151-182.

Jäger-Zürn, I. 1998. II. Anatomy of the Hydrostachyaceae. Pp. 129-196, in Landolt, E., Jäger-Zürn, I., & Schnell, R. A. A., Extreme Adaptations in Angiospermous Hydrophytes. Borntraeger, Berlin. [Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie, vol 13 (4).]

Jäger-Zürn, I. 2003. The occurence of apical septum in the ovary of Rhyncholacis, Apinagia, Marathrum, and Mourera (Podostemoideae - Podostemaceae): Taxonomic implications. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 124: 303-324.

Jäger-Zürn, I. 2005a. Morphology and morphogenesis of ensiform leaves, syndesmy of shoots and an understanding of the thalloid plant body in species of Apinagia, Mourera and Marathrum (Podostemaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 147: 47-71.

Jäger-Zürn, I. 2005b. Shoot apex and spathella: Two problematical structures in Podostemaceae-Podostemoideae. Plant Syst. Evol. 253: 209-218.

Jäger-Zürn, I. 2007. The shoot apex of Podostemaceae: De novo structure or reduction of the conventional type? Flora 202: 383-394.

Jäger-Zürn, I. 2008. Morphological analysis of shoots and roots in Thelethylax minutiflora and T. insolita (Podostemaceae-Podostemoideae): Taxonomic and evolutionary implications. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 127: 245-272.

Jäger-Zürn, I. 2009a. The ramification of Apinagia riedelii: A key to the understanding of the plant architecture of Podostemaceae, subfamily Podostemoideae. Flora 204: 358-370.

Jäger-Zürn, I. 2009b. What is the dithecous leaf? An investigation of the neotropical Podostemon rutifolium subsp. riciiforme (Podostemaceae - Podostemoideae). Edinburgh J. Bot. 66: 469-481.

Jäger-Zürn, I. 2011. Neglected features of probable taxonomic value in Podostemaceae: The case of Polypleurum. Flora 206: 38-46.

Jäger-Zürn, I., & Grubert, M. 2000. Podostemaceae depend on sticky biofilms with respect to attachment to rocks in waterfalls. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 161: 599-607.

Jäger-Zürn, I. [et al. 2006], Novelo R., A., & Philbrick, C. T. 2006. Microspore development in Podostemaceae-Podostemoideae, with implications on the characterization of the subfamilies. Plant Syst. Evol. 256: 209-216.

Jahn, G. 1991. Temperate deciduous forests of Europe. Pp. 377-532, in Röhrig, E., & Ulrich, B. (eds), Ecosystems of the World, 7. Temperate Deciduous Forests. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Jahnke, C. 1986. Der Infloreszenzbau der Cornaceen sensu lato und seine systematischen Konsequenzen. Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenw. 57: 3-146.

Jahren, A. H. 2007. The Arctic forest of the Middle Eocene. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 35: 509-540.

Jaillon, O., Aury J. M. [et al. 2007], Noel, B., Policriti, A., Clepet, C., Casagrande, A., Choisne, N., Aubourg, S., Vitulo, N., Jubin, C., Vezzi, A., Legeai, F., Hugueney, P., Dasilva, C., Horner, D., Mica, E., Jublot, R., Poulain, J., Bruyère, C., Billault, A., Segurens, B., Gouyvenoux, M., Ugarte, E., Cattonaro, F., Anthouard, V., Vico, V., del Fabbro, C., Alaux, M., di Gaspero, G., Dumas, V., Felice, N., Paillard, S., Juman, I., Moroldo, M., Scalabrin, S., Canaguier, A., Le Clainche, I., Malacrida, G., Durand, E., Pesole, G., Laucou, V., Chatelet, P., Merdinoglu, D., Delledonne, M., Pezzotti, M., Lecharny, A., Scarpelli, C., Artiguenave, F., Pè, M. E., Valle, G., Morgante, M., Caboche, M., Adam-Blondon, A.-F., Weissenbach, J., Quétier, F., & Wincker, P. 2007. The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla. Nature 449: 463-467. [See also French-Italian Public Consortium for Grapevine Genome Characterization 2007.]

Jakimow-Barras, N. 1973. Les polysaccharides des graines de quelques Liliacées et Iridacées. Phytochem. 12: 1331-1339.

Jakob, S. S., & Blattner, F. R. 2006. The chloroplast genealogy of Hordeum (Poaceae): Long-term persisting haplotypes, incomplete lineage sorting, regional extinction, and the consequences for phylogenetic inference. Mol. Biol. Evol. 23: 1602-1612.

Jakob, S. S. [et al. 2004], Meister, A., & Blattner, F. R. 2004. The considerable genome size variation of Hordeum species (Poaceae) is linked to phylogeny, life form, ecology, and speciation rates. Mol. Biol. Evol. 21: 860-869.

Jalas, J., & Suominen, J. 1976. Atlas flora europaeae. 3. Salicaceae to Balanophoraceae. Helsinki University, Helsinki.

Jalas, J., & Suominen, J. 1991. Atlas flora europaeae. 9. Paeoniaceae to Capparaceae. Helsinki University, Helsinki.

Jalas, J. [et al. 1999], Suominen, J. Lampinen, R., & Kurtto, A. 1999. Atlas flora europaeae. 12. Resedaceae to Platanaceae. Helsinki University, Helsinki.

James, A. [et al. 2012], Pitchford, J. W., & Plank, M. J. 2012. Disentangling nestedness from models of ecological complexity. Nature 487: 227-229.

James, L. E., & Kyhos, D. W. 1961. The nature of the fleshy shoot of Allenrolfea and allied genera. American J. Bot. 48: 101-108.

Janchen, E. 1949. Die systematische Gliederung der Ranunculaceen und Berberidaceen. Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwissen. Kl. 108: 1-82.

Janes, J. K., & Duretto, M. F. 2010. A new classification for subtribe Pterosylidinae (Orchidaceae) reaffirming Pterostylis in the broad sense. Australian Syst. Bot. 23: 260-269.

Janes, J. K. [et al. 2010], Steane, D. A., Vaillancourt, R. E., & Duretto, M. F. 2010. A molecular phylogeny of the subtribe Pterosylidinae (Orchidaceae): Resolving the taxonomic confusion. Australian Syst. Bot. 23: 248-259.

Jang, C. G., & Pfosser, M. 2002. Phylogenetics of Ruscaceae sensu lato based on plastid rbcL and trnL-F DNA sequences. Stapfia 80: 333-348.

Janka, H. 2003. Floral structure of Malvaceae-Malvoideae. Palm. Hortus Francofurtensis 7: 135.

Janka, H. [et al. 2008], von Balthazar, M. von, Alverson, W. S., Baum, D. A., Semir, J., & Bayer, C. 2008. Structure, development and evolution of the androecium in Adansonieae (core Bombacoideae, Malvaceae s.l.). Plant Syst. Evol. 275: 69-91.

Janos, D. P. 1993. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae of epiphytes. Mycorrhiza 4: 1-4.

Jansen, R. K. 2011. Geraniaceae, a natural model system for examining plastid genome evolution. P. 103, in XVIII International Botanical Congress 2011, Melbourne. [Abstracts.]

Jansen, R. K., & Ruhlman, T. A. 2012. Plastid genomes of seed plants. Pp. 103-125, in Bock, R., & Knoop, V. (eds.), Genomics of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria. Springer, Berlin. [Adv. Photosyn. Respir. 35: 103-125.]

Jansen, R. K., & Palmer, J. D. 1987. A chloroplast DNA inversion marks an ancient evolutionary split in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84: 5818-5822.

Jansen, R. K. [et al. 1991], McMichaels, H. J., & Palmer, J. D. 1991. Phylogeny and character evolution in the Asteraceae based on chloroplast DNA restriction site mapping. Syst. Bot. 16: 98-115.

Jansen, R. K. [et al. 2004], dePamphilis, C. W., Raubeson, L., Leebens-Mack, J., McNeal, J. R., Cui, L., Zhang, Y., Wyman, S., Boore, J., & Kuehl, J. 2004. The utility of whole chloroplast genome sequencing for reconstructing deep nodes in plants with an example from basal angiosperms. P. 32, in Botany 2004. Salt Lake City, Utah.

Jansen, R. K. [et al. 2006a], Kaittanis, C., Lee, S.-B., Saski, C., Tomkins, J., Alverson, A. J., & Daniell, H. 2006a. Phylogenetic analysis of Vitis (Vitaceae) based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: Effect of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids. BMC Evol. Biol. 6: 21. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/6/32

Jansen, R. K. [et al. 2006b], Cai, Z., Hansen, D., Dastidar, S., Peñaflor, C., Timme, R., Hansen, K., Haberle, R. C., Chumley, T. W., Guisinger-Bellian, M. M., Daniell, H., Lee, S.-B., Raubeson, L. A., Peery, R., Depamphilis, C. W., Leebens-Mack, J., McNeal, J. R., Boore, J., & Kuehl, J. V. 2006b. Phylogeny of angiosperms based on whole chloroplast sequences. Pp. 227-228, in Botany 2006 - Looking to the Future - Conserving the Past. [Abstracts: Botanical Society of America, etc.]

Jansen, R. K. [et al. 2007], Cai, Z., Raubeson, L. A., Daniell, H., dePamphilis, C. W., Leebens-Mack, J., Müller, K. F., Guisinger-Bellian, M., Haberle, R. C., Hansen, A. K., Chumley, T. W., Lee, S.-B., Peery, R., McNeal, J. R., Kuehl, J. V., & Boore, J. L. 2007. Analysis of 81 genes from 64 chloroplast genomes resolves relationships in angiosperms and identifies genome-scale evolutionary patterns. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104: 19369-19374.

Jansen, R. K. [et al. 2008], Wojciechowski, M. F., Sanniyasi, E., Lee, S.-B., & Daniell, H. 2008. Complete plastid genome sequemnce of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and the phylogenetic distribution of rps12 and clpP intron losses among legumes (Leguminosae. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 48: 1204-1217.

Jansen, R. K. [et al. 2010], Saski, C., Lee, S.-B., Hansen, A. K., & Daniell, H. 2010 [2011]. Complete plastid gebome sequences of three rosids (Castanea, Prunus, Theobroma): Evidence for at least two independent transfers of rpl22 to the nucleus. Mol. Biol. Evol. 28: 835-847.

Jansen, S., & Smets, E. 1998. Vestured pits in some woody Gentianaceae. IAWA J. 19: 35-42.

Jansen, S., & Smets, E. 2000. Morphology, distribution and systematic importance of vestures in the Gentianales. Pp. 277-296, in Nordenstam, B., El-Ghazaly, G., & Kassas, M. (eds), Plant Systematics for the 21st Century. Portland Press, London.

Jansen, S. [et al. 1998], Smets, E., & Baas, P. 1998. Vestures in woody plants: A review. IAWA J. 19: 347-382.

Jansen, S. [et al. 2000a] Baas, P., & Smets, E. 2000a. Vestured pits in Malvales s.l.: a character with taxonomic significance hidden in the secondary xylem. Taxon 49: 169-182.

Jansen, S. [et al. 2000b], Piessschaert, F., & Smets, E. 2000b. Wood anatomy of Elaeagnaceae, with comments on vestured pits, helical thickenings, and systematic relationships. American J. Bot. 87: 20-28.

Jansen, S. [et al. 2000c], Ronse Decraene, L. P., & Smets, E. 2000c. On the wood and stem anatomy of Monococcus echinophorus (Phytolaccaceae s.l.). Syst. Geogr. Plants 70: 171-179.

Jansen, S. [et al. 2001], Baas, P., & Smets, E. 2001. Vestured pits: Their occurrence and systematic importance in eudicots. Taxon 50: 135-167.

Jansen, S. [et al. 2002a], Robbrecht, E., Beeckman, H., & Smets, E. 2002a. Aluminium accumulation in Rubiaceae: An additional character for the delimitation of subfamily Rubioideae? IAWA J. 21: 197-212.

Jansen, S. [et al. 2002b], Broadley, M. R., Robbrecht, E., & Smets, E. 2002b. Aluminum hyperaccumulation in angiosperms: A review of its phylogenetic significance. Bot. Review 68: 235-269.

Jansen, S. [et al. 2003a], Watanabe, T., Dessein, S., Smets, E., & Robbrecht, E. 2003a. A comparative study of metal levels in some Al-accumulating Rubiaceae. Ann. Bot. 91: 657-663.

Jansen, S. [et al. 2003b], Baas, P., Gasson, P., & Smets, E. 2003b. Vestured pits: Do they promote safer water transport? Internat. J. Plant Sci. 164: 405-413.

Jansen, S. [et al. 2004a], Watanabe, T., Caris, P., Geuten, K., Lens, F., Pyck, N., & Smets, E. 2004a. The distribution and phylogeny of aluminium accumulating plants in the Ericales. Plant Biol. 6: 498-505.

Jansen, S. [et al. 2004b], Baas, P., Gasson, P., Lens, F., & Smets, E. 2004b. Variation in xylem structure from tropics to tundra: Evidence from vestured pits. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101: 8833-8837.

Jansen, S. [et al. 2004c], Watanabe, T., Dessein, S., Robbrecht, E., & Smets, E. 2004c. The evolution of aluminium accumulation in angiosperms. Pp. 467-479, in Hemsley, A. R., & Poole, I. (eds), The Evolution of Plant Physiology. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Jansen, S. [et al. 2007], Sano, Y., Choat, B., Rabaey, D., Lens, F., & Dute, R. R. 2007. Pit membranes in tracheary elements of Rosaceae and related families: New records of tori and pseudotori. American J. Bot. 94: 503-514.

Janson, E. M. [et al. 2008], Stireman, J. O., III, Singer, M. S., & Abbot, P. 2008. Phytophagous insect-microbe mutualisms and adaptive evolutionary diversification. Evolution 62: 997-1012.

Janssen, T., & Bremer, K. 2004. The age of major monocot groups inferred from 800+ rbcL sequences. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 146: 385-398.

Janssen, T., & Schneider, H. 2005. Exploring the evolution of humus collecting leaves in drynarioid ferns (Polypodiaceae, Polypodiidae) based on phylogenetic evidence. Plant Syst. Evol. 252: 175-197.

Janssen, T. [et al. 2008], Bystriakova, N., Rakotondrainibe, F., Coomes, D., Labat, J. N., & Schneider, H. 2008. Neoendemism in Madagascan scaly tree ferns results from recent, coincident diversification bursts. Evolution 62: 1876-89. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00408.x

Janssens, S. B. [et al. 2005], Lens, F., Dressler, S., Geuten, K., Smets, E. F., & Vinckier, S. 2005. Palynological variation in balsaminoid Ericales. II. Balsaminaceae, Tetrameristaceae, Pellicieraceae and general conclusions. Ann. Bot. 96: 1061-1073.

Janssens, S. B. [et al. 2006a], Geuten, K., Yuan, Y. M., Song, Y., Küpfer, P., & Smets, E. F. 2006a. Phylogenetics of Impatiens and Hydrocera (Balsaminaceae) using chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer sequences. Syst. Bot. 31: 171-180.

Janssens, S. B. [et al. 2006b], Geuten, K., Huysmans, S., & Smets, E. F. 2006b. Evolution of the AP3/DEF K-domain and C-terminal domain in Impatiens. P. 154, in Botany 2006 - Looking to the Future - Conserving the Past. [Abstracts: Botanical Society of America, etc.]

Janssens, S. B. [et al. 2009], Knox, E. B., Huysmans, S., Smets, E. F., & Merckx, V. S. F. T. 2009. Rapid radiation of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) during Pliocene and Pleistocene: Results of a global climate change. Mol. Phyl. Evol.. 52: 806-824.

Janssens, S. B. [et al. 2012a], Wilson, Y. S., Yuan, Y.-M., Nagels, A., Smets, E. F., & Huysmans, S. 2012a. A total evidence approach using palynological characters to infer the complex evolutionary history of the Asian Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). Taxon 61: 355-367.

Janssens, S. B. [et al. 2012b], Smets, E. F., & Vrijdaghs, A. 2012b. Floral development of Hydrocera and Impatiens reveal evolutionary trends in the most early diverged lineages of the Balsaminaceae. Ann. Bot. 109: 1285-1296.

Jany, J. L., & Pawlowska, T. E. 2010. Multinucleate spores contribute to evolutionary longevity of asexual Glomeromycota. American Naturalist 175: 424-435.

Janz, N. 2011. Ehrlich and Raven revisited: Mechanisms underlying codiversification of plants and enemies. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 42: 71-89.

Janz, N., & Nylin, S. 1998. Butterflies and plants: A phylogenetic study. Evolution 52: 486-502.

Janz, N. [et al. 2001], Nyblom, K., & Nylin, S. 2001. Evolutionary dynamics of host plant specialization: A case study of the tribe Nymphalini. Evolution 55: 783-796.

Janz, N. [et al. 2006], Nylin, S., & Wahlberg, N. 2006. Diversity begets diversity: Host expansions and the diversification of plant-feeding insects. BMC Evol. Biol. 6: [http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/6/4]

Janzen, D. H. 1967. Why mountain passes are higher in the tropics. American Naturalist 101: 233–249.

Janzen, D. H. 1967. Interaction of the bull's horn acacia (Acacia cornigera L.) with an ant inhabitant (Pseudomyrmex ferruginea F. Smith) in eastern Mexico. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 47: 315-558.

Janzen, D. H. 1969. Seed-eaters versus seed size, number, toxicity and dispersal. Evolution 23: 1-27.

Janzen, D. H. 1971. Euglossine bees as long-distance pollinators of tropical plants. Science 171: 203-205.

Janzen, D. H. 1973. Dissolution of mutualism between Cecropia and its Azteca ants. Biotropica 5: 15-28.

Janzen, D. H. 1974a. Tropical blackwater rivers, animals and mast fruiting by the Dipterocarpaceae. Biotropica 6: 69-103.

Janzen, D. H. 1974b. Swollen-thorn acacias of Central America. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 13: 1-131.

Janzen, D. H. 1976. Why bamboos wait so long to flower. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 7: 347-391.

Janzen, D. H. 1979. How to be a fig. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 10: 13-51.

Janzen, D. H. 1980. When is it coevolution? Evolution 34: 611-612.

Janzen, D. H. 1982. Ecological distribution of chlorophyllous developing embryos among perennial plants in a tropical deciduous forest. Biotropica 14: 232-236.

Janzen, D. H. (ed.). 1983. Costa Rican Natural History. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Jaramillo, C., & Cárdenas, A. 2013. Global warming and neotropical rainforests: A historical perspective. Ann. Review Earth Planet. Sci. 41: 741-766.

Jaramillo, C. A. [et al. 2006], Rueda, M. J., & Mora, G. 2006. Cenozoic plant diversity in the Neotropics. Science 311: 1893-1896.

Jaramillo, C. [et al. 2010], Ochoa, D., Contreras, L., Pagani, M., Carvajal-Ortiz, H., Pratt, L. M., Krishnan, S., Cardona, A., Romero, M., Quiroz, L., Rodriguez, G., Rueda, M. J., de la Parra, F., Morón, S., Green, W., Bayona, G., Montes, C., Quintero, O., Ramirez, R., Mora, G., Schouten, S., Bermudez, H., Navarrete, R., Parra, F., Alvarán, M., Osorno, J., Crowley, J. L., Valencia, V., & Vervoort, J. 2010. Effects of rapid global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary on neotropical vegetation. Science 330: 957-961.

Jaramillo, M. A., & Callejas, R. 2004. Current perspectives on the classification and phylogenetics of the genus Piper L. Pp. 179-198, in Dyer, L. A., & Palmer, A. D. N. (eds), Piper: A Model Genus for Studies of Phytochemistry, Ecology, and Evolution. Kluwer Academic, New York.

Jaramillo, M. A., & Kramer, E. M. 2004. APETALA3 and PISTILLATA homologs exhibit novel expression patterns in the unique perianth of Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae). Evol. Develop. 6: 449-458.

Jaramillo, M. A., & Kramer, E. M. 2007. The role of developmental genetics in understanding homology and morphological evolution in plants. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 168: 61-72.

Jaramillo, M. A., & Manos, P. S. 2001. Phylogeny and patterns of floral diversity in the genus Piper (Piperaceae). American J. Bot. 88: 706-716.

Jaramillo, M. A. [et al. 2004], Manos, P. S., & Zimmer, E. A. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of the perianthless Piperales: Reconstructing the evolution of floral development. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 165: 403-416.

Jaramillo, M. A. [et al. 2008], Callejas, R., Davidson, C., Smith, J. F, Stevens, A. C., & Tepe, E, J, 2008. A phylogeny of the tropical genus Piper using ITS and the chloroplast intron J-petA. Syst. Bot. 33: 647-660.

Jaroszewski, J. W. [et al. 1988], Jensen, P. S., Cornett, C., & Byberg, J. R. 1988. Occurrence of lotaustralin in Berberidopsis beckleri and its relation to the chemical evolution of Flacourtiaceae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 16; 23-28.

Jardim, A. 1999. A Revision of Roucheria Planch. and Hebepetalum Benth. (Hugoniaceae). M. Sc. Thesis, University of Missouri St Louis.

Jarzen, D. M., & Dettmann, M. E. 1989. Taxonomic revision of Tricolpites reticulatus Cookson ex Couper, 1953, with notes on the biogeography of Gunnera L. Pollen et Spores 31: 97-112.

Jarzen, D. M., & Pocknall, D. T. 1993. Tertiary Blufopollis scabratus (Couper) Pocknall & Mildenhall, 1984 and modern Strasburgeria pollen: A botanical comparison. New Zealand J. Bot. 31: 185-192.

Jay, M. 1968a. Distribution des flavonoides chez les Bruniacées. Taxon 17: 484-488.

Jay, M. 1968b. Distribution des flavonoides chez les Cunoniacées. Taxon 17: 489–495.

Jay, M. 1969. Chemotaxonomic researches on vascular plants. XIX. Flavonoid distribution in the Pittosporaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 62: 423-429.

Jay, M. 1971. Quelques problèmes taxinomiques et phylogénétiques des Saxifragacées vus à la lumière de la biochimie flavonique. Bull. Mus. National Hist. Naturelle Sér. 2, 42: 754-775.

Jay, M., & Lebreton, P. 1973. Recherches chimiotaxinomiques sur les plantes vasculaires, XXVI. Les flavanoides des Sarracéniacées, Nepenthacées, Droséracées, et Céphalotacées; étude critique de l'ordre des Sarracéniales. Nat. Canadien 91: 607-613.

Jayalakshmi, S. K. 2004. Pollen apertural diversity and its evolution in the Araceae. J. Palynol. 40: 51-65.

Jayasuriya, K. M. G. G. [et al. 2009], Baskin, J. M., Geneve, R. L., Baskin, C. C., & Chien, C.-T. 2008. Physical dormancy in seeds of the holoparasitic angiosperm Cuscuta australis (Convolvulaceae, Cuscuteae): Dormancy-breaking requirements, anatomy of the water gap and sensitivity cycling. Ann. Bot. 102: 39-48.<

Jayasuriya, K. M. G. G. [et al. 2009], Baskin, J. M., Geneve, R. L., & Baskin, C. C. 2009. Phylogeny of seed dormancy in Convolulaceae, subfamily Convolvuloideae (Solanales). Ann. Bot. 103: 45-63.

Jebb, M. 1991. Cavity structure and function in the tuberous Rubiaceae. Pp. 374-389, in Huxley, C. R., & Cutler, D. F. (eds), Ant - Plant Interactions. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Jeffrey, E. C. 1917. The Anatomy of Woody Plants. University of Chicago, Chicago.

Jeffrey, C. 1961. Aïzoaceae. Pp. 1-37, in Hubbard, C. E., & Milne-Redhead, E. (eds), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Crown Agent for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London.

Jeffrey, C. 1980. A review of the Cucurbitaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 81: 233-247.

Jeffrey, C. 2004. Systema Compositarum (Asteracearum) nova. Bot. Zhurn. 89: 1817-1822.

Jeffrey, C. 2005. A new system of Cucurbitaceae. Bot. Zhurn. 90: 332-335.

Jeffrey, C., & de Wilde, W. J. J. O. 2006. A review of the subtribe Thladianthinae (Cucurbitaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 91: 766-776.

Jenks, A. A. [et al. 2013], Walker, J. B., & Kim, S.-C. 2013. Phylogeny of New World Salvia subgenus Calosphace (Lamiaceae) based on cpDNA (psbA-trnH) and nrDNA (ITS) sequence data. J. Plant Research 126: 483-496.

Jenny, M. 1988. Different gynoecium types in Sterculiaceae: Ontogeny and functional aspects. Pp. 225-236, in Leins, P., Tucker, S. C., & Endress, P. K. (eds), Aspects of Floral Development. J. Cramer, Berlin.

Jensen, B. S. [et al. 2011], Christensen, S. B., Jäger, A. C., & Rônsted, N. 2011. Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from the Australian tribe Calostemmateae with acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 39: 153-155.

Jensen, H. F. V. [et al. 1998], Jensen, S. R., & Nielsen, B. J. 1988. Chemotaxonomy of the Acanthaceae. Iridoids and quaternary amines. Phytochem. 27: 2581-2589.

Jensen, K. H. [et al. 2012], Mullendore, D. L., Holbrook, N. M., Bohr, T., Knoblauch, M., & Bruns, H. 2012. Modeling the hydrodynamics of phloem sieve plates. Front. Plant Sci. Biophys. Model. 3: 151.

Jensen, L. C. W. 1968. Primary stem vascular patterns in three subfamilies of the Crassulaceae. American J. Bot. 55: 553-563.

Jensen, S. R. 1991. Plant iridoids, their biosynthesis and distribution in angiosperms. Pp. 132-158, in Harbourne, J. B., & Tomas-Barberan, F. A. (eds), Ecological Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Terpenoids. Clarendon Press, Oford.

Jensen, S. R. 1992. Systematic implications of the distribution of iridoids and other chemical compounds in the Loganiaceae and other families of the Asteridae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 284-302.

Jensen, S. R. 1994. A re-examination of Sanango racemosum. 3. Chemotaxonomy. Taxon 43: 619-62

Jensen, S. R. 1996. Phenylethanoid glycosides in Sanango racemosa and in the family Gesneriaceae. Phytochem. 43: 777-783.

Jensen, S. R. 1999. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Nuxia (Buddlejaceae). Pp. 379-382, in Yang, C.-R., & Tanaka, O. (eds), Advances in Plant Glycosides, Chemistry & Biology. Elsevier, Amsterdam. [Studies in Plant Science 6.]

Jensen, S. R. 2000a. Chemical relationships of Polypremum procumbens, Tetrachondra hamiltonii and Peltanthera floribunda. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 28: 45-51.

Jensen, S. R. 2000b. Chemistry of Buddlejaceae. Pp. 42-61, in Norman, E. (ed.). Buddlejaceae. Flora Neotropica Monograph 81. New York Botanical Garden.

Jensen, S. R. 2005. Phytochemistry of Plantaginaceae. P. 51, in XVII International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, Europe. [Abstracts.]

Jensen, S. R., & Schripsema, J. 2002. Chemotaxonomy and pharmacology of Gentianaceae. Pp. 573-632 in Struwe, L., & Albert, V. A. (eds), Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Jensen, S. R. [et al. 1975a], Kjaer, A., & Nielsen, B. J. 1975a. The genus Cornus: Non-flavonoid glucosides as taxonomic markers. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 3: 75-78.

Jensen, S. R. [et al. 1975b], Nielsen, B. J., & Dahlgren, R. 1975b. Iridoid compounds, their occurrence and systematic importance in the angiosperms. Bot. Notis. 128: 148-180.

Jensen, S. R. [et al. 2002], Franzyk, H., & Wallender, E. 2002. Chemotaxonomy of the Oleaceae: Iridoids as taxonomic markers. Phytochem. 60: 213-231.

Jensen, S. R. [et al. 2007], Gotfredsen, C. H., & Pierce, S. 2007. Iridoid glucosides of Paederota bonarota and the relationships between Paederota and Veronica. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 35: 501-505.

Jensen, S. R. [et al. 2008a], Gotfredsen, C. H., & Grayer, R. J. 2008a. Unusual iridoid glycosides in Veronica sects. Hebe and Labiatoides. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 36: 207-215

Jensen, S. R. [et al. 2008b], Li, H.-Q., Albach, D. C., & Gotfredsen, C. H. 2008b. Phytochemistry and molecular systematics of Triaenophora rupestris and Oreosolen wattii (Scrophulariaceae). Phytochem. 69: 2162-2166.

Jensen, S. R. [et al. 2008c], Gotfredsen, C. H., & Zidorn, C. 2009c. Iridoids and phenylethanoids in Lagotis integrifolia and Wulfeniopsis amherstiana (Plantaginaceae). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 37: 421-425.

Jensen, U. 1995. Secondary compounds of the Ranunculiflorae. Pp. 85-97, in Jensen, U., & Kadereit, J. W. (eds.), Systematics and Evolution of the Ranunculiflorae. Springer, Vienna. [Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 9.]

Jensen, U. [et al. 1995], Hoot, S. B., Johansson, J. T., & Kosuge, K. 1995. Systematics and phylogeny of the Ranunculaceae - a revised family concept on the basis of morphological data. Pp. 273-280, in Jensen, U., & Kadereit, J. W. (eds.), Systematics and Evolution of the Ranunculiflorae. Springer, Vienna. [Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 9.]

Jeong, S. C. [et al. 1999], Ritchie, N. J., & Myrold, D. D. 1999. Molecular phylogenies of plants and Frankia support multiple origins of actinorhizal symbioses. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 13: 493-503.

Jérémie, J. 1997. Sphenostemonaceae. Pp. 3-21, in Ph. Morat (ed.), Flore de la Nouvelle Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

Jermy, C. 1990. Isoetaceae, pp. 27-31, and Selaginellaceae, pp. 39-45, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. I. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Springer, Berlin.

Jersáková, J., Johnson, S. D., & Kindlmann, P. 2006. Mechanisms and evolution of deceptive pollination in orchids. Biol. Rev. 81: 219-235.

Jersáková, J. [et al. 2013], Tránícek, P., Kubátová, B., Krejcíková, J., Urfus, T., Liu, Z.-J., Lamb, A., Ponert, J., Schulte, K., Curn, V., Vrána, J. Leitch, I. J., & Suda, J. 2013. Genome size variation in Orchidaceae subfamily Apostasioideae: Filling the phylogenetic gap. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 171: 95-105.

Jesson, L. K., & Barrett, S. C. H. 2003. The comparative biology of mirror-image flowers. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 164(Suppl. 5): S237-S249.

Jessop, J. P. 1976. A revision of Peliosanthes (Liliaceae). Blumea 23: 141-159.

Jessop, J. P. 1979. Liliaceae - I. Pp. 189-235, in Steenis, C. G. G. J. (ed.), Flora malesiana, ser. 1, vol. 9. Sijthoff & Noordhoff, Alphen aan den Rijn.

Jetz, W. [et al. 2012], Thomas, G. H., Joy, J. B., Hartmann, K., & Mooers, A. O. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444-448.

Ji, Q. [et al. 2004], Bowe, L. M., Liu, Y., & Taylor, D. W. 2004. Early Cretaceous Archaefructus eoflora sp. nov., with bisexual flowers from Beipiao, Western Liaoning, China. Acta Geol. Sinica 78: 883-896.

Jia, A.-Q. [et al. 2004], Tan, N.-H., Yang, Y.-P., Wu, S.-G., Wang, L.-Q., & Zhou. J. 2004. Cyclopeptides from three arctic Caryophyllaceae plants, chemotaxonomy and distribution significance of Caryophyllaceae cyclopeptides. Acta Bot. Sinica 46: 625-630.

Jian, S. [et al. 2006], Soltis, P. S., Dhingra, A., Li, R., Qiu, Y.-L., Yoo, M.-J., Bell, C., & Soltis, D. E. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships and diversification within Saxifragales based on molecular data. P. 229, in Botany 2006 - Looking to the Future - Conserving the Past. [Abstracts: Botanical Society of America, etc.]

Jian, S. [et al. 2008], Soltis, P. S., Gitzendanner, M. A., Moore, M. J., Li, R., Hendry, T. A., Qiu, Y.-L., Dhingra, A., Bell, C., & Soltis, D. E. 2008. Resolving an ancient, rapid radiation in Saxifragales. Syst. Biol. 57: 38-57.

Jiang, F. [et al. 2010], Jeschke, W. D., Hartung, W., & Cameron, D. D. 2010. Interactions between Rhinanthus minor and its hosts: A review of water, mineral and hormone flow and exchanges in the hemiparasite association. Folia Geobot. 45: 369-385.

Jiang, B. [et al. 2010], Peng, Q. F., Shen, Z. G., Möller, M., Pi, E. X., & Lu, H. F. 2010. Taxonomic treatments of Camellia (Theaceae) species with secretory structures based on integrated leaf characters. Plant Syst. Evol. 290: 1-20.

Jiang, R.-W. [et al. 2006], Hon, P.-M., Xu, Y.-T., Chan, Y.-M., Xu, H.-X., Shaw, P. C., & But, P. P-H. 2006. Isolation and chemotaxonomic significance of tuberostemospironine-type alkaloids from Stemona tuberosa. Phytochem. 67: 52-57.

Jiao, J. [et al. 2011], Wickett, N. J., Ayyampalayam, S., Chanderbali, A. S., Landherr, L., Ralph, P. E., Tomsho, L. P., Hu, Y., Liang, H., Soltis, P. S., Soltis, D. E., Clifton, S. W., Schlarbaum, S. E., Schuster, S. C., Ma, H., Leeebens-Mack, J., & dePamphilis, C. W. 2011. Ancestral polyploidy in seed plants and angiosperms. Nature 473: 97-100.

Jiao, Y. [et al. 2012], Leebens-Mack, J., Ayyampalayam, S., Bowers, J. E., McKain, M. R., McNeal, J., Rolf, M., Ruzicka, D. R., Wafula, E., Wickett, N. J., Wu, X., Zhang, Y., Wang, J., Zhang, Y., Carpenter, E. J., Deyholos, M. K., Kutchan, T. M , Chanderbali, A. S., Soltis, P. S., Stevenson, D. W., McCombie, R., Pires, J. C., Wong, G. K., Soltis, D. E., & dePamphilis, C. W. 2012. A genome triplication associated with early diversification of the core eudicots. Genome Biol. 13: R3. http://genomebiology.com/2012/13/1/R3

Jiao, Z., & Li, J. 2007. Phylogeny of intercontinental disjunct Gelsemiaceae inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Syst. Bot. 32: 617-627.

Jiménez-Rojas, E. M. [et al. 2002], Londoño-Vega, A. C., & Vester, H. F. M. 2002. Descripción de la arquitectura de Iryanthera tricornis, Osteophloeum platyspermum y Virola pavonis (Myristicaceae). Caldasia 24: 65-94.

Jin, Q. J., & Wei, Z. X. 2002. Studies on pollen morphology of Stachyuraceae and Staphyleaceae. Acta Bot. Yunnanica 24: 57-63. [In Chinese.]

Jobson, R. W., & Luckow, M. 2007. Phylogenetic study of the genus Piptadenia (Mimosoideae: Leguminosae) using plastid trnL-F and trnK/matK sequence data. Syst. Bot. 32: 569-575.

Jobson, R. W., & Morris, E. C. 2001. Feeding ecology of a carnivorous bladderwort (Utricularia uliginosa, Lentibulariaceae). Austral Ecol. 26: 680-691.

Jobson, R. W. [et al. 2003], Playford, J., Cameron, K. M., & Albert, V. A. 2003. Molecular phylogenetics of Lentibulariaceae inferred from plastid rps16 intron and trnL-F sequences: Implications for character evolution and biogeography. Syst. Bot. 28: 157-171.

Jobson, R. W. [et al. 2004], Nielsen, R., Laakkonen, L., Wikström, M., & Albert, V. A. 2004. Adaptive evolution of cytochrome c oxidase: Infrastructure for a carnivorous plant radiation. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101: 18064-18068.

Jobst, J., King, K., & Hemleben, V. 1998. Molecular evolution of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and phylogenetic relationships among species of the family Cucurbitaceae. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 9: 204-219.

Joel, D. M. 1988. Mimicry and mutualism in carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarraceniaceae, Nepenthaceae, Cephalotaceae, Bromeliaceae). Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 35: 185-197.

Joel, D. M. [et al. 2012], Bar, H., Mayer, A. M., Plakhine, D., Ziadne, H., Westwood, J. H., & Welbaum, G. E. 2012. Seed ultrastructure and water absorption pathway of the root-parasitic plant Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanchaceae). Ann. Bot. 109: 181-195.

Joffily, A., & Vieira, R. C. 2010. Cork-warts on the leaf epidermis of four genera of Celastroidea-Celastraceae. Flora 205: 313-318.

Johansen, B. [et al. 2006], Frederiksen, S., & Skipper, M. 2006. Molecular basis of development in petaloid monocot flowers. Pp. 151-158, in Columbus, J. T., Friar, E. A., Porter, J. M., Prince, L. M., & Simpson, M. G. (eds), Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution. Excluding Poales. Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, Claremont, Ca. [Aliso 22: 151-158.]

Johansen, D. A. 1928. The hypostase: Its presence and function in the ovule of Onagraceae. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 14: 710-714.

Johansen, D. A. 1936. Morphology and embryology of Fouquieraceae. American J. Bot. 23: 95-99.

Johansen, D. A. 1950. Plant Embryology. Chronica Botanica, Waltham, Mass.

Johansen, L. B. 2005. Phylogeny of Orchidantha (Lowiaceae) and the Zingiberales based on six DNA regions. Syst. Bot. 30: 106-117.

Johansen, L. B., & Frederiksen, S. 2002. Orchid flowers: Development and evolution. Pp. 206-219, in Cronk, Q. C. B., Bateman, R. M., & Hawkins, J. A. (eds), Developmental Genetics and Plant Evolution. Taylor and Francis, London.

Johansson, C., & Bergman, B. 1994. Reconstitution of the Gunnera manicata Linde symbiosis: Cyanobacterial specificity. New Phytol. 126: 643-652.

John, C. R. [et al. 2014], Smith-Unna, R. D., Woodfield, H., Covshoff, S., & Hibberd, J. M. 2014. Evolutionary convergence of cell-specific gene expression in independent lineages of C4 grasses. Plant Physiol. 165: 62-75.

John, D. 1996. Control of fructose metabolism in the Compositae. Pp. 111-119, in Caligari, P., & Hind, D. J. N. (eds), Compositae: Biology and Utilization. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994, vol. 2. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Johnson, B. R. [et al. 2013], Borowiec, M. L., Chiu, J. C., Lee, E. K., Atallah, J., & Ward, P. S. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Curr. Biol. 23: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.08.050

Johnson, C. D. 1989. Adaptive radiation of Acanthoscelides in seeds: Examples of legume-bruchid interactions. Pp. 747-779, in Stirton, C. H., & Zarucchi, J. L. (eds), Advances in Legume Biology. Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis. [Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 29.]

Johnson, C. D. 1990. Coevolution of Bruchidae and their hosts: Evidence, conjecture, and conclusions. Pp. 27-51, in Fuji, K., Gategouse, A. M. R., Johnson, C. D., Mitchel, R., & Yoshida, T. (eds), Bruchids and Legumes: Economics, Ecology and Coevolution. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Johnson, D. J. [et al. 2012a], Beaulieu, W. T., Bever, J. D., & Clay, K. 2012a. Conspecific negative density dependence and forest diversity. Science 336: 904-907.

Johnson, D. J. [et al. 2012b], Beaulieu, W. T., Bever, J. D., & Clay, K. 2012b. Response to comment on "Conspecific negative density dependence and forest diversity". Science 338: 469-c.

Johnson, D. M. 2003. Phylogenetic significance of spiral and distichous architecture in the Annonaceae. Syst. Bot. 28: 503-511.

Johnson, D. S. 1914. Studies of the development of the Piperaceae. II. The structure and seed development of Peperomia hispidula. American J. Bot. 1: 323-339.

Johnson, D. S. 1935. The development of the shoot, male flower and seedling of Batis maritima L. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 62: 19-31 + 3 pl.

Johnson, D. W., & Cole, D. W. 2005. Nutrient cycles in conifer forests. Pp. 427-450, in Andersson, F. (ed.), Ecosystems of the World. 6. Coniferous Forests. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Johnson, G. P., & Renzaglia, K. S. 2009. Evaluating the diversity of pteridophyte embryology in the light of recent phylogenetic analyses leads to new inferences on character evolution. Plant Syst. Evol. 283: 149-164.

Johnson, K. A. [et al. 2012], Holland, B. R., Heslewood, M. M., & Crayn, D. M. 2012. Supermatrices, supertrees and serendipitous scaffolding: Inferring a well-resolved, genus-level phylogeny of Styphelioideae (Ericaceae) despite missing data. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 62: 146-158.

Johnson, K. R. 2002. Megaflora of the Hell Creek and lower Fort Union formations in the western Dakotas: Vegetational response to climate change, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event, and rapid marine transgression. Pp. 329-391, in Hartman, J. H., Johnson, K. R., & Nichols, D. J. (eds). The Hell Creek Formation and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Northern Great Plains: An Integrated Continental Record of the End of the Cretaceous. Geological Society of America. [Geol. Soc. America Spec. Papers 361: 329-391.]

Johnson, K. R., & Ellis, B. 2002. A tropical rainforest in Colorado 1.4 million years after the Cretaceous-Tertiary bounday. Science 296: 2379-2383.

Johnson, L. A. [et al. 1996], Schultz, J. L., Soltis, D. E., & Soltis, P. S. 1996. Monophyly and generic relationships of Polemoniaceae based on matK sequences. American J. Bot. 83: 1207-1224.

Johnson, L. A. [et al. 1999], Soltis, D. E., & Soltis, P. S. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Polemoniaceae inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequences. Plant Syst. Evol. 214: 65-89.

Johnson, L. A. [et al. 2004], Huish, K. H., & Porter, J. M. 2004. Seed surface sculpturing and its systematic significance in Gilia (Polemoniaceae) and segregate genera. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 165: 153-172.

Johnson, L. A. [et al. 2008], Chan, L. M., Weese, T. L., Busby, L. D., & McMurry, S. 2008. Nuclear and cpDNA sequences combined provide strong inference of higher phylogenetic relationships in the phlox family (Polemoniaceae). Molec. Phyl. Evol. 48: 997-1012.

Johnson, L. A. S., & Briggs, B. G. 1963. Evolution in the Proteaceae. Australian J. Bot. 11: 21-61.

Johnson, L. A. S., & Briggs, B. G. 1975. On the Proteaceae - the evolution and classification of a southern family. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 70: 83-182.

Johnson, L. A. S., & Briggs, B. G. 1984 [1985.] Myrtales and Myrtaceae - a phylogenetic analysis. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71: 700-756.

Johnson, L. A. S., & Wilson, K. L. 1990. Cycadophytina. Pp. 362-377, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Volume 1. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Springer, Berlin.

Johnson, L. A. S., & Wilson, K. L. 1993. Casuarinaceae. Pp. 237-242, in Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., & Bittrich, V. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families. Springer, Berlin.

Johnson, M. [et al. 2009], Smith, S., & Rauscher, R. 2009. Plant sex and the evolution of plant defences against herbivores. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106:

Johnson, M. A. 1951. The shoot apex in gymnosperms. Phytomorph. 1: 188-204.

Johnson, M. T. J. [et al. 2011], FitzJohn, R. G., Smith, S. D., Rauscher, M. D., & Otto, S. P. 2011. Loss of sexual recombination and segregation is associated with increased diversification in evening primroses. Evolution 65: 3230-3240.

Johnson, S. D. 2010. The pollination niche and its role in the diversification and maintenance of the southern African flora. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B, 365: 490-516.

Johnson, S. D., & Edwards, T. J. 2000. The structure and function of orchid pollinaria. Plant Syst. Evol. 222: 243-269.

Johnson, S. D., & Steiner, K. E. 2000. Generalization versus specialization in plant pollination systems. Trends Evol. Ecol. 15: 140-143.

Johnson, S. D. [et al. 1998], Linder, H. P., & Steiner, K. E. 1998. Phylogeny and radiation of pollination systems in Disa (Orchidaceae). American J. Bot. 85: 402-411.

Johnson, S. D. [et al. 2009a], Griffiths, M. E., Peter, C. I., & Lawes, M. J. 2009a. Pollinators, "mustard oil" volatiles, and fruit production in flowers of the dioecious tree Drypetes natalensis (Putranjivaceae). American J. Bot. 96:

Johnson, S. D. [et al. 2009b], Jürgens, A., & Kuhlmann, M. 2009b. The incredible journey of an Albuca pollen grain. South African J. Bot. 75: 406-407.

Johnson, S. D. [et al. 2011a], Peter, C. I., Ellis, A. G., Boberg, E., Botes, C., & van der Niet, T. 2011. Diverse pollination systems of the twin-spurred orchid genus Satyrium in African grasslands. Plant Syst. Evol. 292: 95-103.

Johnson, S. D. [et al. 2011b], Burgoyne, P. M., Harder, L. D., & Dötterl, S. 2011b. Mammal pollinators lured by the scent of a parasitic plant. Proc Roy. Soc. B, 278: 2303-2310.

Johnson, S. D. [et al. 2012], Jürgens, A., & Kuhlmann, M. 2012. Pollination function transferred: Modified tepals of Albuca (Hyacinthaceae) serve as secondary stigmas. Ann. Bot. 110: 565-572.

Johnson, S. D. [et al. 2013], Hobbhahn, N., & Bytebier, B. 2013. Ancestral deceit and labile evolution of nectar production in the African orchid genus Disa. Biol. Letters 9(5). 20130500

Johnson-Fulton, S. B., & Watson, L. E. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships in Amoreuxia (Cochlospermaceae) based on chloroplast and nucelar DNA sequences. P. 195, in Botany 2008. Botany without Borders. [Botanical Society of America, etc. Abstracts.]

Johnsson, M. [et al. 1976], Issaias, S., Brogardh, T., & Johnsson, A. 1976. Rapid, blue-light-induced transpiration response restricted to plants with grass-like stomata. Physiol. Plant. 36: 229-232.

Johnston, M. C. 1975. Synopsis of Canotia (Celastraceae) including a new species from the Chihuahuan desert. Brittonia 27: 119-122.

Johow, F. 1885. Die chlorophyllfrien Humuspflanzen West-Indiens; biologisch-morphologisch dargestellt. Pringsheim's Jahrb./Jahrb. Wiss. Bot. 16: 415-448, pl. 16-18.

Johow, F. 1889. Die chlorophyllfrien Humuspflanzen nach ihrer biologischen und entwickelungsgeschichtlichen Verhältnisse. Pringsheim's Jahrb./Jahrb. Wiss. Bot. 20: 475-525, pl. 19-22.

Johri, B. M. 1937. Studies in the family Alismaceae. IV. Alisma plantago L.; Alisma plantago-aquatica L. and Sagittaria graminea Mich. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. B, 4: 128-138.

Johri, B. M. 1970. Limnanthaceae, Alismataceae and Butomaceae. Indian National Sci. Acad. Bull. [Symposium: Comparative Embryology of Angiosperms] 41: 110-113, 334-335.

Johri, B. M., & Bhatnagar, S. P. 1955. A contribution to the morphology and life history of Aristolochia. Phytomorph. 5: 123-137.

Johri, B. M., & Bhatnagar, S. P. 1960. Embryology and taxonomy of the Santalales - 1. Proc. National Inst. Sci. India, part B, Biol. Sci., 26(suppl.): 199-220.

Johri, B. M., & Bhatnagar, S. P. 1972. Loranthaceae. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.

Johri, B. M., & Kak, D. 1954. The embryology of Tamarix Linn. Phytomorph. 4: 230-247.

Johri, B. M., & Kapil, R. N. 1953. Contribution to the morphology and life history of Acalypha indica L. Phytomorph. 3: 137-151.

Johri, B. M., & Konar, R. N. 1956. The floral morphology and embryology of Ficus religiosa Linn. Phytomorph. 6: 97-111.

Johri, B. M., & nand, S. 1935. The development of the male and female gametophytes in Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. B, 1: 283-289, pl. 40-41.

Johri, B. M., & Roy Chowdhury, C. 1957. A contribution to the embryology of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. and Melothria maderaspatana Cogn. New Phytol. 56: 51-60.

Johri, B. M., & Singh, H. 1970. The morphology, embryology and systematic position of Elytraria acaulis (Linn. f.) Lindau. Bot. Notis. 112: 227-251.

Johri, B. M., & Tiaghi, B. 1952. Floral morphology and seed formation in Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Phytomorph. 2: 162-180.

Johri, B. M., & Vasil, I. K. 1956. The embryology of Ehretia laevis. Phytomorph. 6: 134-143.

Johri, B. M. [et al. 1992], Ambegaokar, K. B., & Srivastava, P. S. 1992. Comparative Embryology of Angiosperms, 2 vols. Springer, Berlin.

Johri, M. M. 1966a. The style, stigma and pollen tube. II. Some taxa of the Liliaceae and Trilliaceae. Phytomorph. 16: 92-109.

Johri, M. M. 1966b. The style, stigma and pollen tube. III. Some taxa of the Amaryllidaceae. Phytomorph. 16: 142-159.

Johsi, A. C., & Venkateswarlu, J. 1936. Embryological studies in the Lythraceae - III. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. B, 3: 377-400.

Jolivet, P. H. 1988. Food habits and food selection of Chrysomelidae. Bionomic and evolutionary perspectives. Pp. 1-24, in Jolivet, P. H., Petitpierre, E., & Hsiao, T. H. (eds), Biology of Chrysomelidae. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Jolivet, P. H. 1991. Ants, plants, and beetles; a triangular relationship. Pp. 395-406, in Huxley, C. R., & Cutler, D. F. (eds), Ant - Plant Interactions. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Jolivet, P. H., & Hawkeswood, T. J. 1995. Host-Plants of the Chrysomelidae of the World. Backhuys, Leiden.

Joly, S. [et al. 2001], Brouillet, L., & Bruneau, A. 2001. Phylogenetic implications of the multiple losses of the mitochondrial coxII.i3 intron in the angiosperms. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 162: 359-373.

Jonasson, S., & Michelsen, A. 1996. Nutrient cycling in arctic and subarctic ecosystems, with special reference to the Abisko and Torneträsk region. Ecol. Bull. 45: 45-52.

Jones, C. S. [et al. 2009], Bakker, F. T., Schlichting, C. D., & Nicotra, A. B. 2009. Leaf shape evolution in the South African genus Pelargonium L'Hér. (Geraniaceae). Evolution 63: 479-497.

Jones, D. L. 2002. Cycads of the World. Ancient Plants in Today's Landscape, Ed. 2. Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

Jones, D. L., & Clements, M. A. 2002a. A review of Pterostylis R. Br. (Orchidaceae). Australian Orchid Research 4: 1-168.

Jones, D. L., & Clements, M. A. 2002b. A reassessment of Pterostylis R. Br. (Orchidaceae). Australian Orchid Research 4: 64-124.

Jones, D. L., & Gray, B. 2008. Corsia dispar D. L. Jones & B. Gray (Corsiaceae), a new species from Australia, and a new combination of Corsia for a New Guinea taxon. Austrobaileya 7: 717-722.

Jones, D. L. [et al. 2001], Clements, M. A., Sharma, I. K., & Mackenzie, A. M. 2001. A new classification of Caladenia R. Br. (Orchidaceae). Orchadian 13: 389-419.

Jones, D. L. [et al. 2002], Clements, M. A., Sharma, I. K., Mackenzie, A. M., & Molloy, B. P. J. 2002. Nomenclatural notes arising from studies into the tribe Diurideae (Orchidaceae). Orchadian 13: 437-468.

Jones, E. [et al. 2007], Hodkinson, T., Parnell, J., & Chase, M. W. 2007. The Juncaceae-Cyperaceae interface: A combined plastid gene analysis. Pp. - , in Columbus, J. T., Friar, E. A., Hamilton, C. W., Porter, J. M., Prince, L. M., & Simpson, M. G. (eds), Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution, 2 vols. Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, Claremont, Ca.

Jones, F. A. [et al. 2103], Sobkowiak, B., Orme, C. D. L., Govaerts, R., & Savolainen, V. 2013. Macroecological correlates of global monocot species richness. Pp. 99-117, in Wilkin, P., & Mayo, S. J. (eds), Early Events in Monocot Evolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [Systematics Association Special Volume 83.]

Jones, K., & Jopling, C. 1972. Chromosomes and the classification of Commelinaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 65: 129-162.

Jones, K. E. [et al. 2005], Bininda-Emons, O. R. P., & Gittleman, J. L. 2005. Bats, clocks, and rocks: Diversification patterns in Chiroptera. Evolution 59: 2243-2255.

Jones, S. S. [et al. 2014], Burke, S. V., & Duvall, M. R. 2014. Phylogenomics, molecular evolution, and estimated ages of lineages from the deep phylogeny of Poaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 300: 1421-1436.

Jones, T. M. 2007 onwards. Carex Interactive Identification Key.

Jones, V. A. S., & Dolan, L. 2012. The evolution of root hairs and rhizoids. Ann. Bot. 110: 205-212.

Jones, W. G. [et al. 1995], Hill, K. D., & Allen, J. M. 1995. Wollemia nobilis, a new living Australian genus and species in the Araucariaceae. Telopea 6: 173-176.

Jong, K., & Burtt, B. L. 1975. The evolution of morphological novelty exemplified in the growth patterns of some Gesneriaceae. New Phytol. 75: 297-311.

Jong, K. [et al. 2012], Christie, F., Paik, J.-H., Scott, S. M., & Möller, M. 2012. Unusual morphological and anatomical features of two woody Madagascan endemics, Streptocarpus papangae and S. suffruticosus (Gesneriaceae), and their potential taxonomic value. South African J. Bot. 80: 44-56.

Jongkind, C. C. H. 1995. Review of the genus Strephonema (Combretaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 82: 535-541.

Jongkind, C. C. H., & Lemmens, R. H. J. 1989. The Connaraceae: A Taxonomic Study with Special Emphasis on Africa. Landbouwuniversiteit te Wageningen.

Jongmans, A. G. [et al. 1997], van Breemen, N., Lundström, U. S., van Hees, P. A. W., Finlay, R. D., Srinivasan, M., Nestam, T., Giesler, R., Melkerud, P.-A., & Olsson, M. 1997. Rock-eating fungi. Nature 389: 682-683.

Jonker, F. P. 1938. A monograph of the Burmanniaceae. Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijks Univ. Utrecht 51: 1-279.

Joppa, L. N. [et al. 2010 (online), 2011], Roberts, D. L., & Pimm, S. L. 2010. How many species of flowering plants are there? Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 278: 554-559.

Jordaan, A. 2011. Seed coat development, anatomy and scanning electron microscopy of Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil's Claw), Pedaliaceae. South African J. Bot. 77: 404-414.

Jordal, B. H. [et al. 2000], Normark, B. B., & Farrell, B. D. 2000. Evolutionary radiation of an inbreeding haplodiploid beetle lineage (Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 71: 483-499.

Jordal, B. H. [et al. 2008], Gillespie, J. J., & Cognato, A. I. 2008. Secondary structure alignment and direct optimization of 28S rDNA sequences provide limited phylogenetic resolution in bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Zool. Scripta 37: 43-56.

Jordaan, M., & Lötter, M. 2012. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on the monotypic genus Xymalos and general information on the family Monimiaceae. Bothalia 42: 51-56.

Jordal, B. H. [et al. 2011], Sequeira, A. S, & Cognato, A. I. 2011. The age and phylogeny of wood boring weevils and the origin of subsociality. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 59: 708-724.

Jordan, G. J., & MacPhail, M. K. 2003. A Middle-Late Eocene inflorescence of Caryophyllaceae from Tasmania, Australia. American J. Bot. 90: 761-768.

Jordan, G. J. [et al. 2005], Dillon, R. A., & Weston, P. H. 2005. Solar radiation as a factor in the evolution of scleromorphic leaf anatomy in Proteaceae. American J. Bot. 92: 789-796.

Jordan, G. J. [et al. 2007], Bromfield, K. E., Sniderman, J. M. K., & Crayn, D. 2007. Diverse fossil epacrids (Styphelioideae; Ericaceae) from early Pleistocene sediments at Stony Creek Basin, Victoria, Australia. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 168: 1359-1376.

Jordan, G. J. [et al. 2008], Weston, P. H., Carpenter, R. J., Dillon, R. A., & Brodripp, T. J. 2008. The evolutionary relations of sunken, covered, and encrypted stomata to dry habitats in Proteaceae. American J. Bot. 95: 521-530.

Jordan, G. J. [et al. 2010], Bannister, J. M., Mildenhall, D. C., Zetter, R., & Lee, D. E. 2010. Fossil Ericaceae from New Zealand: Deconstructing the use of fossil evidence in historical biogeography. American J. Bot. 97: 59-70.

Jordan, G. J. [et al. 2013], Brodribb, T. J., Blackman, C. J., & Weston, P. H. 2013. Climate drives vein anatomy in Proteaceae. American J. Bot. 100: 1483-1493.

Jordan, M. S., & Hayden, W. J. 1992. A survey of mucilaginous testa in Chamaesyce. Collect. Bot. 21: 79-89.

Jordano, P. 1987. Patterns of mutualistic interactions in pollination and seed dispersal: Connectance, dependence asymmetries, and coevolution. American Natural. 129: 657-677.

Jordheim, M. [et al. 2006], Giske, N. H., & Andersen, Ø. M. 2006. Anthocyanins in Caprifoliaceae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 35: 153-159.

Jordheim, M. [et al. 2009], Andersen, Ø. M., Nozzolillo, C., & Amiguet, V. T. 2009. Acylated anthocyanins in inflorescence of spider flower (Cleome hassleriana). Phytochem. 70: 740-745.

Jordon-Thaden, I., & Koch, M. A. 2008. Diversity patterns in the genus Draba: A first global perspective. Plant Ecol. Divers. 1: 255-263.

Jordon-Thaden, I. [et al. 2010], Hase, I., Al-Shehbaz, I., & Koch, M. A. 2010. Molecular phylogeny and systematics of the genus Draba (Brassicaceae) and identification of its most closely raleted genera. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 55: 524-540.

Jorgenson, L. B. 1981. Myrosin cells and dilated cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in the order Capparales. Nordic J. Bot. 1: 433-445.

Jorgenson, L. B. 1995. Stomatal myrosin cells in Caricaceae: Implications for a glucosinolate family. Nordic J. Bot. 15: 523-540.

Joshi, A. C. 1931. Contributions to the anatomy of Chenopodiaceae and Amarantaceae II. Primary vascular system of Achyranthes aspera L., Cyathula prostrata Blume and Pupalia lappacea Juss. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 10: 265-292, pl..

Joshi, A. C. 1936. Anatomy of the flowers of Stellera chamæjasme Linn. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 15: 77-86, pl. 1.

Joshi, A. C. 1939. Morphology of Tinospora cordifolia, with some observations on the origin of the single integument, nature of synergidae, and affinities of the Menispermaceae. American J. Bot. 26: 433-439.

Joshi, A.C., & Kajale, L. B. 1936. A note on the structure and development of the embryo-sac, ovule, and fruit of Tamarix dioica Roxb. Ann. Bot. 50: 421-425.

Joshi, A. C., & Rao, V. R. 1936. The embryology of Gisekia pharnaceoides Linn. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. B, 3: 71-92.

Jouannic, S. [et al. 2011], Lartaud, M., Hervé, J., Collin, M., Orieux, Y., Verdeil, J.-L., & Tregear, J. W. 2011. The shoot apical meristem of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis; Arecaceae): Developmental progression and dynamics. Ann Bot. 108: 1477-1487.

Joubès, J., & Chevalier, C. 2000. Endoreduplication in higher plants. Plant Molec. Biol. 43: 735-745.

Jousselin, E., Rasplus, J.-Y., & Kjellberg, F. 2003. Convergence and coevolution in a mutualism: Evidence from a molecular phylogeny of Ficus. Evolution 57: 1255-1269.

Jousselin, E. [et al. 2008], van Noort, S., Berry, V., Rasplus, J.-Y., Rønsted, N., Erasmus, J. C., & Greeff, J. M. 2008. One fig to bind them all: Host conservatism in a fig wasp community unraveled by cospeciation analyses among pollinating and nonpollinating fig wasps. Evolution 62: 1777-1797.

Jovet-Ast, S. 1942. Recherches sur les Anonacées d'Indochine: Anatomie foliaire - répartition géographique. Mém. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., N.S. 16: 125-308.

Joy, J. B., & Crespi, B. J. 2007. Adaptive radiation of gall-inducing insects within a single host-plant species. Evolution 61: 784-795.

Joy, J. B., & Crespi, B. J. 2012. Island phytophagy: Explaining the remarkable diversity of plant-feeding insects. Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 279: 3250-3255.

Jud, N., & Wing, S. 2012. New fossils and revised ages suggest a geologically brief period for early diversification of angiosperms. P. 136, in Botany 2012: The Next Generation. July 7-11 - Columbus, Ohio. Abstracts.

Jud, N., & Wing, S. 2013. The evolution of angiosperm ecological strategies. P. 54, in Botany 2013. Celebrating Diversity! July 27-31 - New Orleans. Abstracts.

Judd, W. S. 1985. A revised traditional/descriptive classification of fruits for use in floristics and teaching. Phytologia 58: 232-242.

Judd, W. S. 1989. Taxonomic studies in the Miconieae (Melastomataceae). III. Cladistic analysis of axillary-flowered taxa. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 76: 476-495.

Judd, W. S. 1997a. The Flacourtiaceae in the Southeastern United States. Harvard Papers Bot. 1(10): 65-79.

Judd, W. S. 1997b. The Asphodelaceae in the Southeastern United States. Harvard Papers Bot. 2: 109-123.

Judd, W. S. 2000. The Hypoxidaceae in the Southeastern United States. Harvard Papers Bot. 5: 79-98.

Judd, W. S. 2003. The genera of Ruscaceae in the Southeastern United States. Harvard Papers Bot. 7: 93-149.

Judd, W. S., & Ferguson, I. K. 1999. The genera of Chenopodiaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Papers Bot. 4: 365-416.

Judd, W. S., & Kron, K. A. 1993. Circumscription of Ericaceae (Ericales) as determined by preliminary cladistic analyses based on morphological, anatomical and embryological features. Brittonia 45: 99-114.

Judd, W. S., & Manchester, S. R. 1997. Circumscription of Malvaceae (Malvales) as determined by a preliminary cladistic analysis of morphological, anatomical, palynological and chemical characters. Brittonia 49: 384-405.

Judd, W. S., & Olmstead, R. G. 2004. A survey of tricolpate (eudicot) phylogenetic relationships. American J. Bot. 91: 1627-1644.

Judd, W. S., & Skean, J. D. Jr. 1991. Taxonomic studies in the Miconieae (Melastomataceae). IV. Generic realignments among terminal-flowered taxa. Bull. Florida Mus. Natural Hist., Biol. Sci. 36(2): 25-84.

Judd, W. S. [et al. 1994], Sanders, R. W., & Donoghue, M. J. 1994. Angiosperm family pairs: Preliminary phylogenetic analyses. Harvard Papers Botany 5:1-51.

Judd, W. S. [et al. 1999], Campbell, C. S., Kellogg, E. A., & Stevens, P. F. 1999. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass.

Judd, W. S. [et al. 2002], Campbell, C. S., Kellogg, E. A., Stevens, P. F., & Donoghue, M. J. 2002. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, Ed. 2. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass.

Judd, W. S. [et al. 2007], Campbell, C. S., Kellogg, E. A., Stevens, P. F., & Donoghue, M. J. 2008 [2007]. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, Ed. 3. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass.

Judd, W. S. [et al. 2010], Ionta, G. M., Skean, J. D., Jr., Becquer-Granados, E. R., & Michelangeli, F. A. 2010. Introduction to the Miconieae of the Greater Antilles: I. Major clades. P. 119, in Botany 2010. July 31 - August 4, Providence, Rhode Island. Scientific Abstracts.

Juel H. O. 1887. Beiträge zur Anatomie der Marcgraviaceen. Kongl. Svenska Vetenskap. Handl. 12, afd. 3, nr. 5: 1–28.

Judziewicz, E. J. 1987. Taxonomy and Morphology of the Tribe Phareae (Poaceae: Bambusoideae). Ph. D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Judziewicz, E. J., & Clark, L. G. 2007 [2008]. Classification and biogeograpjhy of New World grasses: Anomochlooideae, Pharoideae, Ehrhartioideae, and Bambusoideae. Pp. 303-314, in Columbus, J. T., Friar, E. A., Porter, J. M., Prince, L. M., & Simpson, M. G. (eds), Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution. Poales.. Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, Claremont, Ca. [Aliso 23: 303-314.]

Judziewicz, E. J., & Soderstrom, T. R. 1989. Morphological, anatomical and taxonomic studies in Anomochloa and Streptochaeta (Poaceae: Bambusoideae). Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 68: 1-52.

Judziewicz, E. J. [et al. 1999], Clark, L. G., Londoño, X., & Stern, M. J. 1999. American Bamboos. Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

Juel, H. O. 1887. Beiträge zur Anatomie der Margraviaceen. Bihang Kungl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 12, Avd. 3, 5: 1-28.

Juel, H. O. 1902. Studien über die Entwicklungsgeschichte des Samens von Cynomorium. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 13: 194-204.

Juel, H. O. 1918. Beiträge zur Blütenanatomie und zur Systematik der Rosaceen. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskap. Handl. 58(5): 1-51.

Juel, H. O. 1929. Beiträge zur Morphologie und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Rhamnaceen, Kungl. Svenska Vetenskap. Handl. 7(3): 1-13, pl. 1-2.

Juel, O. 1902. Entwicklungsgeschichte des Samens von Cynomorium. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 13: 194-202.

Julio, P. G. dos S., & Oliveira, D. M. T. 2007. Morfoanatomia e ontogênese do fruto e semente de Styrax camporum Pohl (Styracaceae), espécie de cerrado do Estado de São Paolo. Rev. Brasiliera Bot. 30: 189-203.

Jumpponen, A. 2001. Dark septate endophytes - are they mycorrhizal? Mycorrhiza 11: 207-211.

Jumpponen, A., & Jones, K. L. 2009. Massively parallel 454 sequencing indicates hyperdiverse fungal communities in temperate Quercus macrocarpa phyllosphere. New Phytol. 184: 438-448.

Juncosa, A. M. 1982. Developmental morphology of the embryo and seedling of Rhizophora mangle L. (Rhizophoraceae). American J. Bot. 69: 1599-1611.

Juncosa, A. M., & Tomlinson, P. B. 1988a. A historical and taxonomic synopsis of Rhizophoraceae and Anisophylleaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 1278-1295.

Juncosa, A. M., & Tomlinson, P. B. 1988b. Systematic comparison and some biological characteristics of Rhizophoraceae and Anisophylleaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 1296-1318.

Junell, S. 1931. Die Entwicklungsgeschichte von Circaeaster agrestis. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 25: 238-270, pl. 1-2.

Junell, S. 1934. Zur Gynäceummorphologie und Systematik der Verbenaceen und Labiaten. Symb. Bot. Upsalienses 1(4): 1-219 + pl. 1-8.

Junell, S. 1961. Ovarian morphology and taxonomical position of Selagineae. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 55: 168-192.

Jung, J., & Choi, H.-K. 2013. Recognition of two major clades and early diverged groups within the subfamily Cyperoideae (Cyperaceae) including Korean sedges. J. Plant Res. 126: 335-349.

Jung, J. [et al. 2008], Lee, S. K., & Choi, H.-K. 2008. Anatomical patterns of aerenchyma in aquatic and wetland plants. J. Plant Biol. 51: 428-439.

Junikka, L., & Koek-Noorman, J. 2007. Anatomical structure of barks in neotropical genera of Annonaceae. Ann. Bot. Fennica 44: 79-132.

Juniper, B. E. [et al. 1989], Robins, R. J., & Joel, D. M. 1989. The Carnivorous Plants. Academic Press, London.

Jürgens, A. [et al. 2009], Dötterl, S., Leide-Schumann, S., & Meve, U. 2009. Chemical diversity of floral volatiles in Asclepiadoideae-Asclepiadeae (Apocynaceae). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 36: 842-852.

Jürgens, N. 1995. Contributions to the phytogeography of Crassula. Pp. 136-150, in 't Hart, H., & Eggli, U. (eds), Evolution and Systematics of the Crassulaceae. Backhuys, Leiden.

Jurica, H. S. 1922. A morphological study of the Umbelliferae. Bot. Gaz. 74: 292-307, pl. 13-14.

Jury, S. L. [et al. 1987], Reynolds, T., Cutler, D. F., & Evans, F. J. (eds.). 1987. The Euphorbiales: Chemistry, taxonomy and economic botany. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 94: 1-326.

Jurzyk, S. 2005. Phenotypic sex variability of Myrica gale (Myricaceae) in selected populations in eastern regions of its range. Fragm. Flor. Geobot. Polonica 12: 13-21. [In Polish.]

Jüssen, F. J. 1929. Die Haploidgeneration der Araceen und ihre Verwertung für das System. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 155-283, pl. 14-24.

Jussieu, A.-L. de. 1789. Genera plantarum. Herissant & Barrois, Paris.

Kabouw, P. [et al. 2008], van Welzen, P. C., Baas, P., & van Heuven, B. J. 2008. Styloid crystals in Claoxylon (Euphorbiaceae) and allies (Claoxylinae) with notes on leaf anatomy. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 156: 445-457.

Kadereit, G. 2007 [2006]. Menyanthaceae. Pp. 599-604, in Kadereit, J. W. & Jeffrey, C. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Volume VIII. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Asterales. Springer, Berlin.

Kadereit, G., & Freitag, H. 2011. Molecular phylogeny of Camphorosmeae (Camphorosmoideae, Chenopodiaceae): Implications for biogeography, evolution of C4-photosynthesis and taxonomy. Taxon 60: 51-78.

Kadereit, G. [et al. 2003], Borsch, T., Weising, K., & Freitag, H. 2003. Phylogeny of Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 164: 959-986.

Kadereit, G. [et al. 2005], Gotzek, D., Jacobs, S., & Freitag, H. 2005. Origin and age of Australian Chenopodiaceae. Organisms Divers. Evol. 5: 59-80.

Kadereit, G. [et al. 2006], Mucina, L., & Freitag, H. 2006. Phylogeny of Salicornioideae (Chenopodiaceae): Diversification, biogeography, and evolutionary trends in floral morphology. Taxon 55: 617-642.

Kadereit, G. [et al. 2007], Ball, P., Beer, S., Mucina, L., Sokoloff, D., Teege, P., Yaprack, A. E., & Freitag, H. 2007. A taxonomic nightmare comes true: Phylogeny and biogeography of glassworts (Salicornia L., Chenopodiaceae). Taxon 56: 1143-1170.

Kadereit, G. [et al. 2010], Mavrodiev, E. V., Zacharias, E. H., & Sukhorukov, A. P. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of Atripliceae (Chenopodioideae, Chenopodiaceae): Implications for systematics, biogeography, flower and fruit evolution, and the origin of C4 photosynthesis. American J. Bot. 97: 1664-1687.

Kadereit, G. [et al. 2012], Ackerly, D., & Pirie, M. D. 2012. A broader model for C4 photosynthesis evolution in plants inferred from the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae s. str.). Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 279: 3304-3311.

Kadereit, J. W. 1993. Papaveraceae. Pp. 494-505, in Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., & Bittrich, V. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families. Springer, Berlin.

Kadereit, J. W. 2004. Lamiales, introduction and conspectus. Pp. 1-8, in Kadereit, J. W. (ed)., The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. VII. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Lamiales (except Acanthaceae including Avicenniaceae). Springer, Berlin.

Kadereit, J. W. 2006 [2007]. Asterales: Introduction and Conspectus. Pp. 1-6, in Kadereit, J. W. & Jeffrey, C. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Volume VIII. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Asterales. Springer, Berlin.

Kadereit, J. W., & Baldwin, B. G. 2011. Systematics, phylogeny, and evolution of Papaver californicum and Stylomecon heterophylla (Papaveraceae). Madroño 58: 92-100.

Kadereit, J. W., & Erbar, C. 2011. Evolution of gynoecium morphology in Old World Papaveroideae: A combined phylogenetic/ontogenetic approach. American J. Bot. 98: 1243-1251.

Kadereit, J. W., & Sytsma, K. J. 1992. Disassembling Papaver: A restriction site analysis of chloroplast DNA. Nordic J. Bot. 12: 205-217.

Kadereit, J. W., & von Hagen, K. B. 2003. The evolution of flower morphology in Gentianaceae-Swertiinae and the roles of key innovations and niche width for the diversification of Gentianella and Halenia in South America. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 164(5 Suppl): S441-S452.

Kadereit, J. W. [et al. 1994], Blattner, F. R., Jork, K. B., & Schwarzbach, A. 1994. Phylogenetic analysis of the Papaveraceae s.l. (inc. Fumariaceae, Hypecoaceae, and Pteridophyllum) based on morphological characters. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 116: 361-390.

Kadereit, J. W. [et al. 1995], Blattner, F. R., Jork, K. B., & Schwarzbach, A. 1995. The phylogeny of the Papaveraceae sensu lato: morphological, geographical, and ecological implications. Pp. 133-145, in Jensen, U., & Kadereit, J. W. (eds.), Systematics and Evolution of the Ranunculiflorae. Springer, Vienna. [Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 9.]

Kadereit, J. W. [et al. 1997], Schwarzbach, A., & Jork, K. B. 1997. The phylogeny of Papaver s.l. (Papaveraceae): Polyphyly or monophyly? Plant Syst. Evol. 204: 75-98.

Kadereit, J. W. [et al. 2008], Repplinger, M., Schmalz, N., Uhink, C. H., & Wörz, A. 2008. The phylogeny and biogeography of Apiaceae subf. Saniculoideae tribe Saniculeae: From south to north and south again. Taxon 57: 365-382.

Kadereit, J. W. [et al. 2011], Preston, C. D., & Valtueña, F. J. 2011. Is Welsh poppy, Meconopsis cambrica (L.) Vig. (Papaveraceae), truly a Meconopsis? New J. Bot. 1:

\

Käfer, J., & Mousset, S. 2014. Standard sister clade comparison fails when testing derived states. Syst. Biol. 63: 601-609.

Kainulainen, K. [et al. 2009], Mouly, A., Khodabandeh, A., & Bremer, B. 2009. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Alberteae (Rubiaceae), with description of a new genus, Razafimandimbisonia. Taxon 58: 757-768.

Kainulainen, K. [et al. 2010], Persson, C., Eriksson, T., & Bremer, B. 2010. Molecular systematics and morphological character evolution of the Condamineeae (Rubiaceae). American J. Bot. 97: 1961-1981.

Kainulainen, K. [et al. 2013], Razafimandimbison, S. G., & Bremer, B. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships and new tribal delimitations in subfamily Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 173: 387-406.

Kai-yu, P. [et al. 1993], Jian-hua, L., An-ming, L., & Jie, W. 1993. The embryology of Tetracentron chinense Oliver and its systematic significance. Cathaya 5: 49-58.

Kajale, L. B. 1940a. A contribution to the life history of Bergia ammanioides Roxb. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 19: 157-167.

Kajale, L. B. 1940b. A contribution to the embryology of the Amarantaceae. Proc. National Inst. Sci. India 6: 597-625.

Kajaale, L. B. 1940c. Structure and development of the male and female gametophytes of Sesuvium portulacastrum. Proc. National Acad. Sci. India B, 10: 82-89.

Kajale, L. B. 1954. A contribution to the embryology of Phytolaccaceae. II. Fertilization and the development of embryo, seed and fruit in Rivina humilis Linn. and Phytolacca dioica Linn. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 33: 206-225.

Kajita, T. [et al. 1998], Kamiya, K., Nakamura, K., Tachida, H., Wickneswari, R., Tsumura, Y., Yoshimaru, H., & Yamazaki, T. 1998. Molecular phylogeny of Dipterocarpaceae in Southeast Asia based on nucleotide sequences of matK, trnL intron, and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer region in chloroplast DNA. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 10: 202-209.

Kajita, T. [et al. 2005], Ohashi, H., Tateishi, Y., Bailey, C. D., & Doyle, J. J. 2005. RbcL and legume phylogeny, with particular reference to Phaseoleae, Millettieae, and allies. Syst. Bot. 26: 515-536.

Kalin Arroyo, M. T. 1981. Breeding systems and pollination biology in Leguminosae. Pp. 723-769, in Polhill, R. M., & Raven, P. H. (eds), Advances in Legume Systematics. Part 2. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Kalisz, S. [et al. 2006], Ree, R. H., & Sargent, R. D. 2006. Linking floral symmetry genes to breeding system evolution. Trends Plant Sci. 11: 568-573.

Kalkman, C. 1988. The phylogeny of the Rosaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 98: 37-59.

Kalkman, C. 2004. Rosaceae. Pp. 343-386, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. VI. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales. Springer, Berlin.

Kalko, E. K. V. [et al. 1996], Herre, E. A., & Handley, C. O. J. 1996. Relation of fig fruit characteristics to fruit-eating bats in the New and Old World tropics. J. Biogeog. 23: 565-576.

Källersjö, M., & Ståhl, B. 2003. Phylogeny of Theophrastaceae (Ericales s. lat.). Internat. J. Plant Sci. 164: 579-591.

Källersjö, M. [et al. 1998], Farris, J. S., Chase, M. W., Bremer, B., Fay, M. F., Humphries, C. J., Petersen, G., Seberg, O., & Bremer, K. 1998. Simultaneous parsimony jacknife analysis of 2538 rbcL DNA sequences reveals support for major clades of green plants, land plants, seed plants and flowering plants. Plant Syst. Evol. 213: 259-287.

Källersjö, M. [et al. 2000], Bergqvist, G., & Anderberg, A. A. 2000. Generic realignment in primuloid families of the Ericales s.l.: A phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequences from three chloroplast genes and morphology. American J. Bot. 87: 1325-1341

Kallunki, J. A. 1992. A revision of Erythrochiton sensu lato (Cuspariinae, Rutaceae). Brittonia 44: 107-139.

Kallunki, J. A., & Groppo, M. 2007. Phylogenetic analyses of the subtribe Galipeinae (Rutaceae). Pp. 180-181, in Plant Biology and Botany 2007. Program and Abstract Book. Chicago.

Kaltenegger, E. [et al. 2013], Eich, E., & Ober, D. 2013. Evolution of homospermidine synthase in the Convolvulaceae: A story of gene duplication, gene loss, and periods of various selection pressures. Plant Cell 25: 1213-1227.

Kamelina, O. P. 1980. Comparative Embryology of Dipsacaceae and Morinaceae families. Nauka, Leningrad. [In Russian.]

Kamelina, O. P. 1983. Basic results of the comparative embryological investigation of Dipsacaceae and Morinaceae. Pp. 343-346, in Erdelská, O., &Ctilde;iamporová, M., Lux, M., Pretóvá, A, & Tupý, J. (eds), Fertilization and Embryogenesis in Ovulated Plants. VEDA, Bratislava.

Kamelina, O. P., & Konnova, V. A. 1990. Embryological characters of Biebersteinia Steph. according to its taxonomic position. Dokl. Akad. Fan. RSDS Togikis [chechk] 33: 193-195. [In Russian.]

Kamelina, O. P., & Proskurina, O. B. 1985. On the embryology of Stegnosperma halimifolium (Stegnospermataceae). Distribution of the embryological features in Caryophyllales. Bot. Zhurn. 70: 721-730. [In Russian.]

Kamelina, O. P., & Zhinkina, N. A. 1998. On the embryology of Ostrowskia magnifica (Campanulaceae). The ovule and seed. Bot. Zhurn. 83(3): 9-20. [In Russian.]

Kamelina, O. P., et al. (eds). 1981. Comparative Embryology of Flowering Plants: Winteraceae-Juglandaceae. NAUKA, Leningrad. [In Russian.]

Kamelina, O. P., et al. (eds). 1983. Comparative Embryology of Flowering Plants: Phytolaccaceae-Thymelaeaceae. NAUKA, Leningrad. [In Russian.]

Kamia, K. [et al. 2005], Harada, K., Tachida, H., & Ashton, P. S. 2005. Phylogeny of PgiC gene in Shorea and its closely related genera (Dipterocarpaceae), the dominant trees in Southeast Asian rain forests. American J. Bot. 92: 775-788.

Kampny, C. M. 1995. Pollination and flower diversity in Scrophulariaceae. Bot. Review 61: 350-366.

Kang, J.-H. [et al. 2010], Li, G., Shi, F., Jones, A. D., Beaudry, R. M., & Howe, G. A. 2010. The tomata odorless-2 mutant is defective in trichome-based production of diverse specialized metabolites and broad-spectrum resistance to insect herbivores. Plant Physiol. 154: 262-272.

Kania, W. 1973. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen an Rosaceenblüten. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 93: 175-246.

Kanis, A. 1968. A revision of the Ochnaceae of the Indo-Pacific area. Blumea 16: 1-83.

Kanis, A. 1971. Ochnaceae. Pp. 97-119, in van Steenis, C. G. G. J. (ed), Flora malesiana, ser. 1, vol. 7. Wolters-Noordhoff, Wageningen.

Kanno, A. [et al. 1999], Bohne, A., Seadler, H., & Theissen, G. 1999. How lily spells the floral ABC. P. 673, in XVI International Botanical Congress: Abstracts. [Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis.]

Kanno, A. [et al. 2003], Saeki, H., Kameya, T., Saedler, H., & Theissen, G. 2003. Heterotopic expression of class B floral homeotic genes supports a modified ABC model for tulip Tulipa gesneriana. Plant Mol. Biol. 52: 831-841.

Kanta, K. 1962 [=1963]. Morphology and embryology of Piper nigrum L. Phytomorph. 12: 207-221.

Kao, P. C., see also Gao, B. C.

Kao, P.-C. 1989. Acanthochlamydaceae - a new monocotyledons family. Pp. 483-507, pl. 1-9, in Kao, P. C., & Tan, Z. M. (eds), Flora Sechuan.

Kao, P.-C., & Kubitzki, K. 1998. Acanthochlamydaceae. Pp. 55-57, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. III. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Lilianae (except Orchidaceae). Springer, Berlin.

Kapgate, D. 2009. Occurrence of Cocos like palm fruit from the Deccan Intertrappean beds of central India. P. 139, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Kapil, R. N. 1960. Embryology of Acalypha Linn. Phytomorph. 10: 174-184.

Kapil, R. N. 1970. Crossosomataceae, Podostemaceae. Indian National Sci. Acad. Bull. [Symposium: Comparative Embryology of Angiosperms] 41: 63-68, 104-109.

Kapil, R. N., & Ahluwalia, K. 1963. Embryology of Peganum harmala Linn. Phytomorph. 13: 127-140.

Kapil, R. N., & Bhatnagar, A. K. 1981. Ultrastructure and biology of female gametophyte in flowering plants. Internat. Review Cytol. 70: 291-

Kapil, R. N., & Kaul, U. 1972 [= 1974]. Embryologically little known taxon Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana. Phytomorph. 22: 234-245.

Kapil, R. N., & Maheshwari, R. 1964 [= 1965]. Embryology of Helianthemum vulgare Gaertn. Phytomorph. 14: 547-557.

Kapil, R. N., & Mohana Rao, P. R. 1966 [= 1967.] Studies of the Garryaceae II. Embryology and systematic position of Garrya Douglas ex Lindley. Phytomorph. 16: 564-578.

Kapil, R. N., & Tiwari, S. C. 1978. The integumentary tapetum. Bot. Review 44: 457-490.

Kapil, R. N., & Walia, K. 1965. The embryology of Philydrum lanuginosum Banks, ex Gaertn. and the systematic position of the Philydraceae. Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 41: 381-404.

Kapil, R. N., & Vijayaraghavan, M. R. 1965. Embryology of Pentaphtragma horsfieldii (Miq.) Airy Shaw with a discussion of the systematic position of the genus. Phytomorph. 15: 93-102.

Kapil, R. N. [et al. 1969], Rustagi, P. N., & Venkataraman, R. 1969. A contribution to the embryology of Polemoniaceae. Phytomorph. 18: 403-412.

Kaplan, D. R. 1967. Floral morphology, organogenesis and interpretation of the inferior ovary of Downingia bacigalupii. American J. Bot. 54: 1274-1290.

Kaplan, D. R. 1969. Seed development in Downingia. Phytomorph. 19: 253-278.

Kaplan, D. R. 1970a. Comparative foliar histogenesis in Acorus calamus and its bearing on the phyllode theory of monocotyledonous leaves. American J. Bot. 57: 331-361.

Kaplan, D. R. 1970b. Comparative development and morphological interpretation of 'rachis leaves' in Umbelliferae. Pp. 101-125, in Robson, N. K. B., Cutler, D. F., & Gregory, M. (eds), New Research in Plant Anatomy. Acacdemic Press, london. [Bot. J. Linnean Soc., Suppl. 1.]

Kaplan, D. R. 1973. The monocotyledons: Their evolution and comparative bioloogy. VII. The problem of leaf morphology and evolution in the monocotyledons. Quart. Rev. Biol. 48: 437-457.

Kaplan, D. R. 1975. Comparative developmental evaluation of the morphology of unifacial leaves in the monocotyledons. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 95: 1-105.

Kaplan, D. R. 1977. Morphological status of the shoot systemes of Psilotaceae. Brittonia 29: 30-53

Kaplan, D. R. 1980. Heteroblastic leaf development in Acacia. La Cellule 73: 135-203, pl. 1-20.

Kaplan, D. R. 1997. Plant and Microbial Biology, 4 vols. Odin Readers.

Kaplan, D. R. 2001. The science of plant morphology: Definition, history, and role in modern biology. American J. Bot. 88: 1711-1741.

Kaplan, D. R., & Cooke, T. J. 1997. Fundamental concepts in the embryogenesis of dicotyledons: A morphological interpretation of embryo mutants. Plant Cell 9: 1903-1919.

Kaplan, M. A. C. [et al. 1991], Ribeiro, J., & Gottlieb, O. R. 1991. Chemographical evolution of terpenoids in Icacinaceae. Phytochem. 30: 2672-2676.

Kaplan, Z. 2008. A taxonomic revision of Stuckenia (Potamogetonaceae) in Asia, with notes on the diversity and variation of the genus on a worldwide scale. Folia Geobot. 43: 159-234.

Kaplan, Z. [et al. 2013], Vlasta, J., & Fehrer, J. 2013. Revision of chromosome numbers of Potamogetonaceae: A new basis for taxonomic and evolutionary implications. Preslia 85: 421-482.

Kapralov, M. V. [et al. 2006], Akhani, H., Voznesenskaya, E. V., Edwards, G., Franceschi, V., & Roalson, E. H. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships in the Salicornioideae/Suaedoideae/Salsoloideae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) clade and a clarification of the phylogenetic position of Bienertia and Alexandra using multiple DNA sequence datsets. Syst. Bot. 31: 571-585.

Karafit, S. J. [et al. 2006], Rothwell, G. W., Stockey, R. A., & Nishida, H. 2006. Evience for sympodial vascular architecture in a filicalean fern rhizome: Dickwhitea allenbyensis gen. et sp. nov. (Athyriaceae). Internat. J. Plant Sci.167: 721-727.

Karaman-Castro, V., & Urbatsch, L. E. 2009. Phylogeny of Hinterhubera group and related genera (Hinterhuberinae: Astereae) based on the nrDNA ITS and ETS sequences. Syst. Bot. 34: 805-817.

Kårehed, J. 2001. Multiple origin of the tropical forest tree family Icacinaceae. American J. Bot. 88: 2259-2274.

Kårehed, J. 2002a. Introduction. Pp. 5-50, in Evolutionary Studies in Asterids Emphasising Euasterids II. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.

Kårehed, J. 2002b. Not just hollies - the expansion of Aquifoliales. Pp. 1-14, in Evolutionary Studies in Asterids Emphasising Euasterids II. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.

Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationship to Apiales. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 141: 1-24.

Kårehed, J. 2006. Alseuosmiaceae, pp. 7-12, and Argophyllaceae, pp 13-18, in Kadereit, J. W. & Jeffrey, C. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Volume VIII. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Asterales. Springer, Berlin.

Kårehed, J., & Bremer, B. 2007. The systematics of Knoxieae (Rubiaceae) - molecular data and their taxonomic consequences. Taxon 56: 1051-1076.

Kårehed, J. [et al. 2000], Lundberg, J., Bremer, B., & Bremer, K. 1999 [2000.] Evolution of the Australasian families Alseuosmiaceae, Argophyllaceae, and Phellinaceae. Syst. Bot. 24: 660-682.

Kårehed, J. [et al. 2008], Groeninckx, I., Dessein, S., Motley, T. J., & Bremer, B. 2008. The phylogenetic utility of chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers and the phylogeny of Rubiaceae tribe Spermacoceae. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 49: 843-866.

Kariman, K. [et al. 2012], Barker, S. J., Finnegan, P. M., & Tibbett, M. 2012. Dual mycorrhizal associations of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) in a nurse-pot system. Australian J. Bot. 60: 661-668.

Karl, R., & Koch, M. A. 2013. A world-wide perspective on crucifer speciation and evolution: Phylogenetics, biogeography and trait evolution in triube Arabideae. Ann. Bot. 112: 983-1001.

Karlgren, A. [et al. 2011], Gyllenstrand, N., Källman, T., Sundström, J. F., Moore, D., Lascoux, M., & Lagercrantz, U. 2011. Evolution of the PEBP gene family in plants: Functional diversification in seed plant evolution. Plant Physiol. 156: 1967-1977.

Karniol, B. [et al. 2005], Wagner, J. R., Walker, J. M., & Vierstra, R. D. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of the phytochrome superfamily reveals distinct microbial subfamilies of photoreceptors. Biochem. J. 392: 103-116.

Karol, K. G. [et al. 1999], Rodman, J. E., Conti, E., & Sytsma, K. J. 1999. Nucleotide sequences of rbcL and phylogenetic relationships of Setchellanthus caeruleus (Setchellanthaceae). Taxon 48: 303-315.

Karol, K. G. [et al. 2000], Suh, Y., Schatz, G. E., & Zimmer, E. A. 2000. Molecular evidence for the phylogenetic position of Takhtajania in the Winteraceae: Inference from nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast gene spacer sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 414-432.

Karol, K. G. [et al. 2001], McCourt, R. M., Cimino, M. T., & Delwiche, C. F. 2001. The closest relatives of land plants. Science 294: 2351-2353.

Karol, K. G. [et al. 2010], Arumuganathan, K., Boore, J. L., Duffy, A. M., Everett, K. D. E., Hall, J. D., Hansen, S. K., Kuehl, J. V., Mandoli, D. F., Mishler, B. D., Olmstead, R. G., Renzaglia, K. S., & Wolf, P. G. 2010. Complete plastome sequences of Equisetum arvense and Isoetes flaccida: Implications for phylogeny and plastid genome evolution of early land plant lineages. BMC Evol. Biol. 10: 321.

Karolyi, F. [et al. 2013], Morawetz, L., Colville, J. F., Handschuh, S., Metscher, B. D., & Krenn, H. W. 2013. Time management and nectar flow: Flower handling and suction feeding in long-proboscid flies (Nemestrinidae: Prosoeca). Naturwiss. 100: 1083–1093.

Karremans, A. P. [et al. 2013], Bakker, F. T., Pupulin, F., Solano-Gómez, R., & Smulders, M. J. M. 2013. Phylogenetics of Stelis and closely related genera (Orchidaceae: Pleurothallidinae). Plant Syst. Evol. 299: 151-176.

Karst, L., & Wilson, C. A. 2012. Phylogeny of the New World genus Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae) based on analyses of plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data. Syst. Bot. 37: 87-95.

Kartashova, N. S. 1965. Structure and Function of Floral Nectaries in Dicotyledons. Tomsk, Nauka. [In Russian.]

Kasapligil, B. 1951. Morphological and ontogenetic studies of Umbellularia californica Nutt. and Laurus nobilis L. Univ. California Publ. Bot. 25: 115-239.

Kaschuk, G. [et al. 2009], Kuyper, T. W., Leffelaar, P. A., Hungria, M., & Giller, K. E. 2009. Are rates of photosynthesis stimulated by the carbon sink strength of rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses? Soil Biol. Biochem. 41: 1233-1244.

Kashyap, M. 1979. Nodal organisation in some species of Ranunculaceae. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 58: 148-153.

Kasinathan, P., & Kumari, S. N. 2001. Systematic position of Nymphoides hydrophylla. Pp. 155-160, in Maheshwari, J. K., & Jain, A. P. (eds), Recent Researches in Plant Anatomy and Morphology. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur.

Käss, E., & Wink, M. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships in the Papilionoideae (family Leguminosae) based on nucleotide sequences of cpDNA (rbcL) and ncDNA (ITS1 and 2). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 8: 65-88.

Katayama, H., & Ogihara, Y. 1996. Phylogenetic affinities of the grasses to other monocots as revealed by molecular analysis of chloroplast DNA. Curr. Genetics 29: 572-581.

Katayama, N. [et al. 2008], Koi, S., & Kato, M. 2008. Developmental anatomy of the reproductive shoot of Hydrobryum japonicum (Podostemaceae). J. Plant Res. 121: 417-424.

Katayama, N. [et al. 2013], Kato, M., & Yamada, T. 2013. Origin and development of the cryptic shoot meristem in Zeylanidium lichenoides (Podostemaceae). American J. Bot. 100: 635-646.

Katayama, N. [et al. 2010], Koi, S., & Kato, M. 2010. Expression of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS, WUSCHEL, and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 homologs in the shoots of Podostemaceae: Implications for the evolution of novel shoot organogenesis. Plant Cell

Kathriarachchi, H. [et al. 2005], Hoffmann, P., Samuel, R., Wurdack, K. J., & Chase, M. W. 2005. Molecular phylogenetics of Phyllanthaceae inferred from five genes (plastid atpB, matK, 3' ndhF, rbcL, and nuclear PHYC). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 36: 112-134.

Kathriarachchi, H. [et al. 2006], Samuel, R., Hoffmann, P., Mlinarec, J., Wurdack, K. J., Ralimanana, H., Stuessy, T. F.,& Chase, M. W. 2006. Phylogenetics of tribe Phyllantheae (Phyllanthaceae; Euphorbiaceae sensu lato) based on nrITS and plastid matK sequence data. American J. Bot. 93: 637-655.

Katifori, E. [et al. 2010], Alben, S., Cerda, E., Nelson, D. R., & Dumais, J. 2010. Foldable structures and the natural design of pollen grains. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107: 7635-7639.

Katinas, L. [et al. 2008a], Crisci, J. V., Jabaily, R. S., Williams, C., Walker, J., Drew, B., Bonifacino, J. M., & Sytsma, K. J. 2008a. Evolution of secondary heads in Nassauviinae (Asteraceae, Mutisieae). American J. Bot. 95: 229-240.

Katinas, L. [et al. 2008b], Pruski, J., Sancho, G., & Tellería, M. C. 2008b. The subfamily Mutisioideae (asteraceae). Bot. Review 74: 469-716.

Katinas, L. [et al. 20013], Crisci, J. V., Hoch, P., Tellería, M. C., & Apodaca, M. J. 2013. Trans-oceanic dispersal and evolution of early composites (Asteraceae). Pesp. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 15: 269-280.

Kato, L. [et al. 2005], de Oliveira, C. M. A., Bittrich, V., & Amaral, M. do C. E. 2005. Xanthones from Weddellina squamulosa Tul. (Podostemaceae). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 55: 331-334.

Kato, M. [Makoto], & Inoue, T. 1994. Origin of insect pollination. Nature 368: 195.

Kato, M. [et al. 2003], Takimura, A., & Kawakita, A. 2003. An obligate pollination mutualism and reciprocal diversification in the tree genus Glochidion (Euphorbiaceae). Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100: 5264-5267.

Kato, M. [Masahiro]. 2005. Classification, molecular phylogeny, divergence time, and morphological evolution of pteridophytes with notes on heterospory and monophyletic and paraphyletic groups. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 56: 111-126.

Kato, M. [Masahiro]. 2008. Phylogeny and evolution of Podostemaceae. Bunrui 8: 97-107. [In Japanese.]

Kato, M. [Masahiro]. 2009. Podostemaceae of Malesia: Taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography. Blumea 54: 198-202.

Kato, M. [Masahiro], & Akiyama, H. 2005. Interpolation hypothesis for origin of vegetative sporophyte of land plants. Taxon 54: 443-450.

Kato, M. [Masahiro], & Tsutsumi, C. 2008. Generic classification of Davalliaceae. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 59: 1-14.

Kato, M. [Masahiro], & Tsutsumi, C. 2013. Evolution of epiphytism in ferns and lycophytes with an emphasis on Davallliaceae. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 64: 159-177.

Kato, T. [et al. 2010], Bonet, R., Yoshitake, H., Romero-Nápoles, J., Jinbo, U., Ito, M., & Shimada, M. 2010. Evolution of host utilization patterns in the seed beetle genus Mimosestes Bridwell (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae). Mol. Phyl. evol. 55: 816-832.

Kato, Y. [et al. 2003], Aioi, K., Omori, Y., Takahata, N., & Satta, Y. 2003. Phylogenetic analyses of Zostera species based on rbcL and matK sequences: Implications for the origin and diversification of seagrasses in Japanese waters. Genes Genet. Syst. 78: 329-342.

Kattan, G. H., & Valenzuela, L. A. 2013. Phenology, abundance and consumers of figs (Ficus spp.) in a tropical cloud forest: Evaluation of a potential keystone resource. J. Trop. Ecol. 29: 401-407.

Kauff, F. [et al. 2000], Rudall, P. J., & Conran, J. G. 2000. Systematic root anatomy of Asparagales and other monocotyledons. Plant Syst. Evol. 223: 139-154.

Kaufman, A. J., & Xiao, S. 2003. High CO2 levels in the Proterozoic atmosphere estimated from analyses of individual microfossils. Nature 425: 279-282.

Kaul, R. B. 1968. Floral morphology and phylogeny in the Hydrocharitaceae. Phytomorphology 18: 13-35.

Kaul, U., & Kapil, R. N. 1974. Exbucklandia populnea - from flower to fruit. Phytomorph. 24: 217-228.

Kaul, V. [et al. 2000], Koul, A. K., & Sharma, M. C. 2000. The underground flower. Curr. Sci. 78: 39-44.

Kaur, H. 1969. Structure and development of seed in Ipomoea obscura Ker Gawl. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 48: 346-351.

Kaur, H., & Singh, R. P. 1970. Structure and development of seeds in three Ipomoea species. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 49: 168-174.

Kaur, H., & Singh, R. P. 1987. Development and structure of seed and fruit in some Convolvulaceae. Phytomorph. 37: 145-154.

Kausik, S. B. 1938. Pollen development and seed formation in Uricularia caerulea L. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 58A: 365-378, pl. 2-4.

Kausik, S. B. 1940a. A contribution to the embryology of En[h]alus acoroides (L. fil.) Steud. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. B, 11: 83-99.

Kausik, S. B. 1940b. Structure and development of the ovule and embryo sac of Lasiosiphon eriocephalus Dcne. Proc. National Inst. Sci. India 6: 117-132.

Kausik, S. B., & Subramanyam, K. 1945. An embryological study of Isotoma longiflora Presl. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. B, 21: 269-278.

Kausik, S. B., & Subramanyam, K. 1946. A contribution to the life history of Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. B, 23: 274-280.

Kausik, S. B., & Subramanyam, K. 1947. Embryology of Cephalostigma schimperi Hochst. Bot. Gaz. 109: 85-90.

Kaussmann, B. 1941. Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Blattnatur der Kelch-, Blumen- und Staubblätter. Bot. Archiv 42: 503-572.

Kautz, S. [et al. 2009], Lumbsch, H. T., Ward, P. S., & Heil, M. 2009. How to prevent cheating: A digestive specialization ties mutualistic plant-ants to their ant-plant partners. Evolution 63: 839-853.

Kavanagh, P. H., & Burne, K. C. 2012. Mistletoe macroecology: Spatial patterns in species diversity and host use across Australia. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 106: 459-468.

Kawahara, A. Y., & Breinholt, J. W. 2014. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths. Proc. Royal Soc. B, 281:

Kawai, H. [et al. 2003], Kanegae, T., Christensen, S., Kiyosue, T., Sato, Y., Imaizumi, T., Kadota, A., & Wada, M. 2003. Responses of ferns to red light are mediated by an unconventional photoreceptor. Nature 421: 287-290.

Kawakita, A. 2010. Evolution of obligate pollination mutualism in the tribe Phyllantheae (Phyllanthaceae). Plant Species Biol. 25: 3-19.

Kawakita, A., & Kato, M. 2004a. Evolution of obligate pollination mutualism in New Caledonia Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae). American J. Bot. 91: 410-415.

Kawakita, A., & Kato, M. 2004b. Obligate pollination mutualism in Breynia (Phyllanthaceae): Further documentation of pollination mutualism involving Epicephala (Gracillariidae). American J. Bot. 91: 1319-1325.

Kawakita, A., & Kato, M. 2006. Assessment of the diversity and species specificity of the mutualistic association between Epicephala moths and Glochidion trees. Molec. Ecol. 15: 3567-3581.

Kawakita, A., & Kato, M. 2009. Repeated independent evolution of obligate pollination mutualism in the Phyllantheae-Epicephala association. Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 276: 417-426.

Kawakita, A. [et al. 2004], Takimura, A., Terachi, T., Sota, T., & Kato, M. 2004. Cospeciation analysis of an obligate pollination mutualism: Have Glochidion trees (Euphorbiaceae) and pollinating Epicephala moths (Gracillariidae) diversified in parallel? Evolution 58: 2201-2214.

Kawasaki, M. L. 1998. Systematics of Erisma (Vochysiaceae). Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 81: 1-40.

Kawasaki, M. L. 2006. Vochysiaceae. Pp. 480-487, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Volume IX. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales.... Springer, Berlin.

Kay, K. M., & Sargent, R. D. 2009. The role of animal pollination in plant speciation: Ecology, geography, and genetics. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 40: 637-656.

Kay, K. M. [et al. 2005], Reeves, P. A., Olmstead, R. G., & Schemske, D. W. 2005. Rapid speciation and the evolution of hummingbird pollination in neotropical Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae): Evidence from nrDNA ITS and ETS sequences. American J. Bot. 92: 1899-1910.

Kay, K. M. [et al. 2006a], Whittall, J. B., & Hodges, S. A. 2006. A survey of nuclear ribsomal internal transcribed spacer substitution rates across angiosperms: An approximate molecular clock with life history effects. BMC Evol. Biol. 6: 36. - see http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/6/36

Kay, K. M. [et al. 2006b], Voelckel, C., Yang, J. Y., Hufford, K. M., Kaska, D. D., & Hodges, S. A. 2006b. Floral characters and species diversification. Pp. 311-325, in Harder, L. D., & Barrett, S. C. H. (eds), Ecology and Evolution of Flowers. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Kay, R. F., & Covert, H. H. 1983. True grit: A microwear experiment. American J. Physic. Anthropol. 61: 33-38.

Kazana, E. [et al. 2007], Pope, T. W., Tibbles, L., Bridges, M., Pickett, J. A., Bones, A. M., Powell, G., & Rossiter, J. T. 2007. The cabbage aphid: A walking mustard oil bomb. Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 274: 2271-2277.

Kazemi, M. [et al. 2009], Kazempour Osaloo, S., Maassoumi, A. A., & Pouyani, E. R. 2009. Molecular phylogeny of selected Old World Astragalus (Fabaceae): Incongruence among chloroplast trnL-F, ndhF and nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. Nordic j. Bot. 27: 425-436.

Kazempour Osaloo, S., & Kawano, S. 1999. molecular systematics of Trilliaceae II. Phylogenetic analysis of Trillium and its allies using sequences of rbcL and matL genes of cpDNA and internal transcribed spacers of 18S-26S nrDNA. Plant Species Biol. 14: 75-94.

Kazempour Osaloo, S. [et al. 2005], Maassoumi, A. A., & Murakami, N. 2005. Molecular systematics of the Old World Astragalus (Fabaceae) as inferred from nrDNA ITS sequence data. Brittonia 57: 367-381.

Keating, R. C. 1966. Comparative morphology of Cochlospermaceae. I. Synopsis of family and wood anatomy. Phytomorph. 18: 379-392.

Keating, R. C. 1970. Comparative morphology of Cochlospermaceae. II. Anatomy of the young vegetative shoot. American J. Bot. 57: 889-898.

Keating, R. C. 1972. Comparative morphology of Cochlospermaceae. III. The flower and pollen. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 59: 282-296.

Keating, R. C. 1984 [1985.] Leaf anatomy and its contribution to relationships in Myrtales. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71: 801-823.

Keating, R. C. 2000a. Anatomy of the young shoot of Takhtajania perrieri (Winteraceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 87: 335-346.

Keating, R. C. 2000b. Collenchyma in Araceae: Trends and classification. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 134: 203-214.

Keating, R. C. 2002 [2003a.] Anatomy of the Monocotyledons. IX. Acoraceae and Araceae (ed. Gregory, M., & Cutler, D. F.). Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Keating, R. C. 2003b. Leaf anatomical characters and their value in understanding morphoclines in the Araceae. Bot. Review 68: 510-523.

Keating, R. C. 2004a. Vegetative anatomical data and its relationship to a revised classification of the genera of Araceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 91: 485-494.

Keating, R. C. 2004b. Systematic occurrence of raphide crystals in Araceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 91: 495-504.

Kedves, M. 1989. Evolution of the Normapolles complex. Pp. 1-7, in Crane, P. R., & Blackmore, S. (eds), Evolution, Systematics, and Fossil History of the Hamamelidae, vol. 2. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Keeley, J. E. 1998. CAM photosynthesis in submerged aquatic plants. Bot. Review 64: 121-175.

Keeley, J. E. 2012. Ecology and evolution of pine life histories. Ann. Forest Sci. 69: 445-453.

Keeley, J. E., & Rundel, P. W. 2003. Evolution of CAM and C4 carbon-concentrating mechanisms. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 164(suppl. 3): S55-S77.

Keeley, S. C. [et al. 2007], Forsman, Z. H., & Chan, R. 2007. A phylogeny of the "evil tribe" (Vernonieae: Compositae) reveals Old/New World long distance dispersal: Support from separate and combined datasets (TrnL-F, ndhF, ITS). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 44: 89-103.

Keeling, C. I., & Bohlmann, J. 2006a. Genes, enzymes and chemicals of terpenoid diversity in the constitutive and induced defence of conifers against insects and pathogens. New Phytol. 170: 657-675.

Keeling, C. I., & Bohlmann, J. 2006b. Diterpene resin acids in conifers. Phytochem. 67: 2415-2423.

Keeling, P. J., & Palmer, J. D. 2008. Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic evolution. Nature Reviews Genetics 9: 605-617.

Keighery, G. J. 1980. Bird pollination in South Western Australia: A checklist. Plant Syst. Evol. 135: 171-176.

Keighery, G. J. 1982. Bird-pollinated plants in Western Australia. Pp. 77-89, in Armstrong, J. A., Powell, J. M., & Richards, A. J. (eds), Pollination and Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, NSW.

Keighery, G. H. 1996. Phylogeny, biology and conservation oof Western Australiam Epacridaceae. Ann. Bot. 77: 347-355.

Keijzer, C. J. 1987. The processes of anther dehiscence and pollen disperal. II. The formation and the transfer mechanism of pollen kitt, cell-wall development of the loculus tissues and a function of orbicules in pollen dispersal. New Phytol. 105: 499-507.

Keith, H. [et al. 2009], Mackey, B. G., & Lindenmayer, D. B. 2009. Re-evaluation of forest biomass carbon stocks and lessons from the world's most carbon-dense forests. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106: 11635-11640.

Kelch, D. G. 1998. Phylogeny of Podocarpaceae: Comparison of evidence from morphology and 18S rDNA. American J. Bot. 85: 986-996.

Kelch, D. G., & Cranfill, R. 2000. Seed plant phylogeny: The yew-conifers and a farewell to the anthophyte hypothesis. American J. Bot. 87(6, suppl.): 135.

Kelch, D. G. [et al. 2004], Driskell, A., & Mishler, B. D. 2004. Inferring phylogeny using genomic characters: A case study using land plant plastomes. Pp. 3-11, in Goffinet, B., Hollowell, V., & Magill, R. (eds), Molecular Systematics of Bryophytes. Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, Mo.

Kelchner, S. A., & the Bamboo Phylogeny Group. 2013. Higher level phylogenetic relationships within the bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) based on five plastid markers. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 67: 404-413.

Keller, J. A. [et al. 1996], Herendeen, P. S., & Crane, P. R. 1996. Fossil flowers and fruits of the Actinidiaceae from the Campanian (Late Cretaceous) of Georgia. American J. Bot. 83: 528-541.

Keller, R. 1994. Neglected vegetative characters in field identification at the supraspecific level in woody plants: Phyllotaxy, serial buds, syllepsis and architecture. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 116: 33-51.

Keller, R. 1996. Identification of Tropical Woody Plants in the Absence of Flowers and Fruits: A Field Guide. Birkhäuser, Basel.

Keller, R. 2004. Identification of Tropical Woody Plants in the Absence of Flowers: A Field Guide, Ed. 2. Birkhäuser, Basel.

Keller, R., & Carpentier, B. 2001. ARTEMIS. Version 15 March 2002. http://www.tropicalbotany.net (no longer available).

Kellermann, J., & Udovicic, F. 2008. Large indels obscure analysis of chloroplast DNA (trnL-F) sequence data: Pomaderreae (Rhamnaceae) revisited. Telopea 12: 1-22.

Kellermann, J. [et al. 2005], Udovicic, F., & Ladiges, P. Y. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis and generic limits of the tribe Pomaderreae (Rhamnaceae) using internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences. Taxon 54: 619-631.

Kelley, D. R., & Gasser, C. S. 2009. Ovule development: Genetic trends and evolutionary development. Sex. Plant Reprod. 22: 229-234.

Kelley, S. T., & Farrell, D. B. 1998. Is specialization a dead end? The phylogeny of host use in Dendroctonus bark beetles. Evolution 52: 1731-1743.

Kellner, A. [et al. 2011], Ritz, C. M., Schlittenhardt, P., & Hellwig, F. H. 2011. Genetic differentiation of the genus Lithops L. (Ruschioideae, Aizoaceae) reveals a high level of convergent evolution and reflects geographic distribution. Plant Biol. 13: 368-380.

Kellogg, D. W. [et al. 2002], Taylor, T. N., & Krings, M. 2002. Effectiveness in defense against phytophagous arthropods of the cassabanana Sicana odorifera glandular trichomes. Entomol. Experim. Applic. 103: 187-189.

Kellogg, E. A. 1999. Phylogenetic aspects of the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Pp. 411-444, in Sage, R. F., & Monson, R. K. (eds), C4 plant biology. Academic Press, San Diego.

Kellogg, E. A. 2000a. The grasses: A case study in macroevolution. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31: 217-38.

Kellogg, E. A. 2000b. A model of inflorescence development. Pp. 84-88, in Wilson, K. L., & Morrison, A. A. (eds), Monocots: Systematics and Evolution. CSIRO, Melbourne.

Kellogg, E. A. 2000c. Molecular and morphological evolution in the Andropogoneae. Pp. 149-158, in Jacobs, S. W. L., & Everett, J. (eds), Grasses: Systematics and Evolution. CSIRO, Melbourne.

Kellogg, E. A. 2001. Evolutionary history of the grasses. Plant Physiol. 125: 1198-1205.

Kellogg, E. A. 2013. C4 photosynthesis. Current Biol. 23: R594-R599.

Kellogg, E. A., & Bennetzen, J. L. 2004. The evolution of nuclear genome structure in seed plants. American J. Bot. 91: 1709-1725.

Kellogg, E. A. [et al. 2009], Aliscioni, S., Morrone, O., Pensiero, J., & Zuloaga, F. 2009. A phylogeny of Setaria (Poaceae, Panicoideae, Paniceae) and related genera based on the chloroplast gene ndhF. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 170: 117-131.

Kellogg, E. A. [et al. 2013], Camara, P. E. A. S., Rudall, P. J., Ladd, P., Malcomber, S. T., Whipple, C. J., & Doust, A. N. 2103. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae). Front. Plant Sci. 4: 250. doi: 103389/fpls.2013.00250

Kelly, C. K., & Southwood, T. R. E. 1999. Species richness and resource availability: A phylogenetic analysis of insects associated with trees. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96: 8013-8016.

Kelly, D. [et al. 2010], Ladley, J. J., Robertson, A. W., Anderson, S. H., Wotton, D. M., & Wiser, S. K. 2010. Mutualisms with the wreckage of an avifauna: The status of bird pollination and fruit dispersal in New Zealand. New Zealand J. Ecol. 34: 66-85.

Kelly, L. J. [et al. 2012], Leitch, A. R., Clarkson, J. J., Knapp, S., & Chase, M. W. 2013. Reconstructing the complex evolutionary history of wild allopolyploid tobaccos (Nicotiana section Suaveolentes). Evolution 67: 80-94.

Kelly, L. M. 1997. A cladistic analysis of Asarum (Aristolochiaceae) and implications for the evolution of herkogamy. American J. Bot. 84: 1752-1765.

Kelly, L. M. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships in Asarum (Aristolochiaceae) based on morphology and ITS sequences. American J. Bot. 85: 1454-1467.

Kelly, L. M. 2001. Taxonomy of Asarum section Asarum (Aristolochiaceae). Syst. Bot. 26: 17-53.

Kelly, L. M., & González, F. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in Aristolochiaceae. Syst. Bot. 28: 236-249.

Kelly, L. M., & Nicholson, C. 2009. Floral structure of Symplocos series Symplocos, with emphasis on anatomy and morphology of the style and stigma. P. 92, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Kempe, A. [et al. 2013], Sommer, M., & Neinhuis, C. 2013. A comparative analysis of the mechanical role of leaf sheaths of Poaceae, Juncaceae, and Cyperaceae. J. Bot. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/690549

Kempton, E. A. 2012. Systematics of Eriogonoideae s.a. (Polygonaceae). Syst. Bot. 37: 723-737.

Kenda, G. 1956. Das Hypoderm der Geraniaceen-Kelchblätter. Planta 6: 206-210.

Kendrick, G. A. [et al. 2012], Waycott, M., Carruthers, T. J. B., Cambridge, M. L., Hovey, R., Krauss, S. L., Lavery, P. S., Les, D. H., Lowe, R. J,, Mascaró i Vidal, O., Ooi, J. L. S., Orth, R. J., Rivers, D., Ruiz-Montoya, L., Sinclair, E. A., Statton, J., van Dijk, J. K., & Verduin, J. J. 2012. The central role of dispersal in the maintenance and persistence of seagrass populations. BioScience 62: 56-65.

Kendrick, R. E., & Hillman, W. S. 1971. Absence of phytochrome dark reversion in seedlings of the Centrospermae. American J. Bot. 58: 424-428.

Keng, H. 1962. Comparative morphological studies in Theaceae. Univ. California Publ. Bot. 33: 269-384.

Keng, H. 1974. On the phylloclade of Phyllocladus and its possible bearing on the branch systems of progymnosperms. Ann. Bot. NS 38: 757-764.

Keng, H. 1975. A new system of classification of the conifers. Taxon 24: 289-292.

Keng, H. 1979. On the phylloclade of Phyllocladus and its possible bearing on the foliate organs of Coniferophytes. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sinica 20: 9-17.

Keng, H. 1993. Illiciaceae, pp. 344-347, and Schisandraceae, pp. 589-591, in Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., & Bittrich, V. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families. Springer, Berlin.

Kenicer, G. J. [et al. 2005], Kajita, T., Pennington, R. T., & Murata, J. 2005. Systematics and biogeography of Lathyrus (Leguminosae) based on internal transcribed spacer and cpDNA sequence data. American J. Bot. 92: 1199-1209.

Kennedy, H. [Helen] 2000. Diversification in pollination mechanisms in the Marantaceae. Pp. 335-343, in Wilson, K. L., & Morrison, A. A. (eds), Monocots: Systematics and Evolution. CSIRO, Melbourne.

Kennedy, H. [Hilary] [et al. 2010], Beggins, J., Duarte, C. M., Fourqurean, J. W., Holmer, M, Marbà, N., & Middelburg, J. J. 2011. Seagrass sediments as a global carbon sink: Isotopic constraints. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 24, GB4026, doi:10.1029/2010GB003848.

Kennedy, P. G. [et al. 2012], Smith, D. P., Horton, T. R., & Molina, R. J. 2012. Arbutus menziesii (Ericaceae) facilitates regeneration dynamics in mixed evergreen forests by promoting mycorrhizal fungal diversity and host connectivity. American J. Bot. 99: 1691-1701.

Kenrick, J. 2003. Review of pollen-pistil interactions and their relevance to the reproductive biology of Acacia. Australian Syst. Bot. 16: 119-130.

Kenrick, P. 2000. The relationships of vascular plants. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B, 355: 847-855.

Kenrick, P., & Crane, P. R. 1991. Water conducting cells in early land plants: Implications for the early evolution of tracheophytes. Bot. Gaz. 152: 335-356.

Kenrick, P., & Crane, P. R. 1997. The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants. Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

Kenrick, P. [et al. 2012], Wellman, C. H., Schneider, H., & Edgecombe, G. D. 2012. A timeline for terrestrialization: Consequences for the carbon cycle in the Palaeozoic. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B, 367: 519-536.

Kephart, S. [et al. 2006], Reynolds, R. J., Rutter, M. T., Fenster, C. B., & Dudash, M. R. 2006. Pollination and seed predation by moths on Silene and allied Caryophyllaceae: Evaluating a model system to study the evolution of mutualisms. New Phytol. 169: 667-680.

Kepler, R. M. [et al. 2012], Sung, G. H., Harada, Y., Tanaka, K., Tanaka, E., Hosoya, T., Bischoff, J. F., & Spatafora, J. W. 2012. Host jumping onto close relatives and across kingdoms by Tyrannicordyceps (Clavicipitaceae) gen. nov. and Ustilaginoidea (Clavicipitaceae). American J. Bot. 99: 552-561.

Kerbauy, G. B. [et al. 2012], Takahashi, C. A., Lopez, A. M., Matsumura, A. T., Hamachi, L., Félix, L. M., Pereira, P. N., Freschi, L., Mercier, H. 2012. Crassulacean acid metabolism in epiphytic orchids: Current knowledge, future perspectives. Pp. 81-104, in Najafpour, M. (ed.), Applied Photosynthesis. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia.

Kergoat, G. J. [et al. 2005a], Delobel, A., Fédière, G., Le Rü, B., & Silvain, J.-F. 2005a. Both host-plant phylogeny and chemistry have shaped the African seed-beetle radiation. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 35: 602-611.

Kergoat, G. J. [et al. 2005b], Alvarez, N., Hossaert-Mckey, M., Faure, N., & Silvain, J.-F. 2005b. Parallels in the evolution of the two largest New and Old World seed beetle genera (Coleptera, Bruchidae). Mol. Ecol. 14: 4003-4021.

Kergoat, G. J. [et al. 2007], Silvain, J.-F., Buranapanichpan, S., & Tuda, M. 2007. When insects help to resolve plant phylogeny: Evidence for a paraphyletic genus Acacia from the systematics and host-plant range of their seed-predators. Zool. Scripta 36: 143-152.

Kergoat, G. J. [et al. 2011], Le Ru, B. P., Genson, G., Craurd, C., Couloux, A., & Delobel, A. 2011. Phylogenetics, species boundaries and timing of resource tracking in a highly specialized group of seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 59: 746-760.

Kers, L. E.. 2002. Capparaceae, pp. 36-56, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. V. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. Springer, Berlin.

Kerstens, S., & Verbelen, J.-P. 2002. Cellulose orientation in the outer epidermal wall of angiosperm roots: Implications for biosystematics. Ann. Bot. 90: 669-676.

Kerster, J., & Baas, P. 1981. Comparative anatomy of the Asiatic Myristicaceae. Blumea 27: 115-173.

Kesselmeier, J., & Staudt, M. 1999. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC): An overview on emission, physiology and ecology. J. Atmos. Chem. 33: 23-88.

Kessler, M., & Krömer, T. 2000. Patterns and ecological correlates of pollination modes among bromeliad communities in Andean forests in Bolivia. Plant Biol. 2: 659-669.

Kessler, P. J. A. 1993. Annonaceae, pp. 93-128, and Menispermaceae, pp. 402-418, in Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., & Bittrich, V. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families. Springer, Berlin.

Kessler-Rios, M. M., & Kattan, G. H. 2012. Fruits of Melastomataceae: Phenology in Andean forest and role as a food resource for birds. J. Trop. Ecol. 28: 11-21.

Keszei, A. [et al. 2008], Brubaker, C. L., & Foley, W. J. 2008. A molecular perspective on terpene variation in Australian Myrtaceae. Australian J. Bot. 56: 197-213.

Keszei, A. [et al. 2010], Brubaker, C. L., Carter, R., Köllner, T., Degenhardt, J., & Foley, W. J. 2010. Functional and evolutionary relationships between terpene synthases from Australian Myrtaceae. Phytochem. 71: 844-852.

Khaleel, T. F. 1977. Embryology of Trichodesma (Boraginaceae). Bot. Notis. 130: 441-452.

Khaleel, T. F. 1985. A review of endosperm and the taxonomic position of Boraginaceae. J. Plant Sci. Res. 1: 117-133.

Khalid, S. A. 1983. Chemistry of the Burseraceae. Pp. 281-289, in Waterman, P. G., & Grundon, M. F. (eds), Chemistry and Chemical Taxonomy of the Rutales. Academic Press, London.

Khalik, K. A. [et al. 2002], van den Berg, R. G., van der Maesen, L. J. G., & el Hadidi, M. N. 2002. Pollen morphology of some tribes of Brassicaceae from Egypt and its systematic implications. Feddes Repert. 113: 211-223.

Khamar, H. J. [et al. 2010], Breathwaite, E. K., Prasse, C. E., Fraley, E. R., Secor, C. R., Chibane, F. L., Elhai, J., & Chiu, W.-L. 2010. Multiple roles of soluble sugars in the establishment of Gunnera-Nostoc endosymbiosis. Plant Physiol. 154: 1381-1389.

Khan, A. G., & Valder, P. G. 1972. The occurrence of root nodules in the Ginkgoales, Taxales, and Coniferales. Proc. Linnean Soc. New South Wales 97: 35-41.

Khan, R. 1970. Lentibulariaceae. Indian National Sci. Acad. Bull. [Symposium: Comparative Embryology of Angiosperms] 41: 290-297.

Khan, S. A. [et al. 2008], Razafimandimbison, S. G., Bremer, B., & Liede-Schumann, S. 2008. Sabiceeae and Virectarieae (Rubiaceae, Ixoroideae): One or two tribes? New tribal and generic circumscriptions of Sabiceeae and biogeography of Sabicea s.l. Taxon 57: 7-23.

Khanna, P. 1964. Morphological and embryological studies in Nymphaeaceae. I. Euryale ferox Salisb. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. B, 59: 237-243.

Khanna, P. 1965. Morphological and embryological studies in Nymphaeaceae. II. Brasenia schreberi Gmel. and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Australian J. Bot. 13: 379-387.

Khanna, P. 1967. Morphological and embryological studies in Nymphaeaceae. III. Victoria cruziana D'Orb., and nypmphaea stellata Willd. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 80: 305-312.

Khosravi, A. R. [et al. 2008], Mohsenzadeh, S., & Mummenhoff, C. 2008. Analaysis of the phylogenetic position of Acanthocardamum erinaceum (Brassicaceae) basedon ITS-sequences shows that it should be transferred to Aethionema as A. erinaceum. Nordic J. Bot. 26: 25-30.

Khosravi, A. R. [et al. 2009], Mohsenzadeh, S., & Mummenhoff, C. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships of Old World Brassicaceae from Iran based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 37: 106-115.

Khushalani, I. 1963. Floral morphology and embryology of Melianthus major Linnaeus. Phyton (Horn) 10: 145-156.

Kidder, D. L., & Gierlowski-Kordesch, E. H. 2005. Impact of grassland radiation on the nonmarine silica cycle and Miocene diatomite. Palaios 20: 198-206.

Kiefer, C. [et al. 2009a], Dobes, C., Sharbel, T. F., & Koch, M. A. 2009a. Phylogeographic structure of the chloroplast DNA gene pool in North American Boechera - a genus and continental-wide perspective. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 52: 303-311.

Kiefer, C. [et al. 2009b], Dobes, C., & Koch, M. A. 2009b. Boechera or not? Phylogeny and phytogeography of eastern North American Boechera species (Brassicaceae). Taxon 58: 1109-1121.

Kiehn, M. 2010. Chromosomes of neotropical Rubiaceae. I: Rubioideae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 97: 91-105.

Kiel, C. A., &, McDade, L. A. 2014. The Mirandea clade (Acanthaceae, Justicieae, Tetramerium lineage): Phylogenetic signal from molecular data and micromorphology makes sense of taxonomic confusion caused by remarkable diversity of floral form. Syst. Bot. 39: 950-964.

Kiel, C. A. [et al. 2006], McDade, L. A., Daniel, T. F., & Champluvier, D. 2006. Phylogenetic delimitation of Isoglossinae (Acanthaceae: Justicieae) and relationships among constituent genera. Taxon 55: 683-694.

Kiel, C. A. [et al. 2009], McDade, L. A., & Daniel, T. F. 2009. Relationships among "justicioids" (Acanthaceae): Strong support for some surprising aspects of relationships. P. 188, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Kiel, C. A. [et al. 2009], McDade, L. A., & Tripp, E. 2013. Pollinator mediated trait evolution and floral diversification of neotropical Justicia (Acanthaceae). Pp. 243-244, in Botany 2013. Celebrating Diversity! July 27-31 - New Orleans. Abstracts.

Kier, G. [et al. 2005], Mutke, J., Dinerstein, E., Ricketts, T. H., Küper, W., Kreft, H., & Barthlott, W. 2005. Global patterns of plant diversity and floristic knowledge. J. Biogeogr. 32: 1107-1116.

Kiew, R., & Baas, P. 1984. Nyctanthes is a member of the Oleaceae. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 93: 349-358.

Kilian, N. [et al. 2009], Gemeinholzer, B., & Lack, H. W. 2009. Tribe Cichorieae Lam & DC. Pp. , in Funk, V. A., Susanna, A., Stuessy, T., & Bayer, R. (eds), Systematics, Evolution and Biogeography of the Compositae. I.A.P.T., Vienna.

Kim, C. [et al. 2009], Tang, H., & Paterson, A. H. 2009. Duplication and divergence of grass genomes: Integrating the chloridoids. Trop. Plant Biol. 2: 51-62.

Kim, C. M., & Dolan, L. 2011. Root hair development involves asymmetric cell division in Brachypodium distachyon and symmetric division in Oryza sativa. New Phytol. 192: 601-610.

Kim, D.-K., & Kim, J.-H. 2011. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Forsythieae (Oleaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers and plastid DNA trnL-F and matK gene sequences. J. Plant Res. 124: 339-347.

Kim, D.-K. [et al. 2012], Kim, J. S., & Kim, J.-H. 2012. The phylogenetic relationships of Asparagales in Korea based on five plastid DNA regions. J. Plant Biol. 55: 325-345.

Kim, E. [et al. 2006], Wilcox, L. W., Fawley, M. W., & Graham, L. E. 2006. Phylogenetic position of the green flagellate Mesostigma viride based on alpha-tubulin and ß-tubulin gene sequences. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 167: 873-883.

Kim, J. [et al. 2012], Hong, J.-K., Chase, M. W., Fay, M. F., & Kim, J.-H. 2012. Molecular phylogenetic relationship of Liliales based on the data of four plastid loci, matK, rbcL, atpB and atpF-H. Pp. 196-197, in Botany 2012: The Next Generation. July 7-11 - Columbus, Ohio. Abstracts.

Kim, J. [et al. 2013], Hong, J.-K., Chase, M. W., Fay, M. F., & Kim, J.-H. 2013. Familial relationships of the monocot order Liliales based on a molecular phylogenetic analysis using four plastid loci: matK, rbcL, atpB and atpF-H. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 171: 5-21.

Kim, J.-H. [et al. 2011], Kim, D. K., Choi, J.-E., Yu, H., & Chase, M. W. 2011. Molecular phylogenetics of Asparagales based on nuclear, plastid and mitochondrial DNAs 7 coding sequences. P. 309, in XVIII International Botanical Congress 2011, Melbourne. [Abstracts.]

Kim, K., & Choi, H.-K. 2011. Molecular systematics and character evolution of Typha (Typhaceae) inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data. Taxon 60: 1417-1428.

Kim, K.-J. [et al. 2005], Choi, K.-S., & Jansen, R. K. 2005. Two chloroplast DNA inversions originated simultaneously during the early evolution of the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Mol. Biol. Evol. 22: 1783-1792.

Kim, M. [et al. 2003], McCormick, S., Timmermans, M., & Sinha, N. 2003. The expression domain of PHANTASTICA determines leaflet placement in compound leaves. Nature 424: 438-443.

Kim, S., & Suh, Y. 2013. Phylogeny of Malpighiaceae based on ten chloroplast DNA regions. J. Plant Biol. 56: 290-305.

Kim, S. [et al. 2001a], Park, C.-W., Kim, Y.-D., & Suh, Y. 2001a. Phylogenetic relationships in family Magnoliaceae inferred from ndhf sequences. American J. Bot. 88: 717-728.

Kim, S. [et al. 2001b], Park, C.-W., & Suh, Y. 2001b. Phylogeny and evolution of the Magnoliaceae implied by sequences of 10 chloroplast DNA regions. P. 121, in Botany 2001: Plants and People, Abstracts. [Albuquerque.]

Kim, S. [et al. 2003], Yoo, M.-J., Soltis, P. S., Albert, V. A., Farris, J. S., Zanis, M., & Soltis, D. E. 2003. Phylogeny and diversification of B-class genes in angiosperms: Reconstructing a 250 million-year-old duplication. Pp. 83-84, in Botany 2003: Aquatic and Wetland Plants: Wet and Wild. Abstracts. [Mobile, Alabama.]

Kim, S. [et al. 2004a], Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., & Suh, Y. 2004a. Phylogenetic relationships among early-diverging eudicots based on four genes: Were the eudicots ancestrally woody? Mol. Phyl. Evol. 31: 16-30.

Kim, S. [et al. 2004b], Yoo, M.-J., Albert, V. A., Farris, J. S., Soltis, P. S., & Soltis, D. E. 2004b. Phylogeny and diversification of B-function MADS-box genes in angiosperms: Evolutionary and functional implications of a 260-million-year-old duplication. American J. Bot. 91: 2102-2118.

Kim, S. [et al. 2005a], Koh, J., Kong, H., Hu, Y., Ma, H., Soltis, P. S., & Soltis, D. S. 2005a. Expression of floral MADS-box genes in basal angiosperms: Implications for the evolution of floral regulators. Plant J. 43: 724-744.

Kim, S. [et al. 2005b], Koh, J., Ma, H., Yu, Y., Endress, P. K., Hauser, B. A., Soltis, P. S., & Soltis, D. E. 2005b. Sequence and expression studies of A-, B-, and E-class MADS-box genes in Eupomatia (Eupomatiaceae): Support for the bracteate origin of the calyptra. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 166: 185-198.

Kim, S.-C., & Lee, N. S. 2007. Generic delimitation and biogeography of Maianthemum and Smilacina (Ruscaceae sensu lato): Preliminary results based on partial 3' MatK and trnK 3' intron sequences of cpDNA. Plant Syst. Evol. 265: 1-12.

Kim, S.-C. [et al. 2006], Lee, C.-G., & Mejías, J. A. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast matK gene and ITS of nrDNA sequences reveals polyphyly of the genus Sonchus (Asteraceae: Cichorieae). P. 231, in Botany 2006 - Looking to the Future - Conserving the Past. [Abstracts: Botanical Society of America, etc.]

Kim, S.-C. [et al. 2007], Lee, C.-G., & Mejías, J. A. 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast matK gene and ITS of nrDNA sequences reveals polyphyly of the genus Sonchus and new relationships among the subtribe Sonchinae (Asteraceae: Cichorieae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 44: 578-597.

Kim, S.-T., & Donoghue, M. J. 2008. Molecular phylogeny of Persicaria (Persicarieae, Polygonaceae). Syst. Bot. 33: 77-86.

Kim, S.-T. [et al. 2008], Sultan, S. E., & Donoghue, M. J. 2008. Allopolyploid speciation in Persicaria (PPolygonaceae): Insights from a low-copy nuclear region. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105: 12370-12375.

Kim, Y.-D., & Jansen, R. K. 1995. NdhF sequence evolution and the major clades in the sunflower family. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92: 10379-10383.

Kim, Y.-D., & Jansen, R. K. 1996. Phylogenetic implications of rbcL and ITS sequence variation in the Berberidaceae. Syst. Bot. 21: 381-396.

Kim, Y.-D., & Jansen, R. K. 1998. Chloroplast DNA restriction site variation and phylogeny of the Berberidaceae. American J. Bot. 85: 1766-1778.

Kim, Y.-D., & Kim, S.-H. 1999. Phylogeny of Weigela and Diervilla (Caprifoliaceae) based on nuclear rDNA ITS sequences: Biogeographic and taxonomic implications. J. Plant Res. 112: 331-341.

Kim, Y.-D. [et al. 2004], Kim, S.-H., Kim, C. H., & Jansen, R. K. 2004. Phylogeny of Berberidaceae based on sequences of the chloroplast gene ndhF. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 32: 291-301.

Kimoto, Y. & Tobe, H. 2001. Embryology of Laurales: A review and perspectives. J. Plant Res. 114: 247-267.

Kimoto, Y., & Tobe, H. 2003. Embryology of Siparunaceae (Laurales): Characteristics and character evolution. J. Plant Res. 116: 281-294.

Kimoto, Y., & Tobe, H. 2008a. Embryology of Illigera and Sparattanthelium (Hernandiaceae, Laurales): Family characteristics and relationships. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 169: 391-408.

Kimoto, Y., & Tobe, H. 2008b. Embryology or Hortonioideae and Monimioideae (Monimiaceae, Laurales): Characteristics of the 'lower' monimioids. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 158: 228-241.

Kimoto, Y., & Tokuoka, T. 2000. Embryology and relationships of Stachyurus (Stachyuraceae). Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 50: 187-200.

Kimoto, Y. [et al. 2006], Utami, N., & Tobe, H. 2006. Embryology of Eusideroxylon (Cryptocaryeae, Lauraceae) and character evolution in the family. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 150: 187-201.

King, M. G., & Roalson, E. H. 2008. Exploring evolutionary dynamics of nrDNA in Carex subgenus Vignea (Cyperaceae). Syst. Bot. 33: 514-524.

King, M. J., & Buchmann, S. L. 1995. Bumble bee-initiated vibration release mechanism of Rhododendron pollen. American J. Bot. 82: 1407-1411.

Kipp-Goller, A. 1939. Über Bau und Entwicklung der viviparen Mangrovekeimlinge. Zeitschr. Bot. 35: 1-40.

Kircher, P. 1986. Untersuchungen zur Blüten- und Infloreszenmorphologie, Embryologie und Systematik der Restionaceen im vergleich mit Gramineen und verwandten Familien. Dissert. Bot. 94: 1-219.

Kirchoff, B. K. 1983. Floral organogenesis in five genera of Marantaceae and in Canna (Cannaceae). American J. Bot. 70: 508-523.

Kirchoff, B. K. 1988a. Floral ontogeny and evolution in the ginger group of the Zingiberales. Pp. 45-56, in Leins, P., Tucker, S. C., & Endress, P. K. (eds), Aspects of Floral Development. J. Cramer, Berlin.

Kirchoff, B. K. 1988b. Inflorescence and flower development in Costus scaber (Costaceae). Canadian J. Bot. 66: 339-345.

Kirchoff, B. K. 1992. Ovary structure and anatomy in the Heliconiaceae and Musaceae (Zingiberales). Canadian J. Bot. 70: 2490-2508.

Kirchoff, B. K. 1997. Infloescence and flower development in the Hedychieae (Zingiberaceae). Canadian J. Bot. 75: 581-594.

Kirchoff, B. K. 200. Hofmeister's Rule and primordium shape, influences on organ position in Hedychium coronarium (Zingiberaceae). Pp. 75-83, in Wilson, K. L., & Morrison, A. A. (eds), Monocots: Systematics and Evolution. CSIRO, Melbourne.

Kirchoff, B. K. 2003. Shape matters: Hofmeister's rule, primordiun shape and floral orientation. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 164: 505-517.

Kirchoff, B. K., & Kunze, H. 1995. Inflorescence and floral development in Orchidantha maxillarioides (Lowiaceae). Internat. J. Plant Sci. 156: 159-171.

Kirchoff, B. K. [et al. 2009], Lagomarsino, L.P., Newman, W. H., Bartlett, M. E., & Specht, C. D. 2009. Early floral development of Heliconia latispatha (Heliconiaceae), a key taxon for understanding the evolution of flower development in the Zingiberales. American J. Bot. 96: 580-593.

Kirschner, J. et al. 2002a. Species plantarum: Flora of the World, Part 6. Juncaceae 1: Rostkovia to Luzula. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Kirschner, J. et al. 2002b. Species plantarum: Flora of the World, Part 7. Juncaceae 2: Juncus subgenus Juncus. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Kirschner, J. et al. 2002c. Species plantarum: Flora of the World, Part 8. Juncaceae 3: Juncus subgenus Agathryon. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Kirkbride, J. H., & Wiersema, J. H. 1997. Bobgunnia, a new African genus of tribe Swartzieae (Fabaceae, Faboideae). Brittonia 49: 1-23.

Kirkbride, J. H., Jr. [et al. 2003], Gunn, C. R., & Weitzman, A. L. 2003. Fruits and Seeds of Genera in the Subfamily Faboideae (Fabaceae). Tech. Bull. 1980, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research division.

Kirkup, D. 1998. Pollination mechanisms in African Loranthaceae. Pp. 37-60, in Polhill, R., & Wiens, D. (eds), Mistletoes of Africa. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Kirkwood, J. E. 1905. The comparative embryology of the Cucurbitaceae. Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 3: 313-402, pl. 58-69

Kirpes, C. C. [et al. 1996], Clark, L. G., & Lersten, N. R. 1996. Systematic significance of pollen arrangement in microsporangia of Poaceae and Cyperaceae: Review and observations on representative taxa. Ametrican J. Bot. 83: 1609-1622.

Kirwan, M. L. [et al. 2011], Murray, A. B., Donnelly, J. P., & Corbett, D. R. 2011. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates. Geology 39: 507–510, doi:10.1130/G31789.1

Kissling, J. 2012. Taxonomy of Exochaenium and Lagenias: Two resurrected genera of tribe Exaceae (Gentianaceae). Syst. Bot. 37: 238-253.

Kissling, J. [et al. 2009a], Yuan, Y.-M., Küpfer, P., & Mansion, G. 2009a. The polyphyletic genus Sebaea (Gentianaceae): A step forward in understanding the morphological and karyological evolution of the Exaceae. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 53: 734-748.

Kissling, J. [et al. 2009b], Endress, P. K., & Bernasconi, G. 2010b. Ancestral and monophyletic presence of diplostigmaty in Sebaea (Gentianaceae) and its potential role as a morphological mixed mating strategy. New Phytol. 184: 303-310.

Kissling, W. D. [et al. 2007], Rahbek, C., & Böhning-Gaese, K. 2007. Food plant diversity as broad-scale determinant of avian frugivore richness. Proc. Royal Soc. B, 274: 799-808.

Kissling, W. D. [et al. 2012a, Eiserhardt, W. L., Baker, W. J., Borchsenius, F., Couvreur, T. L. P., Balslev, H. & Svenning, J.-C. 2012a. Cenozoic imprints on the phylogenetic structure of palm species assemblages worldwide. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109: 7379–7384.

Kissling, W. D. [et al. 2012b], Baker, W. J., Balslev, H., Barfod, A. S., Borchsenius, F., Dransfield, J., Govaerts, R. & Svenning, J.-C. 2012b. Quaternary and pre-Quaternary historical legacies in the global distribution of a major tropical plant lineage. Global Ecol. Biogeog. 21: 909–921.

Kistler, L. [et al. 2014], Montenegro, A., Smith, B. D., Gifford, J. A., Green, R. E., Newsom, L. A., & Shapiro, B. 2014. Transoceaanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111: 2937-2941.

Kita, Y. 2002. Molecular phylogeny, morphological evolution, and biogeography of Podostemaceae. Bunrui 2: 19-26. [In Japanese.]

Kita, Y., & Kato, M. 2001. Intrafamilial phylogeny of the aquatic angiosperm Podostemaceae inferred from the nucleotide sequences of the matK gene. Plant Biol. 3: 156-163.

Kita, Y., & Kato, M. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships between disjunctly occuring groups of Tristicha trifaria (Podostemaceae). J. Biogeogr. 31: 1605-1612.

Kita, Y., & Kato, M. 2005. Seedling developmental anatomy of an undescribed Malaccotristicha species (Podostemaceae, subfamily Tristichoideae) with implications for body plan evolution. Plant Syst. Evol. 254: 221-232.

Kitching, R. L. 2000. Food Webs and Container Habitats. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kite, G. C. [et al. 2000], Grayer, R. J., Rudall, P. J., & Simmonds, M. S. J. 2000. The potential for chemical characters in monocotyledon systematics. Pp. 101-113, in Wilson, K. L., & Morrison, D. A. (eds), Monocots: Systematics and Evolution. CSIRO, Collingwood.

Kivlin, S. N. [et al. 2011], Hawkes, C. V., & Treseder, K. T. 2011. Global diversity and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Soil Biol. Biochem. 43: 2294-2303.

Kjær, A. 1973. The natural distribution of glucosinolates: A uniform group of sulfur-containing glucosides. Pp. 229-234 in Bendz, G., & Santesson, J. (eds), Chemistry in Botanical Classification. Academic Press, New York. [Proceedings of the twenty-fifth Nobel Symposium.]

Kjellberg, F. [et al. 2005], jousselin, E., Hossaert-McKey, M., & Rasplus, J.-Y. 2005. Biology, ecology and evolution of fig-pollinating wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae). Pp. 539-572, in Raman, A., Schaefer, C. W., & Withers, T. M. (eds), Biology, Ecology and Evolution of Gall-Inducing Arthropods. Science Publishers, Enfield, N.H.

Klaassen, R. 1999. Wood anatomy of the Sapindaceae. IAWA J., Suppl. 2.

Klackenberg, J. 1985. The genus Exacum (Gentianaceae). Op. Bot. 84: 1-144.

Klak, C. 2010. Phylogeny and diversification of Aizoaceae: Progreess and prospects. Schumannia 6: 87-102. [Biodivers. Ecol. 3.]

Klak, C., & Bruyns, P. V. 2012. Phylogeny of the Dorotheantheae (Aizoaceae), a tribe of succulent annuals. Taxon 61: 293-307.

Klak, C., & Linder, H. P. 1998. Systematics of Psilocaulon N. E. Br. and Caulipsolon Klak gen. nov. (Mesembryanthemoideae, Aizoaceae). Bot. Jarhrb. Syst. 120: 301-375.

Klak, C. [et al. 2003], Khunou, A., Reeves, G., & Hedderson, T. A. J. 2003. A phylogenetic hypothesis for the Aizoaceae (Caryophyllales) based on four plastid DNA regions. American J. Bot. 90: 1433-1445.

Klak, C. [et al. 2004], Reeves, G., & Hedderson, T. A. J. 2004. Unmatched tempo of evolution in southern African semi-desert ice plants. Nature 427: 63-65.

Klak, C. [et al. 2006}, Nowell, T. L., & Hedderson, T. A. J. 2006. Phylogeny and revision of Brownanthus and its close allies Aspazoma and Dactylopsis (Aizoaceae) based on morphology and four DNA regiions. Kew Bull. 61: 353-400.

Klak, C. [et al. 2007], Bruyns, P. V., & Hedderson, T. A. J. 2007. A phylogeny and new classification for Mesembryanthemoideae (Aizoaceae). Taxon 56: 737-756.

Klak, C. [et al. 2013], Bruyns, P. V., & Hanácek, P. 2013. A phylogenetic hypothesis of the recently diversified Ruschieae (Aizoaceae) in southern Africa. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 69: 1005-1020.

Klebs, G. 1884. Beiträge zur Morphologie und Biologie der Keimung. Untersuch. Bot. Inst. Tübingen 1: 536-635.

Klein, D. E. [et al. 2004], Gomes, V. M., da Silva-Neto, S. J., & da Cunha, M. 2004. The structure of colleters in several species of Simira (Rubiaceae). Ann. Bot. 94: 733-740.

Kleiman, R., & Spencer, G. F. 1982. Search for new industrial oils: XVI. Umbelliflorae - seed oils rich in petroselenic acid. J. American Oil Chem. Soc. 59: 29-38.

Klenter, T., & Albers, F. 2004. Comparative studies of the androecium of Monsonia species from the sections Olopetalum and Sarcocaulon (Geraniaceae). Schumannia 4 [= Biodivers. Ecol. 2]: 87-92.

Kliebenstein, D. J. 2008. A role for gene duplication and natural variation of gene expression in the evolution of metabolism. PLoS ONE 3(3): e1838. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001838.

Klironomos, J. N., & Hart, M. M. 2001. Food-web dynamics: Animal nitrogen swap for plant carbon. Nature 41): 651-652.

Klitgård, B. B. [et al. 2013], Forest, F., Booth, T. J., & Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. H. 2013. A detailed investigation of the Pterocarpus clade (Leguminosae: Dalbergieae): Etaballia with radially symmetrical flowers is nested within the papilionoid-flowered Pterocarpus. South African J. Bot. 89: 128-142.

Kloos, A., & Bouman, F. 1980. Case studies in aril development Passiflora suberosa L. and Turnera ulmifolia L. Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 55: 49-66.

Klopfer, K. 1968. Beiträge zur florale Morphogenese und Histogenese der Saxifragaceae. 2. Die Blütenentwicklung von Tellima grandiflora Flora 158: 50-77.

Klopfer, K. 1969a. Beiträge zur florale Morphogenese und Histogenese der Saxifragaceae. 3. Die Blütenentwicklung einiger Ribes-Arten. Wiss. Zeitschr. Pädagog. Hochsch. Potsdam 13: 187-205.

Klopfer, K. 1969b. Zur Ontogenese und Evolution der parakarpen Gynaeceums. Wiss. Zeitschr. Pädagog. Hochsch. Potsdam 13: 207-243.

Klopfer, K. 1970. Beiträge zur florale Morphogenese und Histogenese der Saxifragaceae. 5. Die Blütenentwicklung der Gattungen Astilbe, Rodgersia, Astilboides und Bergenia. Wiss. Zeitschr. Pädagog. Hochsch. Potsdam 14: 327-347.

Klopfer, K. 1971. Beiträge zur florale Morphogenese und Histogenese der Saxifragaceae. 6. Die Hydrangeoideen. Wiss. Zeitschr. Pädagog. Hochsch. Potsdam 15: 77-95.

Klopfer, K. 1972a. Beiträge zur florale Morphogenese und Histogenese der Saxifragaceae. 7. Parnassia palustris und Francoa sonchifolia. Flora 161: 320-332.

Klopfer, K. 1972b. Quntitative Untersuchungen zur Stellung des Gynaeceums bei verscheidenden Saxifraga-Arten. Wiss. Zeitschr. Pädagog. Hochsch. Potsdam 16: 45-49.

Klopfer, K. 1973. Florale Morphogenese und Taxonomie der Saxifragaceae sensu lato. Feddes Repert. 84: 475-516.

Klopfer, K., & Ziesing, W. 1971. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen an zygomorphen Saxifrageen-Blüten. Wiss. Zeitschr. Pädagog. Hochsch. Potsdam 15: 97-101.

Klopper, R. R. [et al. 2010], van Wyk, A., & Smith, G. F. 2010. Phylogenetic relationships in the family Asphodelaceae (Asparagales). Schumannia 6: 9-36. [Biodivers. Ecol. 3.]

Klucking, E. P. 1986-onwards. Leaf venation patterns. 7+ vols. J. Cramer, Berlin. [Vol. 7 (1995) has an essay on the classification of venation patterns.]

Kluge, M., & Brulfert, J. 1996. Crassulacean acid metabolism in the genus Kalanchoë: Ecological, physiological and biochemical aspects. Pp. 324-335, in Winter, K., & Smith, J. A. C. (eds), Crassulacean Acid Metabolism. Springer, Berlin. [Ecological Studies, vol. 114.]

Klymiuk, A. A. [et al. 2011], Stockey, R. A., & Rothwell, G. A. 2011. The first organismal concept for an extinct species of Pinaceae: Pinus arnoldii Miller. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 172: 294-313.

Knapp, A. K., & Seastedt, T. R. 1986. Detritus accumulation limits productivity of tallgrass prairie. BioScience 36: 662-668.

Knapp, M. [et al. 2005], Stöckler, K., Havell, D., Delsuc, F., Sebastiani, F., & Lockhart, P. J. 2005. Relaxed molecular clock provides evidence for long-distance dispersal of Nothofagus (southern beech). PLoS Biol. 3: 38-43.

Knapp, M. [et al. 2010], Mudalair, R., Havell, D., Wagstaff, S. J., & Lockhart, P. J. 2007. The drowning of New Zealand and the problem of Agathis. Syst. Biolo. 56: 862-870.

Knapp, S. 2002a. Floral diversity and evolution in the Solanaceae. Pp. 267-297, in Cronk, Q. C. B., Bateman, R. M., & Hawkins, J. A. (eds), Developmental Genetics and Plant Evolution. Taylor and Francis, London.

Knapp, S. 2002b. Tobacco to tomatoes: A phylogenetic perspective on fruit diversity in the Solanaceae. J. Exp. Bot. 53: 2001-2022.

Knapp, S. 2010. On 'various contrivances': Pollination, phylogeny and flower form in the Solanaceae. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B, 365: 449-460.

Knapp, S. [et al. 2004], Bohs, L., Nee, M., & Spooner, D. M. 2004. Solanaceae - a model for linking genomics with biodiversity. Comp. Funct. Genom. 5: 285-291.

Knapp, U. 1998. Samenoberfläche und Gliederung der Saxifragaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 120: 409-452.

Knight, C. L., & Wilf, P. 2013. Rare leaf fossils of Monimiaceae and Atherospermataceae (Laurales) from Eocene Patagonian rainforests and their biogeographic significance. Paleontol. Electr. 16.3.26A http://palaeo-electronica.org/content/2013/546-eocene-laurales-from-patagonia

Knobloch, E., & Mai, D.-H. 1984. Neue Gattungen nach Früchten und Samen aus dem Cenoman bis Maastricht (Kreide) von Mitteleuropa. Feddes Repert. 95: 3-41, pl. 1-16.

Knobloch, E., & Mai, D.-H. 1986. Monographie der Früchte und Samen in der Kreide von Mitteleuropa. Rozpr. Ustred. Ust. Geol. 47: 1-219.

Knoblauch, M., & van Bel, A. J. E. 1998. Sieve tubes in action. Plant Cell 10: 35-50.

Knoblauch, M. [et al. 2001], Peters, W. S., Ehlers, K., & van Bel, A. J. E. 2001. Reversible calcium-regulated stopcocks in legume sieve tubes. Plant Cell 13: 1221-1230.

Knoll, M. A., & James, W. C. 1987. Effect of the advent and diversification of vascular land plants on mineral weathering through geological time. Geology 15: 1099-1102.

Knoop, V. 2005. The mitochondrial perspective on early land plant development. P. 147, in XVII International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, Europe. [Abstracts.]

Knopf, P. [et al. 2012], Schulz, C., Little, D. P., Stützel, T., & Stevenson, D. W. 2012. Relationships within Podocarpaceae based on DNA sequence, anatomical, morpholgical, and biogeographical data. Cladistics 28: 271-299.

Knox, E. B., & Muasya, A. M. 2001. The phylogeny and biogeography of the Lobeliaceae based on the chloroplast genes atpB and rbcL and their intergenic spacer sequence. Pp. 121-122, in Botany 2001: Plants and People, Abstracts. [Albuquerque.]

Knox, E. B., & Palmer, J. D. 1995a. Choroplast DNA variation and the recent radiation of the the giant senecios (Asteraceae) on the tall mountains of eastern Africa. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92: 10349-10353.

Knox, E. B., & Palmer, J. D. 1995b. The origin of Dendroseneecio within the Senecioneae (Asteraceae) based on chloroplasr DNA evidence. American J. Bot. 82: 1567-1573.

Knox, E. B., & Palmer, J. D. 1999. The chloroplast genome of Lobelia thuliana (Lobeliaceae): Expansion of the inverted repeat in an ancestor of the Campanulales. Plant Syst. Evol. 214: 49-64.

Knox, E. B. [et al. 1993], Downie, S. R., & Palmer, J. D. 1993. Chloroplast genome rearrangements and the evolution of giant lobelias from herbaceous ancestors. Mol. Biol. Evol. 10: 414-430.

Knox, E. B. [et al. 2006], Muasya, A. M., & Phillipson, P. B. 2006. The Lobeliaceae originated in southern Africa. Pp. 215-227, in Ghazanfar, S. A., & Beentje, H. (eds), Taxonomy and Ecology of African Plants, Their Conservation and Sustainable Use. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Knox, E. B. [et al. 2008], Muasya, A. M., & Muchhala, N. 2008. The predominantly South American clade of Lobeliaceae. Syst. Bot. 33: 462-468.

Knuth, R. 1931. Geraniaceae. Pp. 43-66, in Engler, H. G. A. (ed.), Die natürliche Pflanzenfamilien, Ed. 2, vol. 19a. Engelmann, Leipzig.

Köbele, C. P., & Tillich, H.-J. 2001. Die Infloreszensen der Juncaceae. Sendtnera 7: 137-161.

Kobuski, K. 1951. Studies in the Theaceae, XXIII. The genus Pelliciera. J. Arnold Arbor. 32: 256-262.

Koch, M. A. 2003. Molecular phylogenetics, evolution and population biology in Brassicaceae. Pp. 1-35, in Sharma, A. K., & Sharma, A. (eds), Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution. Volume 1, part A. Phanerogams. Scientific Publications, Enfield, NH.

Koch, M. A. 2012. Mid-Miocene divergence of Ionopsidium and Cochlearia and its impact on the systematics and biogeography of the tribe Cochlearieae (Brassicaceae). Taxon 61: 76-92.

Koch, M. A., & Kiefer, C. 2006. Molecules and migration: Biogeographical studies in cruciferous plants. Plant Syst. Evol. 259: 121-142.

Koch, M. A., & Mummenhoff, K. 2001. Thlaspi s. str. (Brassicaceae) versus Thlaspi s.l.: Morphological and anatomical characters in the light of ITS nrDNA sequence data. Plant Syst. Evol. 227: 209-225.

Koch, M. A. [et al. 2001], Haubold, B., & Mitchell-Olds, T. 2001. Molecular systematics of the Brassicaceae: Evidence from coding plastidic matK and nuclear Chs sequences. American J. Bot. 88: 534-544.

Koch, M. A. [et al. 2003], Al-Shehbaz, I. A., & Mummenhoff, K. 2003. Molecular systematics, evolution, and population biology in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 151-171.

Koch, M. A. [et al. 2005], Dobes, C., Matschinger, M., Bleeker, W., Vogel, J., Kiefer, M., & Mitchell-Olds, T. 2005. Evolution of the trnF(GAA) gene in Arabidopsis relatives and the Brassicaceae family: Monophyletic origin and subsequent diversification of a plastidic pseudogene. Mol. Biol. Evol. 22: 1032-1043.

Koch, M. A. [et al. 2010], Karl, R., Kiefer, M., & Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 2010. Colonizing the American continent: Systematics of the genus Arabis in North America (Brassicaceae). American J. Bot. 97: 1040-1057.

Koch, M. A. [et al. 2012], Kiefer, M., German, D. A., Al-Shehbaz, I. A., Franzke, A., Mummenhoff, K., & Schmickl, R. 2012. BrassiBase: Tools and biological resources to study characters and traits in the Brassicaceae - version 1.1. Taxon 61: 1001-1009.

Koch, M. F. 1930. Studies in the anatomy and morphology of the Composite flower II. The corollas of the Heliantheae and Mutisieae. American J. Bot. 17: 995-1010.

Köcke, A. V. [et al. 2010], von Mering, S., Mucina, L., & Kadereit, J. W. 2010. Revision of the Mediterranean and southern African Triglochin bulbosa complex (Juncaginaceae). Edinburgh J. Bot. 67: 353-398.

Kocyan, A. 2005. Floral development and floral structure of Dipterocarpaceae. P. 196, in XVII International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, Europe. [Abstracts.]

Kocyan, A. 2007. The discovery of polyandry in Curculigo (Hypoxidaceae): Implications for androecium evolution of asparagoid monocotyledons. Ann. Bot. 100: 241-248.

Kocyan, A. 2010. Apostasioideae - the least known orchid subfamily. Malesian Orchid J. 5: 125-138.

Kocyan, A., & Birch, J. L. 2011. The astelioid clade of Asparagales: Molecular phylogenetics, character plasticity and long-distance dispersal. Pp. 310-311, in XVIII International Botanical Congress 2011, Melbourne. [Abstracts.]

Kocyan, A., & Endress, P. K. 2001a. Floral structure and development of Apostasia and Neuwiedia (Apostasioideae) and their relationships to other Orchidaceae. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 162: 847-867.

Kocyan, A., & Endress, P. K. 2001b. Floral structure and development and systematic aspects of some "lower" Asparagales. Plant Syst. Evol. 229: 187-216.

Kocyan, A. [2004], Qiu, Y.-L., Endress, P. K., & Conti, E. 2004. A phylogenetic analysis of Apostasioideae (Orchidaceae) based on ITS, trnL-F and matK sequences. Plant Syst. Evol. 247: 203-213.

Kocyan, A. [et al. 2007], Zhang, L. B., Schaefer, H., & Renner S. S. 2007. A multi-locus chloroplast phylogeny for the Cucurbitaceae and its implications for character evolution and classification. Mol. Phylog. Evol. 44: 553-577.

Kocyan, A. [et al. 2008], de Vogel, E. F., Conti, E., & Gravendeel, B. 2008. Molecular phylogeny of Aerides (Orchidaceae) based on one nuclear and two plastid markers: A step forward in understanding the evolution of the Aeridinae. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 48: 422-443.

Kocyan, A. [et al. 2011], Snijman, D. A., Forest, F., Devey, D. S., Freudenstein, J. V., Wiland-Szymańska, J., Chase, M. W., & Rudall, P. J. 2011. Molecular phylogenetics of Hypoxidaceae - evidence from plastid DNA and inferences on morphology and biogeography. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 60: 122-136.

Koehbach, J. [et al. 2013], Attah, A. F., Berger, A., Hellinger, R., Kutchan, T. M., Carpenter, E. J., Rolf, M., Sonibare, M. A., Moody, J. O., Wong, G. K.-S., Dessein, S., Greger, H., & Gruber, C. W. 2013. Cyclotide discovery in Gentianales revisited—identification and characterization of cyclic cystine-knot peptides and their phylogenetic distribution in Rubiaceae plants. Biopolymers 100: 438–452. doi: 10.1002/bip.22328

Koek-Noorman, J. 1977. Systematische Holzanatomie einiger Rubiaceen. Ber. Deutschen Bot. Gesell. 90: 183-190.

Koek-Noorman, J., & Hogeweg, P. 1974. The wood anatomy of Vanguerieae, Cinchoneae, Condamineae and Rondeletieae (Rubiaceae). Acta Bot. Neerlandica 23: 627-653.

Koek-Noorman, J., & Westra, L. Y. T. 2012. Macrophotographic wood atlas of Annonaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 168: 135-189.

Koenig, W. D., & Knops, J. M. H. 2000. Patterns of annual seed production by northern hemisphere trees. A global perspective. American Naturalist 155: 59-69.

Koenig, W. D., & Knops, J. M. H. 2005. The mystery of masting in trees. BioScience 93: 340-347.

Kofuji, R. [et al. 1994], Ueda, K., Yamaguchi, K., & Shimizu, T. 1994. Molecular phylogeny in the Lardizabalaceae. J. Plant Res. 107: 339-348.

Kögel-Knaber, I. 2002. The macromolecular organic composition of plant and microbial residues as inputs to soil organic matter. Soil Biol. Biochem. 34: 139-162.

Köhler, E. 1965. Die Pollenmorphologie der biovulaten Euphorbiaceae und ihre Bedeutung für die Taxonomie. Grana Palynol. 6: 1-120.

Köhler, E. 2002. Simmondsiaceae. Pp. 355-358, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. V. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. Springer, Berlin.

Köhler, E. 2006. Buxaceae, pp. 40-47, and Didymelaceae, pp. 129-131, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Volume IX. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales.... Springer, Berlin.

Kohn, J. R. [et al. 1996], Grahaw, S. W.,, Morton, B., Doyle, J. J., & Barrett, S. C. H. 1996. Reconstruction of the evolution of reproductive characters in Pontederiaceae using evidence from chloroplast DNA restriction-site variation. Evolution 50: 1454-1469.

Koi, S., & Kato, M. 2003. Comparative developmental anatomy of the root in three species of Cladopus (Podostemaceae). Ann. Bot. 91: 927-937.

Koi, S., & Kato, M. 2007. Developmental morphology of the shoot in Weddellina squamulosa and implications for shoot evolution in the Podostemaceae. Ann. Bot. 99: 1121-1130.

Koi, S., & Kato, M. 2010. Developmental morphology of seedling and shoot and phylogenetic relationship of Diplobryum koyamae (Podostemaceae). American J. Bot. 97: 373-387.

Koi, S. [et al. 2006], Fujinami, R., Kubo, N., Tsukamoto, I., Inagawa, R., Imaichi, R., & Kato, M. 2006. Comparative anatomy of root meristem and root cap in some species of Podostemaceae and the evolution of root dorsiventrality. American J. Bot. 93: 682-692.

Koi, S. [et al. 2009], Rutishauser, R., & Kato, M. 2009. Phylogenetic relationship and morphology of Dalzellia gracilis (Podostemaceae, subfamily Tristichoideae) with proposal of a new genus. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 170: 237-246.

Koi, S. [et al. 2012a], Kita, Y., Hirayama, Y., Rutishauser, R., Huber, K. A., & Kato, M. 2012a. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Podostemaceae: Implications for taxonomy of major groups. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 169: 461-492.

Koi, S. [et al. 2012b], Werukamkul, P., Ampornpan, L., & Kato, M. 2012b. Seedling development in Hanseniella, Hydrobryum and Thawatchaia (Podostemaceae), and implications on body plant evolution in the Hydrobryum clade. Plant Syst. Evol. 298: 1755-1766.

Koide, R. T., & Wu, T. 2003. Ectomycorrhizas and retarded decomposition in a Pinus resinosa plantation. New Phytol. 158: 401-407.

Kokubugata, G. [et al. 2012], Nakamura, K., Forster, P. I., Hirayama, Y., & Yokota, M. 2012. Antitropical distribution of Lobelia species (Campanulaceae) between the Ryukyu Archipelago of Japan and Oceania as indicated by molecular data. Australian J. Bot. 60: 417-428.

Kolakovsky, A. A. 1985. Fruit types in the Campanulaceae. Bot. Zhurn. 70(1): 1-11. [In Russian.]

Kölsch, A., & Gleissberg, S. 2006. Diversification of CYCLOIDEA-like TCP genes in the basal eudicot families Fumariaceae and Papaveraceae. Plant Biol. 8: 680-687.

Kölsch, G., & Pedersen, B. V. 2008. Molecular phylogeny of the reed beetles (Col., Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae): The signature of ecological specialization and geographical isolation. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 48: 936-952.

Kölsch, G., & Pedersen, B. V. 2010. Can the tight co-speciation between reed beetles (Col., Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae) and their bacterial endosymbionts, which provide cocoon material, clarify the deeper phylogeny of the hosts? Molec. Phyl. Evol. 54: 810-821.

Kondo, T. [et al. 2006], Sato, C., Baskin, J. M., & Baskin, C. C. 2006. Post-dispersal embryo development, germination phenolgy, and seed dormancy in Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii (Liliaceae s. str.), a perennial herb of the broadleaved deciduous forest in Japan. American J. Bot. 93: 849-859.

Kong, D.-R. [et al. 2002], Peng, H., & Liang, H.-X. 2002. A new type of embryo sac in Cardiopteris and its systematic implication. Acta Bot. Sinica 44: 496-498.

Kong, D.-R. [et al. 2014], Schori, M., Lu, S.-G., Li, L., & Peng, H. 2014. Floral development of Cardiopteris, with emphasis on gynoecial structure and ovular morphology. J. Syst. Evol.

Kong, J.-J. [et al. 2007], Xia, Y.-M., & Li, Q.-J. 2007. Inflorescence and flower development of Globba barthei (Zingiberaceae). Acta Bot. Yunnanica 29: 26-32. [In chinese.]

Kong, H.-H. [et al. 2007], Wang, A.-L., Lee, J., & Fu, C. X. 2007. Studies of systematic evolution and karyotypic variation in Smilax and Heterosmilax (Smilacaceae). Acta Phytotax. Sinica 45: 257-273. [In Chinese.]

Kong, H.-Z. [et al. 2002], Lu, A. M., & Endress, P. K. 2002. Floral organogenesis of Chloranthus sessilifolius, with special emphasis on the morphological nature of the androecium of Chloranthus (Chloranthaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 232: 181-188.

Konno, K. 2011. Plant latex and other exudates as plant defense systems: Roles of various defense chemicals and proteins contained therein. Phytochem. 72: 1510-1530.

Kono, M., & Tobe, H. 2007. Is Cycas revoluta wind- or insect-pollinated? American J. Bot. 94: 847-855.

Konstantinova, A. I., & Suchorukow, A. P. 2010. Die Karpologie der asiatischen Schefflera-sippen (Araliaceae). Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien B, 111: 149-170.

Konta, F., & Tsuji, X. 1982. The types of pollen tetrads and their formations observed in some Orchidaceae in Japan. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 33: 206-217. [In Japanese.]

Kooiman, P. 1960. The occurrence of amyloids in plant seeds. Acta Bot. Neerlandica 9: 208-219.

Kool, R. 1980. A taxonomic revision of the genus Ixonanthes. Blumea 26: 191-204.

Kool, R. 1988. Ixonanthaceae. Pp. 621-627, in de Wilde, W. J. J. O. (ed.), Flora malesiana, ser. 1, vol. 10(3). Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Koontz, J. A., & Soltis, D. E. 1999. DNA sequence data reveal polyphyly of Brexioideae (Brexiaceae; Saxifragaceae sensu lato). Plant Syst. Evol. 219: 199-208.

Koontz, J. A. [et al. 2004], Soltis, P. S., & Soltis, D. E. 2004. Using phylogeny to test hypotheses of hybrid origin in Delphinium section Diedropetela (Ranunculaceae). Syst. Bot. 29:345-357.

Koontz, J. A. [et al. 2006], Lundberg, J., & Soltis, D. E. 2007 [2006]. Rousseaceae. Pp. 611-613, in Kadereit, J. W. & Jeffrey, C. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Volume VIII. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Asterales. Springer, Berlin.

Koontz, J. A., & Soltis, D. E. 2004. Using phylogeny to test hypotheses of hybrid origin in Delphinium section Diedropetela (Ranunculaceae). Syst. Bot. 29:345-357.

Koopman, M. M., & Baum, D. A. 2008. Phylogeny and biogeography of tribe Hibisceae (Malvaceae) on Madagascar. Syst. Bot. 33: 364-374.

Koopman, W. J. M. [et al. 2008], Wissemann, V., de Cock, K., van Huylenbroeck, J., de Riek, J., Sabatino, G. J. H., Visser, D., Vosman, B., Ritz, C. M., Maes, B., Werlemark, G., Nybom, H., Debener, T., Linde, M., & Smulders, M. J. M. 2008. AFLP markers as a tool to reconstruct complex relationships: A case study in Rosa (Rosaceae). American J. Bot. 95: 353-366.

Koorbanally, C. [et al. 2008], Sewjee, S., Mulholland, D. A., Crouch, N. R., & Dold, A. 2008. Homoisoflavanones from Pseudoprospero firmifolium of the monotypic tribe Pseudoprospereae (Hyacinthaceae: Hyacinthoideae). Phytochem 68: 2753-2756.

Kopczynska, K. 1964. Embryo sac development in Pinguicula vulgaris L. Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 33: 141-156.

Kopka, S., & Weberling, F. 1983. Zur Morphologie und Morphogenese der Blüte von Vochysia acuminata Bong. ssp. laurifolia (Warm.) Stafleu (Vochysiaceae). Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 59: 273-302.

Kopp, L. E. 1966. A taxonomic revision of the genus Persea in the western hemisphere (Perseae-Lauraceae). Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 14(1): 1-117.

Koptur, S. 1992. Extrafloral nectary-mediated interactions between insects and plants. Pp. 81-129, in Bernays, E. A. (ed.), Insect-Plant Interactions. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLA.

Korall, P., & Pryer, K. M. 2014. Global biogeography of scaly tree fens (Cyatheaceae): Evidence from Gondwanan vicariance and limited transoceanic dispersal. J. Biogeogr. 41: 402-413.

Korall, P. [et al. 2007], Conant, D. S., Metzgar, J. S., Schneider, H., & Pryer, K. M. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of scaly tree ferns (Cyatheaceae). American J. Bot. 94: 873-886.

Korall, P. [et al. 2010], Schuettpelz, E., & Pryer, K. M. 2010. Abrupt deceleration of molecular evolution linked to the origin of arborescence in ferns. Evolution 64: 2786-2792.

Korine, C. [et al. 2000], Kalko, E. K. V., & Herre, E. A. 2000. Fruit characters and factors affecting fruit removal in a Panamanian community of strangler figs. Oecologia 123: 560-568.

Korn, R. W. 2006. Anodic asymmetry of leaves and flowers and its relationship to phyllotaxis. Ann. Bot. 97: 1011-1015.

Korn, R. W. 2011. Window patterns in Lithops. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 172: 1101-1109.

Korn, R. W. 2013. The concept of the eudicot shoot apical meristem as it applies to four Spiraea (Rosaceae), one Mentha (Lamiaceae) and one Euonymus (Celastraceae) cultivars based on chimeric analysis. Ann. Bot. 111: 887-893.

Korneyev, V. [et al. 2005], Zwölfer, H., & Seitz, A. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships, ecology, and ecological genetics of cecidogenous Tephritidae. Pp. 321-371, in Raman, A., Schaefer, C. W., & Withers, T. M. (eds), Biology, Ecology and Evolution of Gall-Inducing Arthropods. Science Publishers, Enfield, N.H.

Kornhall, P. 2004. Phylogenetic Studies in the Lamiales with Special Focus on Scrophulariaceae and Stilbaceae. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Upsala.

Kornhall, P., & Bremer, B. 2004. New circumscription of the tribe Limoselleae (Scrophulariaceae) that includes taxa of the tribe Manuleeae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 146: 453-467, see also Ibid. 2005. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 147: 385-386. Corrigenda.

Kornhall, P. [et al. 2001], Heidari, N., & Bremer, B. 2001. Selagineae and Manuleeae, two tribes or one? Phylogenetic studies in the Scrophulariaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 228: 199-218.

Korotkova, N. [et al. 2009], Schneider, J. V., Quandt, D., Worberg, A., Zizka, G., & Borsch, T. 2009. Phylogeny of the eudicot order Malpighiales - analysis of a recalcitrant clade with sequences of the petD group II intron. Plant Syst. Evol. 282: 201-228.

Korotkova, N. [et al. 2010], Zabel, L., Quandt, D., & Barthlott, W. 2010. A phylogenetic analysis of Pfeiffera and the reinstatement of Lymanbensonia as an independently evolved lineage of epiphytic Cactaceae with a new tribe Lymanbensonieae. Willdenowia 40: 151-172.

Kos, M. [et al. 2012], Houshyani, B., Wietsma, R., Kabouw, P., Vet, L. E. M., van Loon, J. J. A., & Dicke, M. 2012. Effects of glucosinolates on a generalist and specialist leaf-chewing herbivore and an associated parasitoid. Phytochem. 77: 162-170.

Kosenko, V. N. 1994. Pollen morphology of the families Phormiaceae, Blandfordiaceae and Doryanthaceae. Bot. Zhurn. 79(7): 1-12. [In Russian.]

Kostikova, A. [et al. 2013], Litsios, G., Salamin, N., & Pearman, P. B. 2013. Linking life-history traits, ecology, and niche breadth evolution in North American eriogonoids (Polygonaceae). American Naturalist 182: 760-774.

Kostikova, A. [et al. 2014], Litsios, G., Burgy, S., Milani, L., Pearman, P. B., & Salamin, N. 2014. Scale-dependent adaptive evolution and morphological convergence to climatic niche in Californian eriogonoids (Polygonaceae). J. Biogeog.

Kosuge, K. 1994. Petal evolution in Ranunculaceae. Pp. 185-191, in Jensen, U., & Kadereit, J. W. (eds), Systematics and Evolution of the Ranunculiflorae. Springer, Vienna. [Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 9.]

Kosuge, K. & Tamura, M. 1989. Ontogenetic studies on petals of the Ranunculaceae. J. Japanese Bot. 64: 65-74.

Kosuge, K. [et al. 1989], Pu, F.-D., & Tamura, M. 1989. Floral morphology and relationships of Kingdonia. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 40: 61-67.

Kotarski, M. [et al. 2007], Caro, S., Sweeney, C., Greene, M., Stampfle, J., & Leonard, D. 2007. Placement of three problematic genera of Gesneriaceae based on Chalcone Synthase (CHS) a duplicated nuclear gene. P. 296, in Plant Biology and Botany 2007. Poster Abstract Book. Chicago.

Koteyeva, N. K. [et al. 2011a], Voznesenskaya, E. V., Roalson, E. H., & Edwards, G. E. 2011a. Diversity in forms of C4 in the genus Cleome (Cleomaceae). Ann Bot. 107: 269-283.

Koteyeva, N. K. [et al. 2011b], Voznesenskaya, E. V., Berry, J. O., & Edwards, G. E. 2011b. Development of structural and biochemical chloroplast dimorphism in Kranz versus non-Kranz C4 chenopods. Pp. 177-178, in XVIII International Botanical Congress 2011, Melbourne. [Abstracts.]

Koteyeva, N. K. [et al. 2011c], Voznesenskaya, E. V., Berry, J. O., Chuong, S, D. X., Franceschi, V. R., & Edwards, G. E. 2011c. Development of structural and biochemical characteristics of C4 photosynthesis in two types of Kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda (family Chenopodiaceae). J. Experim. Bot.

Kotina, E., & Oskolski, A. 2010. Survey of the bark anatomy of Araliaceae and related taxa. Plant Divers. Evol. 128: 455-489.

Kotina, E. [et al. 2011], Nikova, M., Rossouw, A., Oskolski, A., & van Wyk, B. E. 2011. The systematic significance of bark anatomy in Apiales. P. 216, in XVIII International Botanical Congress 2011, Melbourne. [Abstracts.]

Kotina, E. [et al. 2012], van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P. M., & Oskolski, A. A. 2012. The systematic significance of bark structure in southern African genera of tribe Heteromorpheae (Apiaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 169: 677-691.

Kotthoff, U. [et al. 2013], Wappler, T., & Engel, M. S. 2013. Greater past disparity and diversity hints at ancient migrations of European honey bee lineages into Africa and Asia. J. Biogeog. 40: 1832-1838.

Kottke, I, & Nebel, M. 2005. The evolution of mycorrhiza-like associations in liverworts: An update. New Phytol. 167: 330-334.

Kottke, I. [et al. 2008], Haug, I., Setaro, S., Suárez, J. P., Weiss, M., Preussing, M., Nebel, M., & Oberwinkler, F. 2008. Guilds of mycorrhizal fungi and their relation to trees, ericads, orchids and liverworts in a neotropical mountain rain forest. Basic Appl. Ecol.. 9: 13-23.

Kottke, I. [et al. 2010], Suárez, J. P., Herrera, P., Cruz, D., Bauer, R., Haug, I., & Garnica, S. 2010. Atractiellomycetes belonging to the 'rust' lineage (Pucciniomycotina) form mycorrhizae with terrestrial and epiphytic neotropical orchids. Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 277: 1289-1298.

Koul, K. K. [et al. 2000], Nagpal, R., & Raina, S. N. 2000. Seed coat microsculpturing in Brassica and allied genera (subtribes Brassicinae, Raphaninae, Moricandiinae). Ann. Bot. 86: 385-397.

Koutsovoulou, K. [et al. 2014], Daws, M. L., & Thanos, C. A. 2014. Campanulaceae: A family with small seeds that require light for germination. Ann. Bot. 113: 135-143.

Kovácik, J., & Repcák, M. 2006. Napthoquinones content of some sundews (Drosera L.). Carniv. Plant Newsl. 35: 49-51.

Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, M. [et al. 2011], Plachno, B. J., & Bohdanowicz, J. 2011. Are unusual plasmodesmata in the embryo-suspensor restricted to species from the genus Sedum among Crassulaceae? Flora 206: 684-690.

Krach, J. E. 1976. Samenanatomie der Rosifloren I. Die Samen der Saxifragaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 97: 1-60.

Krach, J. E. 1977. Seed characters in and affinities among the Saxifragineae. Pp. 141-153, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), Flowering Plants: Evolution and Classification of Higher Categories. Springer, Vienna. [Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 1.]

Kraemer, S. M. [et al. 2006], Crowley, D. E., & Kretzschmar, R. 2006. Geochemical aspects of phytosiderophore-promoted iron acquisition by plants. Adv. Agron. 91: 1-46.

Kral, R. 1988. The genus Xyris (Xyridaceae) in Venezuela and contiguous northern South America. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 522-722.

Kral, R. 1992. A treatment of American Xyridaceae exclusive of Xyris. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 819-895.

Kral, R. 1998. Xyridaceae. Pp. 461-469, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. IV. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae). Springer, Berlin.

Kramer, E. M., & Hodges, S. A. 2010. Aquileguia as a model system for the evolution and ecology of petals. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B, 365: 477-490.

Kramer, E. M., & Irish, V. F. 1999. Evolution of genetic mechanisms controlling petal development. Nature 399: 144-148.

Kramer, E. M., & Irish, V. F. 2000. Evolution of petal and stamen developmental programs: Evidence from comparative studies of lower eudicots and basal angiosperms. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 161(6: suppl. [Current Perspectives on Basal Angiosperms]): S29-S40.

Kramer, E. M., & Zimmer, E. A. 2006. Gene duplication and floral developmental studies of basal eudicots. Adv. Bot. Res. 44: 353-384.

Kramer, E. M. [et al. 1998], Dorit, R. L., & Irish, V. F. 1998. Molecular evolution of genes controlling petal and stamen development: Duplication and divergence within the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA MADS-box gene lineages. Genetics 149: 765-783.

Kramer, E. M. [et al. 2003], Di Stilio, V. S., & Schluter, P. 2003. Complex patterns of gene duplication in the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA lineages of the Ranunculaceae. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 164: 1-11.

Kramer, E. M. [et al. 2004], Jaramillo, M. A., & Di Stilio, V. S. 2004. Patterns of gene duplication and functional evolution during the diversification of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS box genes in angiosperms. Genetics 166: 1011-1023.

Kramer, E. M. [et al. 2006], Su, H.-J., Wu, C.-C., & Hu, J.-M. 2006. A simplified explanation for the frameshift mutation that created a novel C-terminal motif in the APETALA3 gene lineage. BMC Evol. Biol. 2006, 6:30.

Krämer, T. [et al. 2006], Kessler, M., & Herzog, S. K. 2006. Distribution and flowering ecology of bromeliads along two climatically-contrasting elevational transects in the Bolivian Andes. Biotropica 38: 183-195.

Krämer, U. 2010. Metal hyperaccumulation in plants. Ann. Review Plant Biol. 61: 517-534.

Kranabetter, J. M., & MacKenzie, W. H. 2010. Contrasts among mycorrhizal plant guilds in foliar nitrogen concentration and [delta]15N along productivity gradients of a boreal forest. Ecosystems 13: 108-117.

Krapovickas, A., & Gregory, W. C. 1994. Taxonomía del género Arachis (Leguminosae). Bonplandia 8: 1-187. [See also: Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae). Bonplandia 16(suppl.): 1-205.]

Krassilov, V. A. 1997. Angiosperm Origins: Morphological and Ecological Aspects. Pensoft, Sophia.

Krassilov, V. A., & Golovneva, L. B. 2004. A minute mid-Cretaceous flower from Siberia and implications for the problem of basal angiosperms. Geodiversitas 26: 5-15.

Krassilov, V. A., & Loven, Y. 2007. Cercidiphyllum and the problem of initial angiosperms. Pp. 39-41, in Material of Conference on Morphology and Systematics of Plants, Devoted to 300th Anniversary of the Birthday of C. Linnaeus. Mosk. Gos. University, Moskow. [In Russian; Not Seen.]

Krassilov, V. A., & Volynets, Y. 2008. Weedy Albian angiosperms. Acta Palaeobot. 48: 151-169.

Kratzer, J. 1918. Die verwandtschaftliche Beziehungen der Cucurbitaceen auf grund ihrer Samenentwicklung. Flora 110: 275-453.

Kraus, J. E. [et al. 1996], Scatena, V. L., Lewinger, M. E., & Sá Trench, K. U. 1996. Morfologia externa e interna de quatro espécies de Paepalanthus Kunth (Eriocaulaceae) em desenvolvimento pós-seminal. Bol. Bot. Univ. São Paulo 15: 45-53

Krause, K. 2011. Piecing together the puzzle of parasitic plant plastome evolution. Planta 234: 647-656.

Kravtsova, T. I. 2003. Seed coat structure in the Urticaceae and relations of the Urticales. Bot. Zhurn. 88(11): 11-41. [In Russian.]

Kravtsova, T. I. 2006. Cells with wall ingrowths in the pericarp and seed coat of the representatives of the Urticaceae. Bot. Zhurn. 91: 1369-1378. Pl. 1-2. [In Russian.]

Kravtsova, T. I. 2013. Comparative Carpology of the Urticaceae Juss.. KMK Scientific Press, Moscow. [In Russian, extensive English summary.]

Kravtsova, T. I., & Oskolski, A. A. 2007. Cladistic analysis of the Urticaceae, Cecropiaceae and Moraceae (Urticales) based on carpological characters. Bot. Zhurn. 92: 613-640. [In Russian.]

Kravtsova, T. I., & Wilmot-Dear, C. M. 2013. Fruit structure in Lozanella enantiophylla and L. permollis (Celtidaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 98: 468-480. [In Russian.]

Kreft, H., & Jetz, W. 2007. Global patterns and determinants of vascular plant diversity. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104: 5925-5930.

Kreier, H.-P. [et al. 2008], Zhang, X.-C., Muth, H., & Schneider, H. 2008. The microsoroid ferns: Inferring the relationships of a highly diverse lineage of paleotropical epiphytic ferns (Polypodiaceae, Polypodiopsida). Molec. Phyl. Evol. 48: 1155-1167.

Krell, F.-T., & Cranston, P. S. 2004. Which side of the tree is more basal? Syst. Entomol. 29: 279-281.

Kress, W. J. 1986a. The systematic distribution of vascular epiphytes: A update. Selbyana 9: 2-22.

Kress, W. J. 1986b. Exineless pollen structure and pollination systems of tropical Heliconia (Heliconiaceae). Pp. 329-345, in Blackmore, S., & Ferguson, I. K. (eds), Pollen and Spores: Form and Function. Academic Press, London.

Kress, W. J. 1990a. The taxonomy of Old World Heliconia (Heliconiaceae). Allertonia 6: 1-58.

Kress, W. J. 1990b. The phylogeny and classification of the Zingiberales. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 698-721.

Kress, W. J. 1995. Phylogeny of the Zingiberanae: Morphology and molecules. Pp. 443-460, in Rudall, P. J., Cribb, P. J., Cutler, D. F., & Humphries, C. J. (eds), Monocotyledons: Systematics and Evolution, vol. 2. Rotal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Kress, W. J., & Beach, J. H. 1994. Flowering plant reproductive systems. Pp. 161-182, in McDade, L. A., Bawa, K. S., Hespenheide, H. A., & Hartshorn, G. S. (eds), La Selva: Ecology and Natural history of a Neotropical Rain Forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Kress, W. J., & Specht, C. D. 2005. Between Cancer and Capricorn: Phylogeny, evolution and ecology of the primarily tropical Zingiberales. Biol. Skr. 55: 459-478. [Pp. 459-478, in Friis, I., & Balslev, H. (eds), Proceedings of a Symposium on Plant Diversity and Complexity Patterns - Local, Regional and Global Dimensions. Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Copenhagen.]

Kress, W. J., & Specht, C. D. 2006. The evolutionary and biogeographic origin and diversification on the tropical monocot order Zingiberales. Pp. 621-632, in Columbus, J. T., Friar, E. A., Porter, J. M., Prince, L. M., & Simpson, M. G. (eds), Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution. Excluding Poales. Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, Claremont, Ca. [Aliso 22: 621-632.]

Kress, W. J. [et al. 1994], Schatz, G. E., Andrianifahanana, M., & Morland, H. S. 1994. Pollination of Ravenala madagascariensis (Strelitziaceae) by lemurs in Madagascar: Evidence for an archaic coevolutionary system. American J. Bot. 81: 542-551.

Kress, W. J. [et al. 2001], Prince, L. M., Hahn, W. J., & Zimmer, E. A. 2001. Unraveling the evolutionary radiation of the families of the Zingiberales using morphological and molecular evidence. Syst. Biol. 50: 926-944.

Kress, W. J. [et al. 2002], Prince, L. M., & Williams, K. J. 2002. The phylogeny and a new classification of gingers: Evidence from molecular data. American J. Bot. 89: 1682-1696.

Kress, W. J. [et al. 2005], Liu, A.-Z., Newman, M., & Li, Q.-J. 2005. The molecular phylogeny of Alpinia (Zingiberaceae): A complex and polyphyletic genus of gingers. American J. Bot. 92: 167-178.

Kress, W. J. [et al. 2007], Newman, M., Poulsen, M. F., & Specht, C. 2007. An analysis of generic circumscriptions in tribe Alpinieae (Alpinioideae: Zingiberaceae). Gard. Bull. Singapore 59: 113-128.

Kretzschmar, H. [et al. 2007], Eccarius, W., & Dietrich, H. 2007. The Orchid Genera Anacamptis, Orchis and Neotinea: Phylogeny, Taxonomy, Morphology, Biology, Distribution, Ecology and Hybridization, Ed. 2. [Translated from the German]. EchinoMedia, Bürgel.

Kreunen, S. K., & Osborn, J. M. 1999. Pollen and anther development in Nelumbo (Nelumbonaceae). American J. Bot. 86: 1662-1676.

Kribs, D. A. 1935. Salient lines of structural specialisation in the wood rays of dicotyledons. Bot. Gaz. 96: 547-557.

Kriebel, R. [et al. 2007], Fritsch, P. W., & Almeda, F. 2007. Discovery of gynoecial oil in Symplocos (Symplocaceae): Functional and evolutionary implications. P. 298, in Plant Biology and Botany 2007. Program and Abstract Book. Chicago.

Kringa, A. [et al. 2008], Thomas, D. T., & Xiang, Q.-Y. 2008. On the generic circumscription of Gonolobus (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae): Evidence from molecules and morphology. Syst. Bot. 33: 403-415.

Krishna Iyengar, C. K. 1940a. Development of embryo sac and endosperm in some members of Scrophularieae. V. Ilysanthes hyssopioides Benth, and Bonnaya tenuifolia Spreng. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 19: 5-17.

Krishna Iyengar, C. K. 1940b. Structure and development of seed in Sopubia trifida Ham. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 19: 251-261.

Krishna Iyengar, C. K. 1942. Development of embryo sac and endosperm in Tetranema mexicana and Verbascum thapsus. Proc. National Inst. Sci. India 8: 59-69.

Krishnamurthy, K. V., & Indra, R. 1985. The helobial endosperm. J. Plant Sci. Res. 1: 134-141.

Kristiansen, K. A. [et al. 2001], Rasmussen, F. N., & Rasmussen, H. N. 2001. Seedlings of Neuwiedia have typical orchidaceous mycotrophic protocorms. American J. Bot. 85: 956-959.

Kristiansen, K. A. [et al. 2004], Freudenstein, J. V., Rasmussen, F. N., & Rasmussen, H. N. 2004. Molecular identification of mycorrhizal fungi in Neuwiedia veratrifolia (Orchidaceae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 33: 251-258.

Kristiansen, K. A. [et al. 2005], Cilieborg, M., Drábková, L., Jørgensen, T., Petersen, G., & Seberg, O. 2005. DNA taxonomy - the riddle of Oxychloë (Juncaceae). Syst. Bot. 30: 284-289.

Kroeger, K. F., & Funnell, R. H. 2012 Warm Eocene climate enhanced petroleum generation from Cretaceous source rocks: A potential climate feedback mechanism? Geophys. Res. Lett., 39(4): 6 p; doi:10.1029/2011GL050345

Kron, K. A. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships and major clades of Rhododendron (Rhodoreae, Ericoideae, Ericaceae). Pp. 79-85, in Argent, G., & McFarlane, M. (eds), Rhododendrons in Horticulture and Science. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.

Kron, K. A., & Chase, M. W. 1993. Systematics of the Ericaceae, Empetraceae, Epacridaceae and related taxa based on rbcL sequence data. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 735-741.

Kron, K. A., & Luteyn, J. L. 2005. Origin and biogeographic patterns in Ericaceae: New insights from recent phylogenetic analyses. Biol. Skr. 55: 479-500. [Pp. 479-500, in Friis, I., & Balslev, H. (eds), Proceedings of a Symposium on Plant Diversity and Complexity Patterns - Local, Regional and Global Dimensions. Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Copenhagen.]

Kron, K. A. [et al. 1999a], Fuller, R., Crayn, D. M., Gadek, P. A., & Quinn, C. J. 1999a. Phylogenetic relationships of epacrids and vaccinioids (Ericaceae s.l.) based on matk sequence data. Plant Syst. Evol. 218: 55-65.

Kron, K. A. [et al. 1999b], Judd, W. S., & Crayn, D. M. 1999b. Phylogenetic analyses of Andromedeae (Ericaceae subfam. Vaccinioideae). American J. Bot. 86: 1290-1300.

Kron, K. A. [et al. 2002a], Powell, E. A., & Luteyn, J. L. 2002a. Phylogenetic relationships within the blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae, Ericaceae) based on sequence data from matK and nuclear ribosomal ITS regions, with comments on the placement of Satyria. American J. Bot. 89: 327-336.

Kron, K. A. [et al. 2002b], Judd, W. S., Stevens, P. F., Crayn, D. M., Anderberg, A. A., Gadek, P. A., Quinn, C. J., & Luteyn, J. L. 2002b. A phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: Molecular and morphological evidence. Bot. Review 68: 335-423.

Kronestedt, E., & Bystedt, P.-A. 1981. Thread-like formations in the anthers of Strelitzia reginae. Nordic J. Bot. 1: 523-529.

Kronfeld, M. 18900. Über die biologischen Verhältnisse der Aconitum-Blüte. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 11: 1-20.

Krosch, M. N. [et al. 2011], Baker, A. M., Mather, P. B., & Cranston, P. S. 2011. Systematics and biogeography of the Gondwanan Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 59: 458-468.

Krosnick, S. E., & Freudenstein, J. V. 2005. Monophyly and floral character homology of Old World Passiflora (subgenus Decaloba: Supersection Disemma). Syst. Bot. 30: 139-152.

Krosnick, S. E., & Freudenstein, J. V. 2006. Resolving the phylogenetic position of Hollrungia and Tetrapathaea: The end of two monotypic genera in Passifloraceae. P. 233, in Botany 2006 - Looking to the Future - Conserving the Past. [Abstracts: Botanical Society of America, etc.]

Krosnick, S. E. [et al. 2006], Harris, E. M., & Freudenstein, J. V. 2006. Patterns of anomalous floral development in the Asian Passiflora (subgenus Decaloba: Supersection Disemma). American J. Bot. 93: 620-636.

Krosnick, S. [et al. 2008a], Potter, D., & Gasser, C. 2008a. CRABS CLAW as a tool for homology assessment in Passiflora nectaries. P. 46, in Botany 2008. Botany without Borders. [Botanical Society of America, etc. Abstracts.]

Krosnick, S. [et al. 2008b], Carrie, K., & McDade, L. 2008b. Sweet rewards: A survey of nectary diversity in Passifloraceae, Malesherbiaceae, and Turneraceae. P. 115, in Botany 2008. Botany without Borders. [Botanical Society of America, etc. Abstracts.]

Krosnick, S. [et al. 2011], Gasser, C., & Potter, D. 2011. Passiflora as a model system for studying nectary diversification: Insights and implications. Pp. 63-64, in XVIII International Botanical Congress 2011, Melbourne. [Abstracts.]

Krosnick, S. E. [et al. 2013], Porter-Utley, K. E., MacDougal, J. M., Jorgensen, P. M., & McDade, L. A. 2013. New insights into the evolution of Passiflora subgenus Decaloba (Passifloraceae): Phylogenetic relationships and morphological synapomorphies. Syst. Bot. 38: 692-713.

Krüger, Å. [et al. 2012], Razafimandimbison, S. G., & Bremer, B. 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Danaideae (Rubiaceae: Rubioideae): Another example of out-of-Madagascar dispersal. Taxon 61: 629-636.

Krüger, H., & Robbertse, P. J. 1988. Floral ontogeny of Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen. (Polygalaceae), including inflorescence morphology. Pp. 159-167, in Leins, P., Tucker, S. C., & Endress, P. K. (eds), Aspects of Floral Development. J. Cramer, Berlin.

Krüger, H. [et al. 1988], van der Merwe, M. J., & Robbertse, P. J. 1988. Floral organogenesis in Securidaca longepedunculata and Polygala virgata var. decora (Polygalaceae). South African J. Sci. 84: 308-313.

Krupko, S. 1962. Embryological and cytological investigations in Hypodiscus aristatus Nees (Restionaceae). J. South African Bot. 28: 21-44.

Krutzsch, W. 1989. Paleogeography and historical geography (paleochorology) in the Neophyticum. Plant Syst. Evol. 162: 5-61.

Krutzsch, W. 2008. Buxus - Buxaceen) pollenformen aus alttertiären Ablagerungen Mitteleuropas und ihre paläochorologische Bedeutung. Feddes Rep. 119: 207-216.

Kshetrapal, S. 1970. A contribution to the vascular anatomy of the flower of certain species of the Salvadoraceae. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 49: 92-99.

Ku, H.-M. [et al. 2000], Vision, T., Liu, J., & Tanksley, S. D. 2000. Comparing sequenced segments of the tomato and Arabidopsis genomes: Large-scale duplication followed by selective gene loss creates a network of synteny. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97: 9121-9126.

Kubitzki, K. 1969. Monographie der Hernandiaceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 89: 78-148 [Teil 1], 149-209 [Teil II.]

Kubitzki, K. 1971. Doliocarpus, Davilla und verwandte Gattungen (Dilleniaceae). Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 9: 1-105.

Kubitzki, K. 1981. The tubular exine or Lauraceae and Hernandiaceae, a novel type of exine in seed plants. Plant Syst. Evol. 138: 139-146.

Kubitzki, K. 1987. Origin and significance of trimerous flowers. Taxon 36: 21-28.

Kubitzki, K. 1993a. Introduction. Pp. 1-12 in Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., & Bittrich, V. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families. Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 1993b. Betulaceae, pp. 152-156, Calycanthaceae, 197-199, Canellaceae, 200-203, Cannabaceae, 204-205, Cecropiaceae, 243-245, Degeneriaceae, 290-291, Didieraceae, 292-295, Fagaceae, 301-309, Gomortegaceae, 318-319, Hernandiaceae, 334-337, Lactoridaceae, 359-360, Myricaceae, 453-457, Myrothamnaceae, 468-469, Platanaceae, 521-522, Plumbaginaceae, 523-530, and Ticodendraceae, pp. 594-595, in Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., & Bittrich, V. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families. Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 1994. A note on the relationship of the order within the angiosperms. Pp. 317-320, in Behnke, H.-D., & Mabry, T. J. (eds), Caryophyllales: Evolution and Systematics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 1998a. Introductory material. Pp. 49-52, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of VascularPlants. III. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Lilianae (except Orchidaceae). Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 1998b. Agapanthaceae, pp. 58-59, Campynemataceae, pp. 173-174, Hostaceae, pp. 256-260, Ixoliriaceae, pp. 334-335, Pentastemonaceae, pp. 404-405, Stemonaceae, pp. 422-424, Taccaceae, pp. 425-428, and Velloziaceae, pp. 459-466, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. III. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Lilianae (except Orchidaceae). Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 1998c. Introductory material. Pp. 1-6, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. IV. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae). Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 1998d. Cannaceae, pp. 103-105, Thurniaceae, pp. 455-456, and Typhaceae, pp. 457-460, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. IV. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae). Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 2002a. Introduction to Capparales. Pp. 7-10, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. V. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 2002b. Conspectus of the families of Capparales. P. 11, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. V. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 2002c. Conspectus of the families of Malvales. Pp. 17-18, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. V. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 2002d. Asteropeiaceae, pp. 28-29, Caricaceae, 57-61, Droseraceae, 198-202, Drosophyllaceae, 203-205, Emblingiaceae, 206-208, Frankeniaceae, 209-212, Koeberliniaceae, 218-219, Moringaceae, 312-314, Nepenthaceae, 320-324, Resedaceae, 334-338, Salvadoraceae, 342-344, Setchellanthaceae, 353-354, Tapisciaceae, 369-370, and Tepuianthaceae, pp. 371-372, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. V. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 2004a. Introduction to families treated in this volume. Pp. 1-11, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. VI. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales. Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 2004b. Brunelliaceae, pp. 26-27, Cornaceae, 82-90, Curtisiaceae, 112-113, Cyrillaceae, 114-116, Fouquieraceae, 195-198, Grubbiacaeae, 199-201, Lepidobotryaceae, 233-235, Pellicieraceae, 297-299, Sarraceniaceae, 422-425, and Tetrameristaceae, pp. 461-462, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. VI. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales. Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 2006a. Introduction to the groups treated in this volume. Pp. 1-22, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascula Plants. Volume IX. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales.... Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 2006b. Aextoxicaceae, pp. 23-25, Aphanopetalaceae, 29-30, Aphloiaceae, 31-32, Berberidopsidaceae, 33-35, Daphniphyllaceae, 127-128, Haloragaceae, 184-190, Iteaceae, 202-204, Malesherbiaceae, 247-249, Picramniaceae, 301-303, Pterostemonaceae, 405-406, Quillajaceae, 407-408, Sabiaceae, 413-417, and Tetracarpaeaceae, pp. 456-457, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Volume IX. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales.... Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 2011. Coriariaceae, pp. 105-108, and Corynocarpaceae, pp. 109-111, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Flowering Plants. X. Flowering Plants: Eudicots. Sapindales, Cucurbitales, Myrtaceae. Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 2013a. Introduction to Malpighiales. Pp. 1-8, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Flowering Plants. XI. Flowering Plants: Eudicots. Malpighiales. Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. 2013b. Balaopaceae, pp. 9-11, Centroplacaceae, pp. 17-18, Ctenolophonaceae, pp. 29-31, Elatinaceae, pp. 39-41, Euphroniaceae, pp. 217-218, Goupiaceae, pp. 219-221, Humiriaceae, pp. 223-228, Irvingiaceae, pp. 229-232, Ixonanthaceae, pp. 233-236, Lophopyxidaceae, pp. 247-248, Pandaceae, pp. 259-272, and Quiinaceae, pp. 277-281, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Flowering Plants. XI. Flowering Plants: Eudicots. Malpighiales. Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K., & Chase, M. W. 2002. Introduction to Malvales. Pp. 12-16, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. V. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales. Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K., & Reznik, H. 1966. Flavonoid-Muster der Polycarpicae als systematisches Merkmal. I. Ubersicht über die Familien. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 42: 445-470.

Kubitzki, K., & Rudall, P. 1998. Asparagaceae. Pp. 125-129, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. III. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Lilianae (except Orchidaceae). Springer, Berlin.

Kubitzki, K. [et al. 2011], Kallunki, J. A., Duretto, M., with Wilson, P. G. 2011. Rutaceae. Pp. 276-356, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Flowering Plants. X. Flowering Plants: Eudicots. Sapindales, Cucurbitales, Myrtaceae. Springer, Berlin.

Kubota, S. [et al. 2011], Konno, I., & Kanno A. 2012 [= 2011]. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) explains interspecific crossability between the garden asparagus (A. officinalis) and other Asparagus species. Theoret. Applied Genetics 124: 345-354

Kuchen, E. K. [et al. 2012], Fox, S., Barbier de Reuille, P., Kennaway, R., Bensmihen, S. Avocondo, J., Calder, G. M., Ronsinson, S., Bangham, A., & Coen, E. 2012. Generation of leaf shape through early patterns of growth and tissue polarity. Science 335: 1092-1096.

Kudla, J. [et al. 2002], Albertazzi, F. J., Blazević, D., Hermann, M., & Bock, R. 2002. Loss of the mitochondrial cox2 intron 1 in a family of monocotyledonous plants and utilization of mitochondrial intron sequences for the construction of a nuclear intron. Mol. Genet. Genom. 267: 223-240.

Kudo, G. [et al. 2011], Hirao, A. S., & Kawai, Y. 2011. Pollination efficiency of bumblebee queens and workers in the alpine shrub Rhododendron aureum. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 172: 70-77.

Kuhl, J. C. [et al. 2004], Cheung, C., Yuan, Q., Martin, W., Zewdie, Y., McCallum, J., Catanach, A., Rutherford, P., Sink, K. C., Jenderek, M., Prince, J. P., Town, C. D., & Harvey, M. J. 2004. A unique set of 11,008 onion Expressed Sequence Tags reveals expressed sequence and genomic differences between the monocot orders Asparagales and Poales. Plant Cell. 16: 114-125.

Kuhla, F. 1897. Über Entstehung und Verbreitung des Phelloderms. Bot. Centralbl. 71: 81-87, 113-121, 161-170, 193-100, 225-230, figs 1-7.

Kuhlemeier, C. 2007. Phyllotaxis. Trends Plant Sci. 12: 143-150.

Kuhlmann, J. G. 1934. Notas sobre o genero Duckeodendron. Arq. Inst. Biol. Veget. Rio de Janerio 1: 35-37.

Kuhlmann, M. {et al. 2009], Almeida, E. A. B., Laurenne, N., & Quicke, D. L. J. 2009. Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the bee genus Colletes Latreille, 1802 (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Colletidae), based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S sequence data. Insect Syst. Evol. 40: 291-318.

Kühn, U. 1993. Chenopodiaceae. Pp. 253-280, in Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., & Bittrich, V. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families. Springer, Berlin.

Kühn, U., & Kubitzki, K. 1993. Myristicaceae. Pp. 457-467, in Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., & Bittrich, V. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families. Springer, Berlin.

Kuijt, J. 1969. The Biology of Parasitic Flowering Plants. University of California, Berkeley.

Kuijt, J. 1982. Seedling morphology and its systematic significance in Loranthaceae of the New World, with supplementary comments on Eremolepidaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 103: 305-342.

Kuijt, J. 2003. Monograph of Phoradendron (Viscaceae). American Society of Plant Taxonomists. [Systematic Botany Monographs vol. 66.]

Kuijt, J. 2009a. Monograph of Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae). American Society of Plant Taxonomists. [Systematic Botany Monographs vol. 86.]

Kuijt, J. 2009b. Styles and stamens of neotropical Loranthaceae: A survey and a sermon. P. 10, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Kuijt, J. 2010. A note on stamen position and petal number in Loranthaceae. Blumea 55: 224-225.

Kuijt, J. 2011. Pulling the skeleton out of the closet: Resurrection of Pthirusa Martius and the consequent revival of Passovia (Loranthaceae). Plant Divers. Evol. 129: 159-211.

Kuijt, J. 2013. Prophyll, calyculus, and perianth in Santalales. Blumea 57: 248-252.

Kuijt, J., & Lye, D. 2005. A preliminary survey of foliar sclerenchyma in neotropical Loranthaceae. Blumea 50: 323-355.

Kukachka, B. F. 1962. Wood anatomy of Petenaea cordata Lundell (Elaeocarpaceae). Wrightia 3: 36-40.

Kukachka, B. F., & Miller, R. 1980. A chemical spot test for aluminum and its value in wood identification. IAWA Bull. N.S. 1: 104-109.

Kukkonen, I., & Timonen, T. 1979. Species of Ustilaginales, especially of the genus Anthracoidea, as tools in plant taxonomy. Symb. Bot. Upsalienses 22: 166-176.

Kula, A. A. R. [et al. 2013], Dudash, M. R., & Fenster, C. B. 2013. Choices and consequences of oviposition by a pollinating seed predator, Hadenia ectypa (Noctuidae), on its host plant, Silene stellata (Caryophyllaceae). American J. Bot. 199: 1148-1154.

Kulak, M. [et al. 2006], Górniak, M., & Romowicz, A. 2006. Tribal and subtribal relationships of Epidendroideae Lindl. (Orchidaceae) with emphasis on Epidendreae Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth based on matK gene. Biodivers. Res. Conserv. 3-4: 205-209.

Kulic, I. M. [et al. 2009], Mani, M., Mohrbach, H., Thaokar, R., & Mahadevan, L. 2009. Botanical ratchets. Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 276: 2243-2247.

Kulju, K. K. M. [et al. 2007a], Sierra, S. E. C., Draisma, S. G. A., Samuel, R., & van Welzen, P. C. 2007a. Molecular phylogeny of Macaranga, Mallotus, and related genera (Euphorbiaceae s. s.): Insights from plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data. American J. Bot. 94: 1726-1743.

Kulju, K. K. M. [et al. 2007b], Sierra, S. E. C., & van Welzen, P. C. 2007b. Reshaping Mallotus [part 2]: Inclusion of Neotrewia, Octospermum and Trewia in Mallotus s. str. (Euphorbiaceae s. str.). Blumea 52: 115-136.

Kullenberg, B. 1961. Studies in Ophrys pollination. Zool. Bidr. Uppsala 34: 1-340.

Kumari, G. K. 1963. The Primary Vascular System of Gymnosperms. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Kumazawa, M. 1937. Comparative studies on the vernation in the Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae. J. Japanese Bot. 14: 573-586, 659-669, 713-726. [In Japanese.]

Kunth, R. 1912. Geraniaceae. Pp. 1-64, in Engler, A. (ed.), Die Pflanzenreich, IV, 129. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.

Kunze, H. 1984. Vergleichende Studien an Cannaceen- und Marantaceenblüten. Flora 175: 301-318.

Kunze, H. 1985. Die Inflorescenzen der Marantaceen und inhr Zusammenhang mit der Typus der Zingiberales-Synfloreszenz. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 60: 93-140.

Kunze, H. 1990. Morphology and evolution of the corona in Asclepiadaceae and related families. Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 76: 1-51.

Kunze, H. 1991. Strucuture and function in asclepiad pollination. Plant Syst. Evol. 176: 227-253.

Kunze, H. 1996. Morphology of the stamen in the Asclepiadaceae and its systematic relevance. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 118: 547-579.

Kunze, H. 1997. Corona and nectar system in Asclepiadinae (Asclepiadaceae). Flora 192: 175-183.

Kunze, H. 2005a. Morphology and evolution of the corolla and corona in the Apocynaceae s.l. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 126: 347-393.

Kunze, H. 2005b. Plastizität und Beharrlichkeit des Staubblatt-Typus am Beispiel der Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae s.l.). Pp. 181-187, in Harlan, V. (ed.), Wert und Grenzen des Typus in der botaniscen Morphologie. Martina Galunder, Nümbrecht.

Kunze, H. 2005c. Musterbildungsprozesse in der Blütenontogenese der Zingiberales. Pp. 189-200, in Harlan, V. (ed.) Wert und Grenzen des Typus in der botaniscen Morphologie. Martina Galunder, Nümbrecht.

Kunze, H., & Wanntorp, L. 2008a. Corona and anther skirt in Hoya (Apocynaceae, Marsdenieae). Plant Syst. Evol. 271: 9-17.

Kunze, H., & Wanntorp, L. 2008b. The gynostegium of Hoya spartioides (Apocynaceae - Asclepiadoideae): A striking case of incongruence between molecular and phenotypic evolution. Organisms Diversity Environ. 8: 346-357.

Kunzmann, L. 2007. Araucariaceae (Pinopsida): Aspects in palaeobiogeography and palaeobiodiversity in the Mesozoic. Zool. Anzeiger 246: 257-277.

Kuo, J. 1983. The nacreous walls of sieve elements in seagrasses. American J. Bot. 70: 159-164.

Kuo, J. 2013. Chromosome numbers of the Australian Cymodoceaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 299: 1443-1448.

Kuo, J., & Kirkman, H. 1997. Seedling development of selected Posidonia species from Southwest Australia. Pp. 57-64, in Kuo, J., Phillips, R. C., Walker, D. I., & Kirkman, H. (eds), Seagrass Biology: Proceeedings of an International Workshop, Rottnest Island, Western Australia, 25-29 January 1996. University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA.

Kuo, J., & McComb, A. J. 1998. Cymodoceaceae, pp. 133-140, Posidoniaceae, 404-407, and Zosteraceae, 496-502, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. IV. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae). Springer, Berlin.

Kuo, L.-Y. [et al. 2011], Li, F.-W., Chiou, W.-L., & Wang, C. N. 2011. First insights into fern matK phylogeny. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 59: 556-566.

Kurashige, Y. [et al. 2001], Etoh, J. I., Handa, T., Takayanagi, K., & Yukawa, T. 2001. Sectional relationships in the genus Rhododendron (Ericaceae): Evidence from matk and trnk intron sequence. Plant Syst. Evol. 228: 1-14.

Kuriakose, M. E. 2007. Palynological studies of some south Indian members of Phaseoleae (Papilionaceae) and its bearing on the systematics of the tribe. J. Palynol. 43: 129-164.

Kurmann, M. H. 1992. Exine stratification in extant gymnosperms: A review of published transmission electron micrographs. Kew Bull. 47: 25-39.

Kurmann, M. H., & Zavada, M. S. 1994. Pollen morphological diversity in extant and fossil gymnosperms. Pp. 123-137, in Kurmann, M. H., & Doyle, J. A. (eds), Ultrastructure of Fossil Spores and Pollen. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Kursar, T. A. [et al. 2009], Dexter, K. G., Lokvam, J., Pennington, R. T., Richardson, J. E., Weber, M. G., Murakami, E. T., Drake, C., McGregor, R., & Coley, P. D. 2009. The evolution of antiherbivore defenses and their contribution to species coexistence in the tropical tree genus Inga. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106: 18073-18078.

Kürschner, H., & Parolly, G. 1999. Pantropical epiphytic rain forest bryophyte communities - coeno-syntaxonomy and floristic-historical implications. Phytocoenologia 29: 1-52.

Kurzweil, H. 1987. Developmental studies in orchid flowers I: Epidendroid and vandoid species. Nordic J. Bot. 7: 427-442.

Kurzweil, H. 1993. Developmental studies in orchid flowers IV: Cypripedoid species. Nordic J. Bot. 13: 423-430.

Kurzweil, H. 2000. The value of early floral ontogeny in the systematics of Orchidaceae. Pp. 436-440, in Wilson, K. L., & Morrison, D. A. (eds), Monocots: Systematics and Evolution. CSIRO, Collingwood.

Kurzweil, H. 2005. Observations on the development of the placentas and closing bodies in the fruit capsules of some mesembryanthema (Aizoaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 126: 385-401.

Kurzweil, H., & Kocyan, A. 2002. Ontogeny of orchid flowers. Pp. 83-130, in Kull, T., & Arditti, J. (eds), Orchid Biology: Reviews and Perspectives, VIII. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Kurzyna-Mlynik, R. [et al. 2008], Oskolski, A. A., Downiw, S. R., Kopacz, R., Wojewódzka, A., & Spalik, K. 2008. Phylogenetic position of the genus Ferula (Apiaceae) and its placement in tribe Scandiceae as inferred from nrDNA ITS sequence variation. Plant Syst. Evol. 274: 47-66.

Kusari, S. [et al. 2008], Lamshöft, M., Zühlke, S., & Spiteller, M. 2008. An endophytic fungus from Hypericum perforatum that produces hypericin. J. Natural Prod. 71: 159-162.

Kuta, E. [et al. 2012], Bohdanowicz, J., Slomka, A., Pilarska, M., & Bothe, H. 2012. Floral structure and pollen morphology of two zinc violets (Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria and V. lutea ssp. westfalica) indicate their taxonomic affinity to Viola lutea. Plant Syst. Evol. 298: 445-455.

Kutschker, A., & Morrone, J. J. 2012. Distributional patterns of the species of Valeriana (Valerianaceae) in southern South America. Plant Syst. Evol. 298: 535-547.

Kuusela, K. 1992. The boreal forests: An overview. Unasylva 4(170): 3-13.

Kuwabara, A. [et al. 2011], Backhaus, A., Malinowski, R., Bauch, M., Hunt, L., Nagata, T., Monk, N., Sanguinetti, G., & Fleming, A. 2011. A shift towards smaller cell size via manipulation of cell cycle gene expression acts to smoothen Arabidopsis leaf shape. Plant Physiol. 156: 2196-2206.

Kuzoff, R. K. [et al. 2001], Hufford, L., & Soltis, D. E. 2001. Structural homology and developmental transformations associated with ovary diversification in Lithophragma (Saxifragaceae). American J. Bot. 88: 196-205.

Kvacek, J., & Friis, E. M. 2010. Zlatokocarpus gen. nov., a new angiosperm reproductive structure with monocolpate-reticulate pollen from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of the Czech republic. Grana 49: 115-127.

Kvacek, J., & Herman, A. B. Monocotyledons from the Early Campanian (Cretaceous) of Grunbach, Lower Austria. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 128: 323-353.

Kvacek, Z., & Walther, H. 1984. Nachweis tertïar Theaceen Mitteleuropas nach blatt-epidermalen Untersuchungen. I. Teil. - Epidermale Merkmalskomplexe rezenter Theaceae. Feddes Rep. 95: 209-227, pl. 25-30.

Kvacek, Z. [et al. 2001a], Manchester, S. R., & Guo, Z.-H. 2001a. Trifoliolate leaves of Platanus bella (Heer) comb. n. from the Palaeocene of North America, Greenland, and Asia and their relationships among extinct and extant Platanaceae. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 162: 441-458.

Kvacek, Z. [et al. 2001b], Hably, L., & Manchester, S. R. 2001b. Sloanea (Elaeocarpaceae) fruits and foliage from the Early Oligocene of Hungary and Slovenia. Palaeontographica Abt. B, 259: 113-124.

Kvist, L. P., & Pedersen, J. A. 1986. Distribution and taxonomic implications of some phenolics in the family Gesneriaceae determined by EPR spectroscopy. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 14: 385-405.

Kwembeya, E. G. [et al. 2007], Bjora, C. S., Stedje, B., & Nordal, I. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Crinum (Amaryllidaceae) with emphasis on tropical African species: Evidence from trnL-F and nuclear ITS DNA sequence data. Taxon 56: 801-810.

Kyalangalilwa, B. [et al. 2013], Boatwright, J. S., Daru, B. H., Maurin, O., & van der Bank, M. 2013. Phylogenetic position and revised classification of Acacia s.l. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in Africa, including new combinations in Vachellia and Senegalia. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 172: 500-523.

Kyle, N. E. [et al. 1986], Jakobek, J. L., Backhaus, R. A., Stutz, J. C., & Righetti, T. L. 1986. Micrografting betweeen N-fixing and non-N-fixing genera of the Rosaceae. Bot. Gaz. 147: 243-246.

Kyndt, T. [et al. 2005], van Droogenbroeck, B., Romeijn-Peeters, E., Romero-Motochi, J. P., Scheldeman, X., Goetghebeur, P., van Damme, P., & Gheysen, G. 2005. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of Caricaceae based on rDNA internal transcribed spacers and chloroplast sequence data. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 37: 442-459.

Laakkonen, L. [et al. 2006], Jobson, R. W., & Albert, V. A. 2006. A new model for the evolution of carnivory in the bladderwort plant (Utricularia): Adaptive changes in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) provide respiratory poer. Plant Biol. 8: 758-764..

Labandeira, C. C. 1998. How old is the flower and the fly? Science 280: 57-59.

Labandeira, C. C. 2005. Fossil history and evolutionary ecology of Diptera and their associations with plants. Pp. 217-273, in Yeates, D. K., & Wiegmann, B. M. (eds), The Evolutionary Biology of Flies. Columbia University Press, New York.

Labandeira, C. C. 2010. The pollination of mid Mesozoic seed plants and the early history of long-proboscid insects. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 97: 469-513.

Labandeira, C. C. [et al. 1994], Dilcher, D. L., Davis, D. H., & Wagner, D. L. 1994. Ninety-seven million years of angiosperm-insect association: Paleobiological insights into the meaning of coevolution. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91: 12278-12282.

Labandeira, C. C. [et al. 2002a], Johnson, K. R., & Wilf, P. 2002a. Impact of the terminal Cretaceous event on plant-insect associations. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99: 2061-2066.

Labandeira, C. C. [et al. 2002b], Johnson, K. R., & Lang, P. 2002b. Preliminary assessment of insect herbivory across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary: Major extinction and minimum rebound. Pp. 297-327, in hartman, J. H., Johnson, K. R., & Nichols, D. J. (eds), The Hell Creek Formation of the Northern Great Plains. Boulder, Colorado. [Geological Society of America Special Papwre 361.]

Labandeira, C. C. [et al. 2007], Kvacek, J., & Mostovski, M. B. 2007. Pollination drops, pollen, and insect pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Taxon 56: 663-695.

Labandeira, C. C. [et al. 2013], Tremblay, S. L., Bartowski, K. E., & VanAller Hernick, L. 2014 [=2013]. Middle Devonian liverwort herbivory and antiherbivore defence. New Phytol. 202: 247–258. doi: 10.1111/nph.12643

Lackey, J. A. 2009. Cotyledon areoles in Bobgunnia (Fabaceae: Swartzieae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 159: 287-291.

Lackey, J. A. 2011. Endosperm and cotyledon areole correlation in Leguminosae subfamily Papilionoideae. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 5: 219-236.

Lackey, K., & Raubeson, L. A. 2008. Does the plastid inverted repeat loss support conifer monophyly? P. 189, in Botany 2008. Botany without Borders. [Botanical Society of America, etc. Abstracts.]

LaCroix, C., & Sattler, R. 1988. Phyllotactic theories and petal-stamen superposition in Basella rubra. American J. Bot. 75: 906-917.

Ladd, P. G. 1994. Pollen presenters in flowering plants - form and function. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 115: 165-195.

Ladd, P. G. [et al. 1996], Alkema, A. J., & Thomson, G. J. 1996. Pollen presenter morphology and anatomy in Banksia and Dryandra. Australian J. Bot. 41: 447-471.

Ladd, P. G. [et al. 1999], Parnell, J. A. N., & Thomson, G. J. 1999. Anther diversity and function in Verticordia DC (Myrtaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 219: 79-97.

Ladiges, P. Y., & Cantrill, D. 2007. New Caledonia-Australia connections: Biogeographic patterns and ecology. Australian Syst. Bot. 20: 383-389.

Ladiges, P. [et al. 2011], Parra-O., C., Gibbs, A., Udovicic, F., Nelson, G., & Bayly, M. 2011. Historical biogeographical patterns in continental Australia: Congruence among areas of endemism of two major clades of eucalypts. Cladistics 27: 29-41.

La Duke, J. C., & Doebley, J. 1995. A chloroplast DNA based phylogeny of the Malvaceae. Syst. Bot. 20: 259-271.

Lafont, R. [et al. 1991], Bouthier, A., & Wilson, I. O. 1991. Phytoecdysteroids: Structures, occurence, biosynthesis and possible ecological significance. Pp. 197-214, in Hrdý, I. (ed.), Insect Chemical Ecology. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague.

LaFrankie, J. V., Jr. 2010. Trees of Tropical Asia. Black Tree Publications, Philippines.

Lagerberg, T. 1909. Studien überdie Entwicklungsgeschichte und systematische Stellung von Adoxa moschatellina L. Kungl. Svesnska Vetenskapakad. Handl. Ser. 2, 44(4): 1-86, pl. 1-3.

Lagomarsino, L. [et al. 2011], Antonelli, A., & Davis, C. C. 2011. Molecular systematics of the Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae) with an emphasis on the primarily neotropical CBS clade. P. 235, in Botany 2011. Healing the Planet, Abstracts. St Louis.

Lahaye, R. [et al. 2007], Klackenberg, J., Källersjö, M., van Campo, E., & Civeyrel, L. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships between derived Apocynaceae s.l. and within Secamonoideae based on chloroplast sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94: 376-391.

Lähteenoja, O. 2011. Carbon dynamics and ecosystem diversity in Amazonioan peatlands. Ann. Universit. Turkuensis 264: 1-38.

Lähteenoja, O. [et al. 2011], Reátegui, Y. R., Räsänen, M., del Castillo Torres, D., Oinonen, M., & Page, S. 2012 [= 2011]. The large Amazonian peatland carbon sink in the subsiding Pastaza-Marañón foreland basin, Peru. Global Change Biol. 18: 164-178.

Lai, M. [et al. 1997], Sceppa, J., Ballenger, J. A., Doyle, J. J., & Wunderlin, R. P. 1997. Polymorphism for the presence of the rpl2 intron in chloroplast genomes of Bauhinia (Leguminosae). Syst. Bot. 22: 519-528.

Lakshmanan. 1970. Hydrocharitaceae, Scheuchzeriaceae, Juncaginaceae, Potomategonaceae, Zannichelliaceae, Naiadaceae. Indian National Sci. Acad. Bull. [Symposium: Comparative Embryology of Angiosperms] 41: 336-341, 342-343, 344-347, 348-351, 352-353, 354-357.

Laliberté, E. [et al. 2013], Grace, J. B., Huston, M. A., Lambers, H., Teste, F. P., Turner, B. L., & Wardle, D. A. 2013. How does pedogenesis drive plant diversity? Trends Ecol. Evol. 28: 331-340.

Lam, H. J. 1931. Beiträge zur Morphologie der dreizähligen Burseraceae-Canarieae. Ann. Bot. Jard. Buitenzorg 42: 23-56, 97-226.

Lam, H. J. 1932. Beiträge zur Morphologie der Burseraceae, insbesondere der Canarieae. Ann. Bot. Jard. Buitenzorg 42: 97-226.

Lam, V. [et al. 2009], Chang, Y., Rai, H., Brodribb, T. J., Feild, T. S., Mathews, S, & Graham, S. W. 2009. Phylogenetic placement of the parasitic and mycoheterotropic conifer Parasitaxus usta and the molecular evolution of its plastid genome. Pp. 161-162, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Lamarck, J.-B.-P.-A. de M. de. 1778. Flore françoise, 3 vols. Imprimerie Royale, Paris.

Lamb, R. S., & Irish, V. F. 2003. Functional divergence within the APETALA3/PISTILLATA floral homeotic gene lineages. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100: 6558-6563.

Lambers, H. [et al. 2006], Shane, M. W., Cramer, M. D., Pearce, S. J., & Veneklaas, E. J. 2006. Root structure and functioning for efficient acquisition of phosphorus: Matching morphological and physiological traits. Ann. Bot. 98: 693-713.

Lambers, H. [et al. 2011], Finnegan, P. M., Laliberté, E., Pearse, S. J., Ryan, M. H., Shane, M. W., & Veneklaas, E. J. 2011. Phosphorus nutrition of Proteaceae in severly-impoverished soils: Are there lessons to be learned for future crops? Plant Physiol. 156: 1058-1066.

Lambers, H. [et al. 2012a], Cawthray, G. R., Giavalisco, P., Kuo, J., Laliberté, E., Pearse, S. J., Scheible, W. R., Stitt, M., Teste, F., & Turner, B. L. 2012a. Proteaceae from severely phosphorus-impoverished soils extensively replace phospholipids with galactolipids and sulfolipids during leaf development to achieve a high photosynthetic phosphorus-use-efficiency. New Phytol. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04285.x

Lambers, H. [et al. 2012b], Bishop, J. G., Hopper, S. D., Laliberté, E., & Zúñiga-Feest, A. 2012b. Phosphorus-mobilization ecosystem engineering: The roles of cluster roots and carboxylate exudation in young P-limited ecosystems. Ann. Bot. 110: 329-48.

Lambers, H. [et al. 2013], Clements, J. C., & Nelson, M. N. 2013. How a phosphorus-acquisition strategy based on carboxylate exudation powers the success and agronomic potential of lupines (Lupinus, Fabaceae). American J. Bot. 100: 263-288.

Lambert, J. B. [et al. 2007a], Kozminski, M. A., & Santiago-Blay, J. A. 2007a. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of resins from the family Pinaceae. J. Natural Prod. 70: 188-195.

Lambert, J. B. [et al. 2007b], Wu, Y., Kozminski, M. A., & Santiago-Blay, J. A. 2007b. Characterization of eucalyptus and related exudates by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Australian J. Chem 60: 862-870.

Lambert, J. B. [et al. 2009], Heckenbach, E. A., Hurtley, A. E., Wu, Y., & Santiago-Blay, J. A. 2009. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic characteristics of legume exudates. J. Natural Prod. 72: 1028-1035.

Lambert, J. B. [et al. 2013], Donnelly, E. W., Heckenbach, E. A., Johnson, C. L., Kozminski, M. A., Wu, Y., & Santiago-Blay, J. A. 2013. Molecular classification of natural exudates in rosids. Phytochem. 94: 171-183.

Lamb Frye, A. S., & Kron, K. A. 2003. RbcL phylogeny and character evolution in Polygonaceae. Syst. Bot. 28: 326-332.

Lamit, L. J. [et al. 2009], Johnson, N. C., Gehring, C. A., Wilson, G. W. T., & Sthultz, C. 2009. Ecological and evolutionary implications of plant-fungal interactions at the intraspecific level. P. 15, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Lammers, T. G. 1992. Circumscription and phylogeny of the Campanulales. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 388-413.

Lammers, T. G. 1998. Nemacladoideae, a new subfamily of Campanulaceae. Novon 8: 36-37.

Lammers, T. G. 2006. Campanulaceae, pp. 26-56, and Pentaphragmataceae, pp. 605-607, in Kadereit, J. W. & Jeffrey, C. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Volume VIII. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Asterales. Springer, Berlin.

Lammers, T. G. 2007. World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Lammers, T. G. 2011. Revision of the infrageneric classification of Lobelia L. (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 98: 37-62.

Lammers, T. G., & Freeman, C. E. 1986. Ornithophily among the Hawaiian Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae): Evidence from floral nectar sugar compositions. American J. Bot. 73: 1613-1619.

Lamont, B. B. [et al. 2004], Wittkuhn, R., & Korczynskyj, D. 2004. Ecology and ecophysiology of grasstrees. Australian J. Bot. 52: 561-582.

Lampinen, R., Liu, S., Brach, A. R. & McCree, K. The internet directory for botany. http://www.botany.net/IDB/.

Landes, M. 1946. Seed development in Acalypha rhomboidea and some other Euphorbiaceae. American J. Bot. 33: 562-568.

Landeweert, R. [et al. 2001], Hoffland, E., Finlay, R. D., Kuyper, T. W., & van Breemen, N. 2001. Linking plants to rocks: Ectomycorrhizal fungi mobilize nutrients from minerals. Trends Ecol. Evol. 16: 248-254.

Landis, F. [et al. 2002], Gargas, A., & Givnish, T. 2002. The plant tree, roots and clades: Mycorrhizae and plant phylogeny. P. 174, in Botany 2002: Botany in the Curriculum, Abstracts. [Madison, Wisconsin.] - http://www.botany2002.org/section13/abstracts/4.shtml.

Landis, J. B. [et al. 2012], Barnett, L. L., & Hileman, L. C. 2012. Evolution of petaloid sepals indepenedent of shifts in B-class MADS box gene expression. Devel. Genes Evol. 222: 19-26.

Landolt, E. 1980. Bibliographie der Familie der Lemnaceae. Veröoff. Geobot. Inst. E. T. H. Stiftung Rübel Zürich 70: 142-204.

Landolt, E. 1986. Biosystematic investigations in the family of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) (Vol. 1). The family of Lemnaceae. Vol. 1. Veröoff. Geobot. Inst. E. T. H. Stiftung Rübel Zürich 71: 1-563.

Landolt, E. 1998. Lemnaceae. Pp. 264-270, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. IV. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae). Springer, Berlin.

Landolt, E., & Kandeler, R. 1987. Biosystematic investigations in the family of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) (Vol. 2). The family of Lemnaceae. Vol. 2. (Phytochemistry, physiology, application, biogeography). Veröoff. Geobot. Inst. E. T. H. Stiftung Rübel Zürich 95: 1-638.

Landrein, S. 2010. Diabelia, a new genus of the tribe Linnaeeae subtribe Linnaeinae (Caprifoliaceae). Phytotaxa 3: 34-38.

Landrein, S., & Prenner, G. 2012. Unequal twins? Inflorescence evolution in the twinflower tribe Linnaeeae (Caprifoliaceae s.l.). Internat. J. Plant Sci.. 174: 200-233.

Landrein, S. [et al. 2012], Prenner, G., Chase, M. W., & Clarkson, J. J. 2012. Abelia and relatives: Phylogenetics of Linnaeeae (Dipsacales–Caprifoliaceae s.l.) and a new interpretation of their inflorescence morphology. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 169: 692-713.

Landrum, L. R., & Bonilla, J. 1996. Anther glandularity in the American Myrtinae (Myrtaceae). Madroño 43: 58-68.

Landrum, J. V. 2001. Wide-band tracheids in leaves of genera of Aizoaceae: The systematic occurrence of a novel cell type and its implications for the monophyly of the subfamily Ruschioideae. Plant Syst. Evol. 227: 49-61.

Lane, M. A. 1996. Pollination biology of Compositae. Pp. 61-80, in Caligari, P., & Hind, D. J. N. (eds), Compositae: Biology and Utilization. Proceedings of the International Compositae Conference, Kew, 1994, vol. 2. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Lanfear, R. [et al. 2013], Ho, S. Y. W., Davies, T. J., Moles, A. T., Aarssen, L., Swenson, N. G., Warman, L., Zanne, A. E., & Allen, A. P. 2013. Taller plants have lower rates of molecular evolution. Nature Communic. 4: 1879. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2836

Lang, D. [et al. 2010], Weiche, B., Timmerhaus, G., Richardt, S., Riaño-Pachón, D. M., Correa, L. G., Reski, R., Mueller-Roeber, B., & Rensing, S. A. 2010. Genome-wide phylogenetic comparative analysis of plant transcriptional regulation: A timeline of loss, gain, expansion, and correlation with complexity. Genome Biol. Evol. 19: 488-503.

Lang, M. [et al. 2012], Murat, S., Clark, A. G., Gouppil, G., Blais, C., Matzkin, L. M., Guittard, É., Yoshiyama-Yanagawa, T., Kataoka, H., Niwa, R., Lafont, R., Dauphin-Villemant, C., & Orgogozo, V. 2012. Mutations in the neverland gene turned Drosophila pachea into an obligate specialist species. Science 337: 1658-1661.

Lang, S. I. [et al. 2009], Cornelissen, J. H. C., Klahn, T., van Logtestijn, R. S. P., Broekman, R., Schweikert W., & Aerts, R. 2009. An experimental comparison of chemical traits and litter decomposition rates in a diverse range of subarctic bryophyte, lichen and vascular plant species. J. Ecol. 97: 886-900.

Langenheim, J. H. 1981. Terpenoids in the Leguminosae. Pp. 627-656, in Polhill, R. M., & Raven, P. H. (eds), Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 2. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Langenheim, J. H. 2002. Plant Resins: Chemistry, Evolution, Ecology and Ethnobotany. Timber Press, Portland.

Langlet, O. 1928. Einige Beobachtungen über die Zytologie der Berberidazeen. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 22: 169-184.

Langlet, O. 1932. Über Chromosomenverhaltnisse und Systematik der Ranunculaceae. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 26: 381-400.

Långström, E., & Chase, M. W. 2002. Tribes of Boraginoideae (Boraginaceae) and placement of Antiphytum, Echiochilon, Ogastemma, and Sericostoma: A phylogenetic analysis based on atpB plastid DNA sequence data. Plant Syst. Evol. 234: 137-153.

Lantz, H., & Bremer, B. 2005. Phylogeny of the complex Vanguerieae (Rubiaceae) genera Fadogia, Rytigynia, and Vangueria with close relatives and a new circumscription of Vangueria. Plant Syst. Evol. 253: 159-183.

Lapcík, O. 2007. Isoflavonoids in non-leguminous taxa: A rarity or rule? Phytochem. 68: 2909-2916.

LaPolla, J. S. [et al. 2013], Dlussky, G. M., & Perrichot, V. 2013. Ants and the fosil record. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 58: 609-630.

Lara, M. V. [et al. 2008], Offermann, S., Smith, M., Okita, T. W., Andreo, C. S., & Edwards, G. E. 2008. Leaf development in the single-cell C4 system in Bienertia sinuspersici: Expression of genes and peptide levels for C4 metabolism in relation to chlorenchyma structure under different light connditions. Plant Physiol. 148: 593-610.

Larcher, W., & Winter, A. 1981. Frost susceptibility of palms: Experimental data and their interpretation. Principes 25: 143-152.

Larjavaara, M. 2013. The world's tallest trees grow in thermally similar climates. New Phytol. doi: 10.1111/nph.12656

Larkins, B. A. [et al. 2001], Dilkes, B. P., Dante, R. A., Coelho, C. M., Woo, Y.-m., & Liu, Y. 2001. Investigating the hows and whys of DNA endoreduplication. J. Experim. Bot. 52: 183-192.

Larkum, A. W. D. [et al. 2006], Orth, R. J., & Duarte, C. M. (eds). 2006. Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation. Springer.

Larridon, I. [et al. 2011a], Reynders, M., Huygh, W., Bauters, K., van de Putte, K., Muasya, A. M., Boeckx, P., Simpson, D. A., Vrijdaghs, A., & Goetghebeur, P. 2011a. Affinities in C3 Cyperus lineages (Cyperaceae) revealed using molecular phylogenetic data and carbon isotope analysis. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 167: 19-46.

Larridon, I. [et al. 2011b], Reynders, M., Huygh, W., Bauters, K., Vrijdaghs, A., Leroux, O., Muasya, A. M., Simpson, D. A., & Goetghebeur, P. 2011b. Taxonomic changes in C3 Cyperus (Cyperaceae) supported by molecular data, morphology, embryography, ontogeny and anatomy. Plant Ecol. Evol. 144: 327-356.

Larridon, I. [et al. 2013], Bauters, K., Reynders, M., Huygh, W., Muasya, A. M., Simpson, D. A., & Goetghebeur, P. 2013. Towards a new classification of the giant paraphyletic genus Cyperus (Cyperaceae): Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation in C4 Cyperus. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 171: 106-126.

Larsen, K. 1998. Costaceae, pp. 128-132, and Lowiaceae, pp. 275-277, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. IV. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae). Springer, Berlin.

Larsen, K., & Averyanov, L. V. 2007. Thismia annamensis and Thismia tentaculata, two new species of Thismiaceae from central Vietnam. Rheedea 17: 13-19.

Larsen, K. [et al. 1998], Lock, J. M., Maas, H., & Maas, P. J. M. 1998. Zingiberaceae. Pp. 474-495, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. IV. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae). Springer, Berlin.

Larsen, L. [et al. 2007], Lorimer, S. D., & Perry, N. B. 2007. Contrasting chemistry of fruits and leaves of two Pseudowintera species: Sesquiterpene dialdehyde cinnamates and prenylated flavonoids. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 35: 286-292.

Larsen, M. M. [et al. 2010], Adsersen, A., Davis, A. P., Lledó, M. D., Jäger, A. K., & Rønsted, N. 2010. Using a phylogenetic approach to selection of target plants in drug discovery of acetylcholinesterase inhibiting alkaloids in Amaryllidaceae tribe Galantheae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 38: 1026-1034.

Larsen, P. [et al. 1981], Sorensen, F., Wieczorkowska, E., & Goldblatt, P. 1981. Meta-carboxy-substituted aromatic amino acids and [gamma]-glutamyl peptides: Chemical characters for classification in the Iridaceae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 9: 313-323.

Larsson, S. 2007. The "new" chemosystematics: Phylogeny and phytochemistry. Phytochem. 68: 2903-2907.

Lasalle, J. 2005. Biology of gall inducers and evolution of gall induction in Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Tanaostigmatidae, Torymidae). Pp. 503-533, in Raman, A., Schaefer, C. W., & Withers, T. M. (eds), Biology, Ecology, and Evolution of Gall-Inducing Arthropods. Sciences Publshers, Enfield, NH.

Las Penas, M. L. [et al. 2006], Chiarini, F. E., Bernardello, G., & Benítez de Rojas, C. 2006. Karyotypes of some species of Cestrum, Sessea, and Vestia (tribe Cestreae, Solanaceae). Caryologia 59: 131-137.

Lassnig, P. 1997. Verzweigungsmuster und Rankenbau der Cucurbitaceae. Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 98: 1-146.

Latham, E. L., & Ricklefs, R. E. 1993. Continental comparisons of temperate-zone tree species diversity. Pp. 294-314, in Ricklefs, R. E., & Schluter, D. (eds), Species Diversity in Ecological Communities: Historical and Geographical perspectives. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Lau, S. [et al. 2012], Slane, D., Herud, O., Kong, J., & Jürgens, G. 2012. Early embryogenesis in flowering plants: Setting up the basic body pattern. Ann. Rev. Plant Biol. 63: 483-506.

Laubengayer, R. A. 1937. Studies in the anatomy and morphology of the polygonaceous flower. American J. Bot. 24: 329-343.

Laurent, M. 1904. Recherches sur le développement des Joncées. Ann. Sci. Natur. Bot. Sér 8, 19: 97-192, pl. 1-6.

Laurent, N. [et al. 1999], Bremer, B., & Bremer, K. 1999. Phylogeny and generic interrelationships of the Stylidiaceae (Asterales), with a possible extreme case of floral paedomorphosis. Syst. Bot. 23: 289-304.

Laverty, T. M. 1994. Bumble bee learning and flower morphology. Animal Behav. 47: 531-545.

Laverty, T. M., & Plowright, R. C. 1988. Flower handling by bumblbees: A comparison of specialists and generalists. Animal Behav. 36: 733-740.

Lavin, M., & Delgado-Salinas, A. 1990. Pollen brush of Papilionoideae (Leguminosae): Morphological variation and systematic utility. American J. Bot. 77: 1294-1313.

Lavin, M. [et al. 1998], Eshbaugh, E., Hu, J., Mathews, S., & Sharrock, R. A. 1998. Monophyletic subgroups of the tribe Millettieae (Leguminosae) as revealed by phytochrome nucleotide sequence data. American J. Bot. 85: 412-433.

Lavin, M. [et al. 2000], Thulin, M., Labat, J.-N., & Pennington, R. T. 2000. Africa, the odd man out: Molecular biogeography of dalbergioid legumes (Fabaceae) suggests otherwise. Syst. Bot. 25: 449-467.

Lavin, M. [et al. 2001], Pennington, R. T., Klitgaard, B. B., Sprent, J. I., de Lima, H. C., & Gasson, P. E. 2001. The dalbergioid legume (Fabaceae): Delimitation of a pantropical monophyletic clade. American J. Bot. 88: 503-533.

Lavin, M. [et al. 2003], Wojciechowski, M. F., Gasson, P., Hughes, C., & Wheeler, E. 2003. Phylogeny of robinioid legumes (Fabaceae) revisited: Coursetia and Gliricidia recircumscribed, and a biogeographical appraisal of the Caribbean endemics. Syst. Bot. 28: 387-409.

Lavin, M. [et al. 2004], Schrire, B. P., Lewis, G., Pennington, R. T., Delgado-Salinas, A., Thulin, M., Hughes, C. E., Beyra Matos A., & Wojciechowski, M. F. 2004. Metacommunity process rather than continental tectonic history better explains geographically structured phylogenies in legumes. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B, 359: 1509-1522.

Lavin, M. [et al. 2005], Herendeen, P. S., & Wojciechowski, M. F. 2005. Evolutionary rates analysis of Leguminosae implicates a rapid diversification of lineages during the Tertiary emergence. Syst. Biol. 54: 575-594.

Lawler, I. R., & Foley, W. J. 2002. Chemical ecology of herbivory in eucalyptus: Interactions between insect and mammalian herbivores and plant essential oils. Pp. 324-344, in Coppen, J. J. W. (ed.), Eucalyptus: The Genus Eucalyptus. Taylor and Francis, London.

Lawrence, G. H. M. 1951. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. Macmillan, New York.

Leaf Architecture Working Group. 1999. Manual of Leaf Architecture. Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

Leake, J. R. 1994. The biology of myco-heterotrophic ('saprophytic') plants. New Phytol. 127: 171-216.

Leake, J. R., & Cameron, D. D. 2012. Untangling above- and belowground mycorrhizal networks in tropical orchids. Mol. Ecol. 21: 4921-4924.

Leake, J. R. [et al. 2004], Johnson, D., Donnelly, D., Muckle, G., Boddy, L., & Read, D. 2004. Networks of power and influence: The role of mycorrhizal mycelium in controlling plant communities and agroecosystem functioning. Canadian J. Bot. 82: 1016-1045.

Leal, D. O. [et al. 2012], Malafaia, C., Cesar, R., Pimentel, R. R., Santago-Fernandes, L. D. R., Lima, H. A., & Sá-Haiad, B. 2012. Floral structure of Garcinia brasiliensis in relation to flower biology and evolution. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 173: 172-183.

Leandri, J. 1937. Sur l'aire et la position systématique du genre malgache Didymeles Thouars. Ann. Sci. Naturelles Bot. Sér. 10, 19: 309-317.

Lebatha, P., & Buys, M. H. 2006. The taxonomic significance of the floral morphology in the Ledebouriinae (Hyacinthaceae). Pp. 85-95, in Ghazanfar, S. A., & Beentje, H. (eds), Taxonomy and Ecology of African Plants, Their Conservation and Sustainable Use. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Lebatha, P. [et al. 2006], Buys, M. H., & Stedje, B. 2006. Ledebouria, Resnova and Drimiopsis: A tale of three genera. Taxon 55: 643-652.

Lebel-Hardenack, S. [et al. 2002], Hauser, E., Law, T. F., Schmid, J., & Grant, S. R. 2002. Mapping of sex determination loci on the White Campion (Silene latifolia) Y chromosome using amplified fragment length polymorphism. Genetics 160: 717-725.

Lebrun, J.-P. 1977. Eléments pour un atlas des plantes vasculaires de l'Afrique sèche, vol. 1. Institut d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort. [Etude Botanique No 4.]

Lebrun, J.-P. 1979. Eléments pour un atlas des plantes vasculaires de l'Afrique sèche, vol. 2. Institut d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort. [Etude Botanique No 6.]

Lebrun, J.-P. 1981. Les bases floristiques drs grandes divisions chorologiques de l"Afrique Sèche. Institut d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort. [Etude Botanique No 7.]

Lebrun, J.-P., & Stork, A. L. 2003. Tropical African Flowering Plants, Ecology and Distribution. Vol. 1. Annonaceae-Pandaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Genève.

Lebrun, J.-P., & Stork, A. L. 2006. Tropical African Flowering Plants, Ecology and Distribution. Vol. 2. Euphorbiaceae-Dichapetalaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Genève.

Lebrun, J.-P., & Stork, A. L. 2008a. Tropical African Flowering Plants, Ecology and Distribution. Vol. 3. Mimosaceae-Fabaceae (inc. Derris). Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Genève.

Lebrun, J.-P., & Stork, A. L. 2008b. Tropical African Flowering Plants, Ecology and Distribution. Vol. 4. Fabaceae (Desmodium-Zornea. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Genève.

Lebrun, J.-P., & Stork, A. L. 2010. Tropical African Flowering Plants, Ecology and Distribution. Vol. 5. Burseraceae-Fabaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Genève.

Lebrun, J.-P., & Stork, A. L. 2011. Tropical African Flowering Plants, Ecology and Distribution. Vol. 6. Burseraceae-Apiaceae and Addendum Volumes 1-5 (Families A-C). Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Genève.

Lebrun, J.-P., & Stork, A. L. 2012. Tropical African Flowering Plants, Ecology and Distribution. Vol. 7. Limnocharitaceae-Agavaceae. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques, Genève.

Lechtenberg, M., & Nahrstedt, A. 1999. Cyanogenic glycosides. Pp. 147-191, in Ikan, R. (ed.), Naturally Occurring Glycosides. John Wiley, Chichester.

Ledford, H. 2007. The flower of seduction. Nature 445: 816-817.

Lee, C. S. [et al. 2011], Kim, S.-C., Yeau, S. H., & Lee, N. S. 2011. Major lineages of the genus Lilium (Liliaceae) based on nrDNA ITS sequences, with special emphasis on the Korean species. J. Plant Biol. 54: 159-171.

Lee, D. A., & Bowers, M. D. 1996. The importance of sequestered iridoid glycosides as a defense against an ant predator. J. Chem. Ecol. 22: 1527-1539.

Lee, D. E. [et al. 2001], Lee, W. G., & Mortimer, N. 2001. Where and why have all the flowers gone? Depletion and turnover in the New Zealand Cenozoic angiosperm flora in relation to palaeogeography and climate. Australian J. Bot. 49: 341-356.

Lee, D. E. [et al. 2010], Bannister, J. M., Raine, J. I., & Conran, J. G. 2010. Euphorbiaceae: Acalyphoideae fossils from early Miocene New Zealand: Mallotus-Macaranga leaves, fruits, and inflorescence with in situ Nyssapollenites endobalteus pollen. Rev. Paleobot. Palynol. 163: 127-138.

Lee, D. E. [et al. 2013], Conran, J. G., Bannister, J. M., Kaulfuss, U., & Mildenhall, D. C. 2013. A fossil Fuchsia (Onagraceae) flower and an anther mass with in situ pollen from the Early Miocene of New Zealand. American J. Bot. 100: 2052-2065.

Lee, E. K. [et al. 2011], Cibrián-Jaramillo, A., Kolokotronis, S.-O., Katari, M. S., Stamatakis, A., Ott, M., Chiu, J. C., Little, D. P., Stevenson, D. W., McCombie, W. R., Martienssen, R., Coruzzi, G. M., & DeSalle, R. 2011. A functional phylogenomic view of seed plants. PLoS Genetics 7(12): e1002411.

Lee, H.-L. [et al. 2007], Jansen, R. K., Chumley, T. W., & Kim, K. J. 2007. Gene relocations within chloroplast genomes of Jasminum and Menodora (Oleaceae) are due to multiple, overlapping inversions. Mol. Biol. Evol. 24: 1161-1180.

Lee, H. S. [et al. 2002], Davies, S. J., LaFrankie, J. W., Tan, S., Yamakura, T. Itoh, A., Okhubo, T., & Ashton, P. S. 2002. Floristic and structural diversity of mixed dipterocarp forest in Lambir Hills National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. J. Trop. Forest Sci. 14: 379-400.

Lee, J.-E., & Boyce, K. 2010. Impact of the hydraulic capacity of plants on water and carbon fluxes in tropical South Amnerica. J. Geophys. Res. 115: D23123, doi:10.1029/2010JD014568

Lee, J.-Y. [et al. 2006a], Baum, S. F., Alvarez, J., Patel, A., Chitwood, D. H., & Bowman, J. L. 2006a. Activation of CRABS CLAW in the nectaries and carpels of Arabidopsis Plant Cell 17: 25-36.

Lee, J.-Y. [et al. 2006b], Baum, S. F., Oh, S.-H., Jiang, C.-Z., Chen, J.-C., & Bowman, J. L. 2006b. Recruitment of CRABS CLAW to promote nectary development within the eudicot clade. Devel. 132: 5021-5032.

Lee, S., & Wen, J. 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of Prunus and the Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. American J. Bot. 88: 150-160.

Lee, S.-B. [et al. 2006], Kaittanis, C., Jansen, R. K., Hostetler, J. B., Tallon, L. J., Town, C. D., & Daniell, H. 2006. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Gossypium hirsutum: Organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms. BMC Genomics 7: 61.

Lee, S. T. [et al. 2012], Cook, D., Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J. A., Anderson, W. R., Lima, F. G., & Gardner, D. R. 2012. Detection of monofluoroacetate in Palicourea and Amorimia species. Toxicon 60: 791-796.

Leebens-Mack, J. [et al. 2005], Raubeson, L. A., Cui, L., Kuehl, J. V., Fourcade, M. H., Chumley, T. W., Boore, J. L., Jansen, R. K., & dePamphilis, C. W. 2005. Identifying the basal angiosperm node in chloroplast genome phylogenies: Sampling one's way out of the Felsenstein zone. Mol. Biol. Evol. 22: 1948-1963.

Leebens-Mack, J. [et al. 2006], Wall, K., Duarte, J., Zheng, Z., Oppenheimer, D., Depamphilis, C. 2006. A genomics approach to the study of ancient polyploidy and floral developmental genomics. Adv. Bot. Res. 44: 527-548.

Leenhouts, P. W. 1956. Burseraceae. Pp. 209-296, in van Steenis, C. G. G. J. (ed.), Flora malesiana, ser. 1, vol. 5. Noordhoff, Groningen.

Leenhouts, P. W. 1957a. Dichapetalaceae. Pp. 305-316, in van Steenis, C. G. G. J. (ed.), Flora malesiana, ser. 1, vol. 5. Noordhoff, Groningen.

Leenhouts, P. W. 1957b. Goodeniaceae. Pp. 335-344, in van Steenis, C. G. G. J. (ed.), Flora malesiana, ser. 1, vol. 5. Noordhoff, Groningen.

Leenhouts, P. W. 1962. Loganiaceae. Pp. 293-387, in van Steenis, C. G. G. J. (ed.), Flora malesiana, ser. 1, vol. 6. Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen.

Lees, D. C., & Smith, N. G. 1991. Foodplant associations of the Uraniinae (Uraniidae) and their systematic, evolutionary and ecological significance. J. Lepid. Soc. 45: 296-347.

Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. 1961. The Loganiaceae of Africa II. A revision of Mostuea Didr. Meded. Landbouwho. Wageningen 61(4): 1-31.

Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. 1967. Notes on American Loganiaceae I. Revision of Plocosperma Bentham. Acta Bot. Neerlandica 16: 56-61.

Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. 1969. The Loganiaceae of Africa VIII. Strychnos III. Revision of the species with notes on the extra-African sections. Meded. Landbouwho. Wageningen 69(1): 1-316.

Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. 1975. The Loganiaceae of Africa XIV. A revision of Nuxia Lam. Meded. Landbouwho. Wageningen 75(8): 1-80.

Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. 1979. The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII. Buddleja L. II. Revision of the African and Asiatic species. Meded. Landbouwho. Wageningen 79(6): 1-163.

Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (ed.). 1980. Angiospermae: Ordnung Gentianales Fam. Loganiceae. Pp. 1-255, in Hiepko, P., & Melchior, H. (eds), Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Ed. 2, vol. 28b I. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin.

Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. 1983. Some remarks on the taxonomy of the Plumerioideae (Apocynaceae). Bothalia 14: 799-801.

Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. 1994. Seris of Apocynaceae XXXVIII. Taxa of the Apocynaceae above the species level. Wageningen Agric. Univ. Papers 94(3): 45-60.

Lefor, M. W. 1975. A taxonomic revision of the Vivianaceae. Univ. Connecticut Occas. Papers Biol. Sci. Ser. 2, 15: 225-255.

Lefort, M. 1951. Contribution a l'étude de quelques convolvulacées tropicales. Ann. Sci. Naturelles Bot. Sér. 11, 12: 193-215.

Léger, L.-J. 1895. Recherches sur l'appareil végétatif des Papavéracées (Papavéracées et Fumariacées D. C.). Theses, Faculté des Sciences de Paris, Lanier, Caen.

Legrand, C. D. 1962. Las especies Americanas de Portulaca. Ann. Museo Hist. Natural Montevideo Ser. 2, 7(3): 3-147, pl. 1-29.

Legume Phylogeny Working Group [LPWG]. 2013a. Legume phylogeny and classification in the 21st century: Progress, prospects and lessons for other species-rich clades. Taxon 62: 217-248.

Legume Phylogeny Working Group [LPWG]. 2013b. Towards a new classification system for legumes: Progress report from the 6th International Legume Conference. South African J. Bot. 89: 3-9.

Lehman, T. M., & Wheeler, E. A. 2001. A fossil dicotyledonous woodland/forest from the Upper Cretaceous of Big Bend National Park, Texas. Palaios 16: 102-108.

Lehmann, C. E. R. [et al. 2011], Archibald, S. A., Hoffmann, W. A., & Bond, W. J. 2011. Deciphering the distribution of the savanna biome. New Phytol. 191: 197-209.

Lehmann, C. E. R. [et al. 2014], Anderson, T. M., Sankaran, M., Higgins, S. I., Archibald, S. A., Hoffmann, W. A., Haman, N. P., Williams, R. J., Fensham, R. J., Felfili, J., Hutley, L. B., Ratnam, J., San Jose, J., Montes, R., Franklin, D., Russell-Smith, J., Ryan, C. M., Durigan, G., Hiernaux, P., Haidar, R., Bowman, D. M. J. S., & Bond, W. J. 2014. Savanna vegetation-fire-climate relationships differ among continents. Science 343: 548-552.

Lehnebach, C. A. [et al. 2007], Cano, A., Monsalve, C., McLenachan, P., Hörandl, E., & Lockhart, O. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of the monotypic Peruvian genus Laccopetalum (Ranunculaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 264: 109-116.

Lehnert, M. [et al. 2010], Kottke, I., Setaro, S., Pazmiño, L. F., Suárez, J. P., & Kessler, M. 2010. Mycorrhizal associations in ferns from southern Ecuador. American Fern J. 99: 292-306.

Lehtonen, S. 2009. Systematics of the Alismataceae - a morphological evaluation. Aquatic Bot. 91: 279-290.

Lehtonen, S., & Myllys, L. 2008. Cladistic analysis of Echinodorus (Alismataceae): Simultaneous analysis of molecular and morphological data. Cladistics 24: 218-239.

Lehtonen, S. [et al. 2010], Tuomisto, H., Rouhan, G., & Christenhusz, M. J. M. 2010. Phylogenetics and classification of the pantropical fern family Lindsaeaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 163: 305-359.

Lehtonen, S. [et al. 2012], Wahlberg, N., & Christenhusz, M. J. M. 2012. Diversification of lindsaeoid ferns and phylogenetic uncertainty of early polypod relationships. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 170: 489-503.

Lei, L.-G., & Liang, H.-X. 1998. Floral development of dioecious species and trends of floral evolution in Piper sensu lato. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 127: 225-237.

Lei, L.-G., & Liang, H.-X. 1999. Variations in floral development in Peperomia (Piperaceae) and their taxonomic implications. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 131: 423-431.

Lei, L.-G. [et al. 2002], Wu, Z.-Y., & Liang, H.-X. 2002. Embryology of Zippelia begoniaefolia (Piperaceae) and its systematic relationships. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 140: 49-64.

Leide, S. 1997. Phylogenetic study of the African members of Cynanchum (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae). Syst. Bot. 22: 347-372.

Leide, S., & Weberling, F. 1995. On the inflorescence structure of Asclepiadaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 197: 99-109.

Leigh, J. [et al. 2009], Hodge, A., & Fitter, A. H. 2009. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can transfer substantial amounts of nitrogen to their host plant from organic material. New Phytol. 181: 199-207.

Leighton, F. M. 1965. The genus Agapanthus L'Heritier. J. South African Bot. Suppl. Vol. 4: 1-50.

Leighton, M., & Leighton, D. R. 1983. Vertebrate responses to fruiting aseasonality within a Bornean rainforest. Pp. 181-196, in Sutton, S. L., Whitmore, T. C., & Chadwick, A. C. (eds), Tropical Rain Forest: Ecology and Management. Blackwell, Oxford.

Leinfellner, W. 1960. Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Kronblätter der Sterculiaceae-Buettnerieae. Öesterreichische Bot. Zeitschr. 107: 153-176.

Leinfellner, W. 1971. Das Gynözeum von Krameria und sie Vergleich mit jenem der Leguminosae und der Polygalaceae. Öesterreichische Bot. Zeitschr. 119: 102-117.

Leinfellner, W. 1973. Das Gynözeum der Bignoniaceen. II. Die U-förmige Plazenta von Schlegelia (Crescentieae). Öesterreichische Bot. Zeitschr. 121: 13-22.

Leins, P. 1979. Der Übergang vom zentrifugalen komplexen zum einfachen Androeceum. Ber. Deutschen Bot. Gesell. 92: 717-719.

Leins, P. 1988. Das zentripetale Androeceum von Punica. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 109: 555-561.

Leins, P. 2000. Blüte und Frucht. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart.

Leins, P., & Bonnery-Brachtendorf, R. 1977. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen an Blüten von Datisca cannabina (Datiscaceae). Beitr. Biol. Pfl. 53: 143-155.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1980. Zur Entwicklung der Blüten von Monodora crispata (Annonaceae). Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 55: 11-22.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1982. Das monokarpellate Gynoeceum von Monodora crispata (Annonaceae). Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 57: 1-13.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1985. Ein Beitrag zut Blütenentwicklung der Aristolochiaceen, ein Vermittlergruppe zu den Monokotylen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 107: 343-368.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1988. Einige Bemerkungen zur Blütenentwicklung und Systematischen Stellung der Wasserpflanzen Callitriche, Hippuris und Hydrostachys. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 63: 157-178.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1990. The possible relationship of Hydrostachyaceae based on comparative ontogenetic flower studies. Mitt. H. Inst. Alg. Bot. Hamburg 23b: 723-729.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1991. Fascicled androecia in Dilleniidae and some remarks on the Garcinia androecium. Bot. Acta 104: 336-344.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1994a. Putative origin and relationships of the order from the viewpoint of developmental flower morphology. Pp. 303-316, in Behnke, H.-D., & Mabry, T. J. (eds.), Caryophyllales: Evolution and Systematics. Springer, Berlin.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1994b. Flowers in the Magnoliidae and the origin of flowers in other subclasses of the angiosperms. II. The relationships between flowers of Magnoliidae, Dilleniidae, and Caryophyllidae. Pp. 209-218, in Endress, P. K., & Friis, E. M. (eds), Early Evolution of Flowers. Springer, New York. [Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 8.]

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1995. Das frühe Differenzierungsmuster in den Blüten von Saruma henryi Oliv. (Aristolochiaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 117: 365-376.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1996. Early floral developmental studies in Annonaceae. Pp. 1-27, in Morawetz, W., & Winkler, H. (eds), Reproductive Morphology in Annonaceae. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschafte, Wien. [Biosystematics and Ecology Series 10.]

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 1997. Floral developmental studies: Some old and new questions. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 158(6 Suppl): S3-S12.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 2000. Die früheste Entwicklungsstadien der Blüten bei den Asteraceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 122: 503-515.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 2003a. The pollen box in Cyphiaceae (Campanulales). Internat. J. Plant Sci. 164(5 Suppl): S321-S328.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 2003b. Floral developmental features and molecular data in plant systematics. Pp. 81-106, in Stuessy, T. F., Mayer, V., & Hörandl, E. (eds), Deep Morphology: Toward a Renaissance of Morphology in Plant Systematics. A. R. G. Gantner, Ruggell, Liechtenstein.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 2004a. Hippuridaceae. Pp. 163-166, in Kadereit, J. (ed)., The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. VII. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Lamiales (except Acanthaceae including Avicenniaceae). Springer, Berlin.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 2004b. Floral organ sequences in Apiales (Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Pittosporaceae). South African J. Bot. 70: 468-474.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 2005. Floral morphological studies in the South African Cyphia stenopetala Diels (Cyphiaceae). Internat. J. Plant Sci. 166: 207-217.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 2006. Secondary pollen presentation syndromes of the Asterales - a phylogenetic perspective. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 127: 83-103.

Leins, P., & Erbar, C. 2010. Flower and Fruit. Schweizerbart, Stuttgart.

Leins, P., & Galle, P. 1971. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen an Cucurbitaceen-Blüten. Österreichische Bot. Zeitschr. 119: 531-548.

Leins, P., & Gemmeke, V. 1979. Infloreszenz- und Blüten entwicklung bei der Kugeldistel Echinops exaltatus> (Asteraceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 132: 189-204.

Leins, P., & Metzenauer, G. 1979. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen an Capparis-Blüten. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 100: 542-554.

Leins, P., & Orth, C. 1979. Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte männlicher Blüten von Humulus lupulus (Cannabaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 100: 371-378.

Leins, P., & Sattler, R. 1973. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen am Androecium der Alismatales. Österreichische Bot. Zeitschr. 121: 51-63.

Leins, P., & Schwitalla, S. 1986. Studien an Cacteen-Blüten. I. Einige Bemerkungen zur Blütenentwicklung von Pereskia. Beit. Biol. Pflanzen 60: 313-323.

Leins, P., & Schwitalla, S. 1988. Placentation in Cactaceae. Pp. 191-204, in Leins, P., Tucker, S. C., & Endress, P. K. (eds), Aspects of Floral Development. J. Cramer, Berlin.

Leins, P., & Sobick, U. 1977. Die Blütenentwicklung von Reseda lutea. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 98: 133-149.

Leins, P., & Winhard, W. 1973. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Studien an Loasaceen-Blüten. Österreichische Bot. Zeitschr. 122: 145-165.

Leins, P. [et al. 1988], Erbar, C., & van Heel, W. A. 1988. Notes on the floral development of Thottea. Blumea 33: 357-370.

Leins, P. [et al. 2001], Walter, A., & Erbar, C. 2001. Eine morphogenetische Interpretation der Caryophyllaceen-Kronblätter. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 123: 355-367.

Leishman, M. R. [et al. 2000], Wright, I. J., Moles, A. T., & Westoby, M. 2000. The evolutionary ecology of seed size. Pp. 31-57, in Fenner, M. (ed.), Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities, Ed. 2. CAB International, Wallingford.

Leitao, C. A. E. [et al. 2005], Meira, R. M. S. A., Azevedo, A. A., de Araújo, J. M., Silva, K. L. F., & Collevatti, R. G. 2005. Anatomy of the floral, bract, and foliar nectaries of Triumfetta semitriloba (Tiliaceae). Canadian J. Bot. 83: 279-286.

Leitão, G. G. [et al. 1999], Simas, N. K., Soares, S. S. V., de Brito, A. P. P., Claros, B. M. G., Brito, T. B. M., & delle Monache, F. 1999. Chemistry and pharmacology of Monimiaceae: A special focus on Siparuna and Mollinedia. J. Ethnopharmacol. 65: 87-102.

Leitch, I. J. 2007. Genome size through the ages. Heredity 99: 121-122.

Leitch, I. J. [et al. 2001], Hanson, L., Winfield, M., Parker, J., & Bennett, M. D. 2001. Nuclear DNA C-values complete familial representation in gymnosperms. Ann. Bot. 88: 843-849.

Leitch, I. J. [et al. 2005], Soltis, D. E., Soltis. P. S., & Bennett, M. D. 2005. Evolution of DNA amounts across land plants (Embryophyta). Ann. Bot. 95: 207-217.

Leitch, I. J. [et al. 2009], Kahanadawala, I., Suda, J., Hanson, L., Ingrouille, M. J., Chase, M. W., & Fay, M. F. 2009. Genome size diversity in Orchidaceae: consequences and evolution. Ann. Bot. 104: 469-481.

Leite, V. G. [et al. 2014], Mansano, V. F., & Teixeira, S. P. 2014. Floral ontogeny in Dipterygeae (Fabaceae) reveals new insights into one of the earliest branching tribes in papilionoid legumes. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 174: 529–550. doi: 10.1111/boj.12158

Leitman, P. 2014. Chloranthaceae, in Lista de Espécies da flora do Brasil. Consulted 24.vi.2014.

Lemaire, B. [et al. 2011a], Huysmans, S., Smets, E., & Merckx, V. 2011a. Rate accelerations in nuclear 18S rDNA of mycoheterotrophic and parasitic angiosperms. J. Plant Res. 124: 561-576.

Lemaire, B. [et al. 2011b], Vandamme, P., Merckx, V., Smets, E., & Dessein, S. 2011b. Bacterial leaf symbiosis in angiosperms: Host specificity without co-speciation. PLoS ONE 6, 9: e24430

LeMaout, J. E. M., & Descaine, J. 1868. Traité général de botanique descriptive et analytique.... Firmin Didot, Paris.

Leme, E. M. C., & Brown, G. K. 2011. Inferences for the biogeography of Bromeliaceae based on Protananaceae, a new monocot fossil family from Early Cretaceous of northeast Brazi. P. 187, in XVIII International Botanical Congress 2011, Melbourne. [Abstracts.]

Lemieux, C. [et al. 2000], Otis, C., & Turmel, M. 2000. Ancestral chloroplast genome in Mesostigma viride reveals an early branch of green plant evolution. Nature 403: 649-652.

Lemke, D. C. 1988. A synopsis of Flacourtiaceae. Aliso 12: 29-43.

Lemmens, R. H. M. J. [et al. 2004], Breteler, F. J., & Jonkind, C. C. H. 2004. Connaraceae. Pp. 74-81, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. VI. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales. Springer, Berlin.

Lemon, G. D., & Posluszny, U. 2000a. Shoot development and evolution in Pistia stratiotes (Araceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 161: 721-732.

Lemon, G. D., & Posluszny, U. 2000b. Comparative shoot development and evolution in the Lemnaceae. Int. J. Plant Sci. 161: 733-748.

Lemons, A. [et al. 2005], Clay, K., & Rudgers, J. A. 2005. Connecting plant-microbial interactions above and below ground: A fungal endophyte affects decomposition. Oecologia 145: 595-604.

Lempe, J. [et al. 2001], Stevens, K. J., & Peterson, R. L. 2001. Shoot responses of six Lythraceae species to flooding. Plant Biol. 3: 186-193.

Lens, F. [et al. 2012], Eeckhout, S., Zwartjes, R., Smets, E., & Janssens, S. B. 2012. The multiple fuzzy origins of woodiness within Balsaminaceae using an integrated approach. Where do we draw the line? Ann. Bot.109: 783-99.

Lemson, K. L. 2011. Pollen development in Cosmelieae (Ericaceae: Styphelioideae): Are monads in Andersonia macranthera unique? Internat. J. Plant Sci. 172: 664-673.

Leng, Q., & Friis, E. M. 2003. Sinocarpus decussatus gen. et spec. nov., a new angiosperm with basally syncarpous fruits from the Yixian Formation of northwest China. Plant Syst. Evol. 241: 77-88.

Leng, Q. [et al. 2005], Schönenberger, J., & Friis, E. M. 2005. Late Cretaceous follicular fruits from southern Sweden with systematic affinities to early diverging eudicots. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 148: 377-407.

Lengyel, S. [et al. 2009], Gove, A. D., Latimer, A. M., Majer, J. D., & Dunn, R. R. 2009. Ants sow the seeds of global diversification in flowering plants. PLoS ONE 4(5): e4580, doi10.1371/journal.pone.0005480

Lengyel, S. [et al. 2010], Gove, A. D., Latimer, A. M., Majer, J. D., & Dunn, R. R. 2010. Convergent seed dispersal by ants, and phylogeny and biogeography in flowering plants: A global survey. Persp. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 12: 43-55.

Lens, F. 2005. Systematic Significance of Wood Anatomical Characters in Ericales. Doctor in de Wetenschappen, K.U.Leuwen, Laboratory of Plant Systematics.

Lens, F. [et al. 2003], Gasson, P., Smets, E., & Jansen, S. 2003. Comparative wood anatomy of epacrids (Styphelioideae, Ericaceae s.l.). Ann. Bot. 91: 835-856.

Lens, F. [et al. 2004a], Smets, E., & Jansen, S. 2004a. Comparative wood anatomy of Andromedeae s.s., Gaultherieae, Lyonieae and Oxydendreae (Vaccinioideae, Ericaceae s.l.). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 144: 161-179.

Lens, F. [et al. 2004b], Luteyn, J. L., Smets, E., & Jansen, S. 2004b. Ecological trends in the wood anatomy of Vaccinioideae (Ericaceae s.l.). Flora 199: 309-319

Lens, F. [et al. 2004c], Kron, K. A., Luteyn, J. L., Smets, E., & Jansen, S. 2004c. Comparative wood anatomy of the blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae, Ericaceae s.l.). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 91: 566-592.

Lens, F. [et al. 2005a], Jansen, S., Caris, P., Serlet, L., & Smets, E. 2005a. Comparative anatomy of the Primuloid clade (Ericales s.l.). Syst. Bot. 30: 163-183.

Lens, F. [et al. 2005b], Dressler, S., Jansen, S., van Evelghem, L., & Smets, E. 2005b. Relationships with balsaminoid Ericales: A wood anatomical approach. American J. Bot. 92: 941-953.

Lens, F. [et al. 2005c], Dressler, S., Vinckier, S., Janssens, S., Dessein, S., van Evelghem, L., & Smets, E. 2005c. Palynological variation in balsaminoid Ericales: I. Marcgraviaceae. Ann. Bot. 96: 1047-1060.

Lens, F. [et al. 2007a], Baas, P., Jansen, S., & Smets, E. 2007a. A search for phylogenetically informative wood characters within Lecythidaceae s.l. American J. Bot. 94: 483-502.

Lens, F. [et al. 2007b], Schönenberger, J., Baas, P., Jansen, S., & Smets, E. 2007b. The role of wood anatomy in phylogeny reconstruction of Ericales. Cladistics 23: 229-254.

Lens, F. [et al. 2008a], Kårehed, J., Baas, P., Jansen, S., Rabaey, D., Huysmans, S., Hamann, T., & Smets, E. 2008a. The wood anatomy of polyphyletic Icacinaceae s.l., and their relationships within asterids. Taxon 57: 525-552.

Lens, F. [et al. 2008b], Endress, M. E., Baas, P., Jansen, S., & Smets, E. 2008b. Wood anatomy of Rauvolfioideae (Apocynaceae): A search for meaningful non-DNA characters at the tribal level. American J. Bot. 95: 1199-1215.

Lens, F. [et al. 2009a], Groeninckx, I., Smets, E., & Dessein, S. 2009a. Woodiness within the Spermacoceae-Knoxieae alliance (Rubiaceae): Retention of the basal woody condition in Rubiaceae or recent innovation? Ann. Bot. 103: 1049-1064.

Lens, F. [et al. 2009b], Groeninckx, I., Smets, E., & Dessein, S. 2009b. A multidisciplinary approach to reveal the origin of woodiness within the Spermacoceae-Knoxieae alliance (Rubiaceae). Pp. 151-152, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Lens, F. [et al. 2009c], Endress, M. E., Baas, P., Jansen, S., & Smets, E. 2009c. Vessel grouping patterns in subfamilies Apocynoideae and Periplocoideae confirm phylogenetic value of wood structure withing Apocynaceae. Ameican J. Bot. 96: 2168-2183.

León H., W. J. 2011. Anatomía de la madera de 31 especies de Rubiaceae en Venezuela. Acta Bot. Venezuelica 34: 347-379.

Léonard, J. 1957. Genera des Cynometreae et des Amherstieae africaines (Leguminose - Caesalpinioideae): Essai de blastogénie appliquée à la systématique. Acad. Roy. Belgique, Classe des Sciences, Mém. 30(2): 1-314.

Léonard, J. 1961. Notulae systematicae XXXI. Révision des espèces Africaines de Microdesmis (Euphorbiacées). Bull. Jard. Bot. l'État Bruxelles 31: 159-197.

León Enriquez, B. L. [et al. 2008], Vester, H. F. M., & Hallé, F. 2008. The archirecture of Phyllanthus acuminatus Vahl: A prelude to understanding the architectural evolution in the Phyllanthaceae. Adansonia, Sér. 3, 30: 137-149.

LePage, B. A. 2003. The evolution, biogeography and paleoecology of the Pinaceae based on fossil and extant representatives. Pp. 29-52, in Mill, R. R. (ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conifer Conference. Conifers for the Future? International Society for Horticultural Science. [Acta Horticulturae 615.]

Le Péchon, T. [et al. 2009], Cao, N., Dubuisson, J.-Y., & Gigord, L. D. B. 2009. Systematics of Dombeyoideae (Malvaceae) in the Mascarene archipelago (Indian Ocean) inferred from floral morphology. Taxon 58: 519-531.

Le Péchon, T. [et al. 2010], Dubuisson, J.-Y., Haevermans, T., Cruaud, C., Couloux, A., & Gigord, L. D. B. 2010. Multiple colonizations from Madagascar and converged acquisition of dioecy in the Mascarene Dombeyoideae (Malvaceae) as inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequence analyses. Ann. Bot. 106: 343-357.

Leppik, E. E. 1957. The ability of insects to distinguish number. American Naturalist 87: 229-236.

Leppik, E. E. 1969. Floral evolution and pollination in the Leguminosae. Ann. Bot. Fennica 3: 299-308.

Lepschi, B. J. 1996. A taxonomic revision of Macarthuria (Molluginaceae) in Western Australia. Nuytsia 11: 37-54.

Lerner, H. R. L. [et al. 2011], Meyer, M., James, H. F., Hofreiter, M., & Fleischer, R. C. 2011. Multilocus resolution of phylogeny and timescale in the extant adaptive radiation of Hawaiian honeycreepers. Current Biol. 21: 1838-1844.

Le Roux, L. G., & Kellogg, E. A. 1999. Floral development and the formation of unisexual spikelets in the Andropogoneae (Poaceae). American J. Bot. 86: 354-366.

Le Roux, M. M., & van Wyk, B.-E. 2012. The systematic value of flower structure in Crotalaria and related genera of the tribe Crotalarieae (Fabaceae). Flora 207: 414-426.

Le Roux, M. M. [et al. 2011], van Wyk, B.-E., Boatwright, J. S., & Tilney, P. M. 2011. The systematic significance of morphological and anatomical variation in fruits of Crotalaria and related genera of tribe Crotalarieae (Fabaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 165: 84-106.

Le Roux, M. M. [et al. 2013], Boatwright, J. S., & van Wyk, B.-E. 2013. A global infrageneric classification system for the genus Crotalaria {Leguminosae) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Taxon 62: 957-971.

Leroux, O. [et al. 2011], Bagniewska-Zadworna, A., Rambe, S. K., Knox, J. P., Marcus, S. E., Bellefroid, E., Stubbe, D., Chabbert, B., Habrant, A., Claeys, M., & Viane, R. L. L. 2011. Non-lignified helical cell wall thickenings in root cortical cells of Aspleniaceae (Polypodiales): Histology and taxonomical significance. Ann. Bot. 107: 195-207.

Leroy, C. [et al. 2013], Carrias, J.-F., Corbara, B., Pélozuelo, L., Dézerald, O., Brouard, O., Dejean, A., & Céréghino, R. 2013. Mutualistic ants contribute to tank-bromeliad nutrition. Ann. Bot. 112: 919-926.

Lersten, N. R. 1974. Morphology and distribution of colleters and crystals in relation to the taxonomy and bacterial leaf nodule symbiosis of Psychotria (Rubiaceae). American J. Bot. 61: 973-981.

Lersten, N. R. 1983. Suspensors in Leguminosae. Bot. Review 49: 233-257.

Lersten, N. R. 1997. Occurence of endodermis with a casparian strip in stem and leaf. Bot. Review 63: 265-277.

Lersten, N. R. 2004. Flowering Plant Embryology. Blackwell, Oxford.

Lersten, N. R., & Beaman, J. M. 1998. First report of oil cavities in Scrophulariaceae and reinvestigation of air spaces in leaves of Leucophyllum fructescens. American J. Bot. 85: 1646-1649.

Lersten, N. R., & Curtis, J. D. 1997. Anatomy and distribution of foliar idioblasts in Scrophularia and Verbascum (Scrophulariaceae). American J. Bot. 84: 1638-1645.

Lersten, N. R., & Curtis, J. D. 2001. Idioblasts and other unusual internal foliar secretory strucures in Scrophulariaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 227: 63-73.

Lersten, N. R. & Horner, H. T. 2000. Calcium oxalate crystal types and trends in their distribution patterns in leaves of Prunus (Rosaceae: Prunoideae). Plant Syst. Evol. 224: 83-96.

Lersten, N. R., & Horner, H. T. 2005. Macropattern of styloid and druse crystals in Quillaja (Quillajaceae) bark and leaves. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 166: 705-711.

Lersten, N. R., & Horner, H. T. 2008a. An overview of leaf crystal forms and macropattern diversity in Oleaceae. P. 39, in Botany 2008. Botany without Borders. [Botanical Society of America, etc. Abstracts.]

Lersten, N. R., & Horner, H. T. 2008b. Crystal macropatterns in leaves of Fagaceae and Nothofagaceae: A comparative study. Plant Syst. Evol. 271: 239-253.

Lersten, N. R., & Horner, H. T. 2008c. Subepidermal idioblasts and crystal macropattern in leaves of Ticodendron (Ticodendraceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 276: 255-260.

Lersten, N. R., & Horner, H. T. 2009a. Analysis of leaf crystal variations and macropatterns in Oleaceae. P. 91, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Lersten, N. R., & Horner, H. T. 2009b. Crystal diversity and macropatterns in leaves of Oleaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 2782: 87-102.

Lersten, N. R., & Horner, H. T. 2011. Unique calcium oxalate "duplex" and "concretion" idioblasts in leaves of tribe Naucleeae (Rubiaceae). American J. Bot. 98: 1-11.

Lersten, N. R. [et al. 2002], Krueger, L., & Curtis, J. D. 2002. Tracheoid variation among Bignoniaceae seed wings, with emphasis on Campsis radicans. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 163: 369-378.

Lersten, N. R. [et al. 2006], Czlapinski, A. R., Curtis, J. D., Freckmann, R., & Horner, H. T. 2006. Oil bodies in leaf mesophyll cells of angiosperms: Overview and a selected survey. American J. Bot. 93: 1731-1739.

Les, D. H. 1989. The evolution of achene morphology in Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae), IV. Summary of proposed relationships and evolutionary trends. Syst. Bot. 14: 254-262.

Les, D. H. 1993. Ceratophyllaceae. Pp. 246-249, in Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., & Bittrich, V. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families. Springer, Berlin.

Les, D. H., & Haynes, R. R. 1995. Systematics of subclass Alismatidae: A synthesis of approaches. Pp. 353-377, in Rudall, P. J., Cribb, P. J., Cutler, D. F., & Humphries, C. J. (eds), Monocotyledons: Systematics and Evolution, vol. 2. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Les, D. H., & Tippery, N. P. 2013. In time and with water... The systematics of alismatid monocotyledons. Pp. 118-164, in Wilkin, P., & Mayo, S. J. (eds), Early Events in Monocot Evolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [Systematics Association Special Volume 83.]

Les, D. H. [et al. 1997], Cleland, M. A., & Waycott, M. 1997. Phylogenetic studies in Alismatidae, II: Evolution of marine angiosperms (seagrasses) and hydrophily. Syst. Bot. 22: 443-463.

Les, D. H. [et al. 1999], Schneider, E. L., Padgett, D. J., Soltis, P. S., Soltis, D. E., & Zanis, M. 1999. Phylogeny, classification and floral evolution of water lilies (Nymphaeaceae; Nymphaeales): A synthesis of non-molecular, rbcL, matK, and 18s rDNA data. Syst. Bot. 24: 28-46.

Les, D. H. [et al. 2001], Moody, M. L., Jacobs, S. W. L., & Bayer, R. J. 2001. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian seagrasses (family Zosteraceae). P. 123, in Botany 2001: Plants and People, Abstracts. [Albuquerque.]

Les, D. H. [et al. 2002], Crawford, D. J., Landolt, E., Gabel, J. D., & Kimball, R. T. 2002. Phylogeny and systematics of Lemnaceae, the duckweed family. Syst. Bot. 27: 221-240.

Les, D. H. [et al. 2003], Crawford, D. J., Kimball, R. T., Moody, M. L., & Landolt, E. 2003. Biogoegraphy of discontinuously distributed hydrophytes: A molecular appraisal of intercontinetal disjunctions. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 164: 917-932.

Les, D. H. [et al. 2005], Moody, M. L., & Jacobs, S. W. L. 2005. Phylogeny and systematics of Aponogeton (Aponogetonaceae): The Australian species. Syst. Bot. 30: 503-519.

Les, D. H. [et al. 2006], Moody, M. L., & Soros, C. L. 2006. A reappraisal of phylogenetic relationships in the monocotyledon family Hydrocharitaceae (Alismatidae). Pp. 211-230, in Columbus, J. T., Friar, E. A., Porter, J. M., Prince, L. M., & Simpson, M. G. (eds), Monocots: Comparative Biology and Evolution. Excluding Poales. Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, Claremont, Ca. [Aliso 22: 211-230.]

Les, D. H. [et al. 2008], Jacobs, S. W. L., Tippery, N. P., Chen, L., Moody, M. L., & Wilstermann-Hildebrand, M. 2008. Systematics of Vallisneria (Hydrocharitaceae). Syst. Bot. 33: 49-65.

Lescot, M. [et al. 2008], Piffanelli, P., Ciampi, A. Y., Ruiz, M., Blanc, G., Leebens-Mack, J., da Silva, F. R., Santos, C. M. R., d'Hont, A., Garsmeur, O., Vilarinhos, A. D., Kanamori, H., Matsumoto, T., Ronning, C. M., Cheung, F., Haas, B. J., Althoff, R., Arbogast, T., Hine, E., Pappas, G. J. Jr., Sasaki, T., Souza, M. T. Jr., Miller, R. N. G., Glaszmann, J.-C., & Town, C. D. 2008. Insights into the Musa genome: Syntenic relationships to rice and between Musa species. BMC Genomics 9: 58.

Leseberg, C. H., & Duvall, M. R. 2009. The complete chloroplast genome of Coix lacryma-jobi and a comparative molecular evolutionary analysis of plastomes in cereals. J. Mol. Evol. 69: 311-318.

Leskinen, E., & Alström-Rapaport, C. 1999. Molecular phylogeny of Salicaceae and closely related Flacourtiaceae: Evidence from 5.8 S, ITS 1 and ITS 2 of the rDNA. Plant Syst. Evol. 215: 209-227.

Leslie, A. B. 2008. Interpreting the function of saccate pollen in ancient conifers and other seed plants. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 169: 1038-1045.

Leslie, A. 2009. Testing saccate pollen discrimination during pollination in extant conifers. P. 239, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Leslie, A. 2010a. Exploring the role of pollen flotation in the reproductive biology of ancient gymnosperms. P. 67, in Botany 2010. July 31 - August 4, Providence, Rhode Island. Scientific Abstracts.

Leslie, A. B. 2010b. Flotation preferentially selects saccate pollen duirng conifer pollination. New Phytol. 188: 273-279.

Leslie, A. B. 2011. Predation and protection in the macroevolutionary history of conifer cones. Proc. Royal Soc. B, 278: 3003-3008.

Leslie, A. B., & Boyce, C. K. 2012. Ovule function and evolution of angiosperm reproductive innovations. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 173: 640-648.

Leslie, A. B. [et al. 2012], Beaulieu, J. M., Rai, H. S., Crane, P. R., Donoghue, M. J., & Mathews, S. 2012. Hemisphere-scale differences in conifer evolutionary dynamics. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109: 16217-16221.

Leslie, A. B. [et al. 2013], Beaulieu, J. M., Crane, P. R., & Donoghue, M. J. 2013. Explaining the distribution of breeding and dispersal syndromes in conifers. Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 280: 20131812 http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2013.1812

Leslie, A. B. [et al. 2014], Beulieu, J. M., Crane, P. R., & Donoghue, M. J. 2014. Cone size is related to branching architecture in conifers. New Phytol. doi: 10.1111/nph.12864

Le Thomas, A. [et al. 2001], Suarez-Cervera, M., & Goldblatt. P. 2001. Pollen of Nivenioideae and its phylogenetic implications. Annali Bot. n.s. 1: 67-72.

Letourneau, D. K. 2004. Mutualism, antiherbivore defense, and trophic cascades: Piper ant-plants as a mesocosm for experimentation. Pp. 5-32, in Dyer, L. A., & Palmer, A. D. N. (eds), Piper: A Model Genus for Studies of Phytochemistry, Ecology, and Evolution. Kluwer Academic, New York.

Letouzey, R. 1961. Notes sur les Scytopétalacées (revision des Scytopétalacées de l'herbier de Paris). Adansonia N.S. 1: 1096-142.

Letouzey, R. 1968. Étude phytogéographique du Cameroun. Lechevalier, Paris.

Leuchtmann, A. 1992. Systematics, distribution, and host specificty of grass endophytes. Natural Toxins 1: 150-162.

Leuenberger, B. E. 1976. Die Pollenmorphologie der Cactaceae. Dissert. Bot. 31: 1-321. [Cramer, Vaduz.]

Leuenberger, B. E. 1986. Pereskia (Cactaceae). Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 41: 1-141.

Leuenberger, B. E. 1997. Maihuenia - monograph of a Patagonian genus of Cactaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 119: 1-92.

Leuenberger, B. E. 2008. Pereskia, Maihuenia, and Blossfeldia - taxonomic history, updates, and notes. Haseltonia 14: 54-93.

Leuenberger, B. E., & Eggli, U. 1998 [1999]. Notes on the genus Blossfeldia (Cactaceae) in Argentina. Haseltonia 6: 2-13.

Levichev, I. G. 2013. Structural features of shoots in Lloydia, Gagea. Kharkevichia (Liliaceae) as evolutionary variability of the modules of mesome nature in monocotyledons. Bot. Zhurn. 98: 409-452. [In Russian.]

Levin, D. A. 1976. Alkaloid-bearing plants: An ecogeographic perspective. American Naturalist 110: 261-284.

Levin, G. A. 1986. Systematic foliar morphology of Phyllanthoideae (Euphorbiaceae). I. Conspectus. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 29-85.

Levin, G. A. 1992. Systematics of Paradrypetes (Euphorbiaceae). Syst. Bot. 17: 74-83.

Levin, G. A. 2013. Putranjivaceae. Pp. 273-276, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Flowering Plants. XI. Flowering Plants: Eudicots. Malpighiales. Springer, Berlin.

Levin, G. A., & Simpson, M. G. 1994. Phylogenetic implications of pollen ultrastructure in the Oldfieldioideae (Euphorbiaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 81: 203-238.

Levin, R. A. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships within Nyctaginaceae tribe Nyctagineae: Evidence from nuclear and chloroplast genomes. Syst. Bot. 25: 738-750.

Levin, R. A., & Miller, J. S. 2005. Relationships within tribe Lycieae (Solanaceae): Paraphyly of Lycium and multiple origins of gender dimorphism. American J. Bot. 92: 2044-2053.

Levin, R. A. [et al. 2003], Wagner, W. L., Hoch, P. C., Nepokroeff, M., Pires, J. C., Zimmer, E. A., & Sytsma, K. J. 2003. Family-level relationships of Onagraceae based on chloroplast rbcL and ndhF data. American J. Bot. 90: 107-115.

Levin, R. A. [et al. 2004], Wagner, W. L., Hoch, P. C., Hahn, W. J., Rodriguez, A., Baum, D. A., Katinas, L., Zimmer, E. A., & Sytsma, K. J. 2004. Paraphyly in tribe Onagreae: Insights into phylogenetic relationships of Onagraceae based on nuclear and chloroplast sequence data. Syst. Bot. 29: 147-164.

Levin, R. A. [et al. 2006], Myers, N. R., & Bohs, L. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships among the "spiny solanums" (Solanum subgenus Leptostemon, Solanaceae). American J. Bot. 93: 157-169.

Levin, R. A. [et al. 2007], Shak, J. R., Miller, J. S., Bernardello, G., & Venter, A. M. 2007. Evolutionary relationships in tribe Lycieae (Solanaceae). Pp. 225-239, in Spooner, D. M., Bohs, L., Giovannoni, J., Olmstead, R. G., & Shibata, D. (eds), Solanaceae VI: Genomics Meets Biodiversity. ISHA Section Root and Tuber Crops. [Acta Hortic. 745.]

Levin, R. A. [et al. 2009], Blanton, S., & Miller, J. S. 2009. Phylogenetic utility of nuclear nitrogen reductase: A multi-locus comparison of nuclear and chloroplast sequence data for inference of relationships among American Lycieae (Solanaceae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 50: 608-617.

Levin, R. A. [et al. 2011], Bernadello, G., Whiting, C., & Miller, J. S. 2011. A new generic circumscription in tribe Lycieae (Solanaceae). Taxon 60: 681-690.

Lev-Yadum, S. 2001. Why are underground flowering and fruiting more common in Israel than anywhere else in the world? Curr. Sci. 79: 289.

Lewinsohn, T. M., Novotny, V., & Basset, Y. 2005. Insects on plants: Diversity of herbivore assemblages revisited. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 36: 597-620.

Lewis, C. E., & Doyle, J. J. 2001. Phylogenetic utility of the nuclear gene malate synthase in the palm family (Arecaceae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 19: 409-420.

Lewis, C. E., & Doyle, J. J. 2002. A phylogenetic analysis of tribe Areceae (Arecaceae) using two low-copy nuclear genes. Plant Syst. Evol. 236: 1-17.

Lewis, D. Q. 2000. A revision of the New World species of Lindernia (Scrophulariaceae). Castanea 65: 93-122.

Lewis, G. P. [et al. 2000], Simpson, B. B., & Neff, J. L. 2000. Progress in understanding the reproductive biology of the Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae). Pp. 65-78, in Herendeen, P. S., & Bruneau, A. (eds), Advances in Legumne systematics. Part 9. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Lewis, G. P. [et al. 2005], Schrire, B., Mackinder, B., & Lock, M. (eds). 2005. Legumes of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Lewis, L. A., & McCourt, R. M. 2004. Green algae and origin of land plants. American J. Bot. 91: 1535-1556.

Lewis, N. G., & Yamamoto, E. 1990. Lignin: Occurence, biogenesis and biodegradation. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 41: 455-496.

Ley, A. C., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2009. Pollination syndromes in African Marantaceae. Ann. Bot. 104: 41-56.

Ley, A. C., & Classen-Bockhoff, R. 2010. Parallel evolution in plant pollinator interaction in African Marantaceae. Pp. 847-854, in van der Burgh, X., van der Maesen, J., & Onana, J. M. (eds), Systematics and Conservation of African Plants. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Ley, A. C., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2011a. Evolution in African Marantaceae - evidence from phylogenetic, ecological and morphological studies. Syst. Bot. 36: 277-290.

Ley, A. C., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2011b. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic diversification in Marantaceae. Pp. 236-255, in Wanntorp, L., & Ronse de Craene, L. P. (eds), Flowers on the Tree of Life. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [Systematics Association Special Volume 80.]

Ley, A. C., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2012. Floral synorganization and its influence on mechanical isolation and autogamy in Marantaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 168: 300-322.

Ley, A. C., & Harris, D. J. 2014. Flower morphological diversity in Aframomum (Zingiberaceae) from Africa - the importance of distinct floral types with presumably specific pollinator associations, differential habitat adaptations and allopatry in speciation and species maintenance. Plant Ecol. Evol. 147: 33-48.

Li, B. L., & You, R. L. 1991. Structure and development of stigmatic branches and style and their relation to pollen tube growth. Acta Bot. Sinica 33: 712-717. [In Chinese.]

Li, C.-X., & Lu, S.-G. 2006a. Phylogenetic analysis of Dryopteridaceae based on chloroplast rbcL seqiences. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 44: 503-515.

Li, C.-X., & Lu, S.-G. 2006b. Phylogenetics of Chinese Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae) based on the chloroplast rps4-trnS sequence data. J. Plant Res. 119: 589-598.

Li, D., & Ding, Y. 2006. Geographical distribution of Phacellaria Benth. (Santalaceae) and its hosts. Front. Biol. China 1: 5-8.

Li, F.-W. [et al. 2014], Villareal, J. C., Kelly, S., Rothfels, C. J., Melkonian, M., Frangedakis, E., Ruhsam, M., Sigel, E. M., Der, J. P., Pittermann, J., Burge, D. O., Pokorny, L., Larsson, A., Chen, T., Weststrand, S., Thomas, P., Carpenter, E., Zhang, Y., Tian, Z., Chen, L., Yan, Z., Ying, Z., Sun, X., Wang, J., Stevenson, D. W., Crandall-Stotler, B. J., Shaw, A. J., Deyholos, M. K., Soltis, D. E., Graham, S. W., Windham, M. D., Langdale, J. A., Wong, G. K.-S., Mathews, S., & Pryer, K. M. 2014. Horizontal transfer of an adaptive chimeric photoreceptor from bryophytes to ferns. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111: 6672-6677. doi:10.1073/pnas.1319929111

Li, F. [Feifei] [et al. 2014], Fan, Q., Li, Q., Chen, S., Guo, W., Cui, D., & Laio, W. 2014. Molecular phylogeny of Cotoneaster inferred from nuclear ITS and multiple chloroplast sequences. Plant Syst. Evol. 300: 1533-1546.

Li, G.-S. [et al. 2005], Meng, Z., Kong, H.-Z., Chen, Z.-D., Theissen, G., & Lu, A.-M. 2005. Characterisation of candidate class A, B and E, floral homeotic genes from the perianthless basal angiosperm Chloranthus spicatus (Chloranthaceae). Devel. Genes Evol. 437-449.

Li, G.-Z. (ed.). 2004. The Genus Aspidistra. Guangxi Science and Techology Publishing House.

Li, H. 2005. Occurence of crown eudicot angiosperm - sarracenian-like pitcher plants - in the Early Cretaceous, China. P. 83, in Botany 2005. Learning from Plants. [Abstracts: Botanical Society of America, etc.]

Li, H. [Honglei] [et al. 2013], Wang, W., Lin, L., Zhu, X., Li, J., & Chen, Z. 2013. Diversification of the phaseoloid legumes: Effects of climate change, range expansion and habitat shift. Front. Plant Evol. Develop. doi: 103389/fpls.2013.00386

Li, H.-F., & Ren, Y. 2005. The variation of perforation plates of vessels in the secondary xylem of Euptelea pleiosperma (Eupteleaceae). Acta Phytotax. Sinica 43: 1-11. [In Chinese.]

Li, H.-F. [et al. 2011], Chaw, S.-M., Du, C.-M., & Ren, Y. 2011. Vessel elements present in the secondary xylem of Trochodendron and Tetracentron (Trochodendraceae). Flora 206: 595-600.

Li, H.-L. 1943. The genus Stachyurus. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70: 615-628.

Li, H.-L. 1951. Evolution in the flowers of Pedicularis. Evolution 5: 158-164.

Li, H.-L. 1952. Floristic relationships between eastern Asia and eastern North America. Trans. American Phil. Soc. 42: 371-429.

Li, J. 2008. Molecular phylogenetics of Hamamelidaceae: Evidence from DNA sequences of nuclear and chloroplast genomes. Pp. 227-250, in Sharma, A. K., & Sharma, A. (eds), Plant Genome Biodiversity and Evolution. Volume 1. Part E. Phanerogams - Angiosperm. Science Publishers, Delhi.

Li, J., & Bogle, A. L. 2001. A new suprageneric classification system of Hamamelidoideae based on morphology and sequences of nuclear and chloroplast DNA. Harvard Papers Bot. 5: 499-515.

Li, J., & Zhang, Z.-H. 2010. Sequences of 72 plastid genes support the early divergence of Cornales in the asterids. J. Syst. Evol. 48: 426-434.

Li, J. [et al. 1999a], Bogle, A. L., & Klein, A. S. 1999a. Phylogenetic relationships of the Hamamelidaceae: Evidence from the nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene matK. Plant Syst. Evol. 218: 205-219.

Li, J. [et al. 1999b], Bogle, A. L., & Klein, A. S. 1999b. Phylogenetic relationships of the Hamamelidaceae based on sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. American J. Bot. 86: 1027-1037.

Li, J. [et al. 2004], Ledger, J., Ward, T., & del Tredici, P. 2004. Phylogenetics of Calycanthaceae based on molecular and morphological data with a special reference to divergent paralogues of the nrDNA ITS region. Harvard Papers Bot. 9: 69-82.

Li, J. [et al. 2006], Yue, J., & Shoup, S. 2006. Phylogenetics of Acer (Aceroideae, Sapindaceae) based on nucleotide sequences of two chloroplast non-coding regions. P. 234, in Botany 2006 - Looking to the Future - Conserving the Past. [Abstracts: Botanical Society of America, etc.].

Li, J. [et al. 2008], Conran, J. G., Christophel, D. C., Li, Z.-M., Li, L., & Li, H.-W. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships in the Litsea complex and core Laureae (Lauraceae) using ITS and ETS sequences and morphology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 580-599.

Li, J. [et al 2011], Webster, M. A., Smith, M. C., & Gilmartin, P. M. 2011. Floral heteromorphy in Primula vulgaris: Progress towards isolation and characterization of the S locus. Ann. Not. 108: 715-726.

Li, J.-h. [et al. 2011], Liu, Z.-j., Salazar, G. A., Bernhardt, P., Perner, H., Tomohisa, Y., Jin, X.-h., Chung, S.-w., & Luo, Y.-b. 2011. Molecular phylogeny of Cypripedium (Orchidaceae: Cypripedioideae) inferred from multiple nuclear and chloroplast regions. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 61: 308-320.

Li, J.-K., & Huang, S.-Q. 2009. Flower thermoregulation facilitates fertilization in Asian sacred lotus. Ann. Bot. 103: 1159-1163.

Li, J.-Q. 1996. On the phylogeny of the Fagaceae. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 34: 597-609.

Li, L. [et al. 2001], Cheng, X. F., Leshkevich, J., Umezawa, T., Harding, S. A., & Chiang, V. L. 2001. The last step of syringyl monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperms is regulated by a novel gene encoding sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Plant Cell 13: 1567-1585.

Li, L. [Lu] [et al. 2003], Liang, H.-X., Peng, H., & Lei, L.-G. 2003. Sporogenesis and gametogenesis in Sladenia and their systematic implication. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 143: 305-314.

Li, L. [et al. 2007], Li, J., Conran, J. G., & Li, X.-W. (Li, H.-W.) 2007. Phylogeny of Neolitsea (Lauraceae) inferred from Bayesian analysis of nr DNA ITS and ETS sequences. Plant Syst. Evol. 269: 203-221.

Li, L.-F. [et al. 2010], Häkkinen, Tuan, Y.-M., Hao, G., & Ge, X.-J. 2010. Molecular systematics and phylogeny of the banana family (Musaceae) inferred from multiple nuclear and chloroplast DNA fragments, with a special reference to the genus Musa. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 57: 1-10.

Li, P. [et al. 2012], Pemberton, R., Zheng, G., & Luo, L. 2012. Fly pollination in Cypripedium: A case study of the sympatric C. sichuanense and C. micranthum. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 170: 50-58.

Li, Q.-G. [et al. 2013], Li, Z., Li, C., Dunwell, J. M., & Zhang, Y.-M. 2013. Comparative genomics suggests that an ancestral polyploidy event leads to enhanced root nodule symbiosis in the Papilionoideae. Mol. Biol. Evol. 30: 2602-2611.

Li, Q.-Q. [et al. 2012], Zhou, S.-D., He, X.-J., & Wei, X.-Q. 2012. Phylogeny and character evolution in Allium sugenus Amerallium (Amaryllidaceae). Plant Divers. Resources 34: 107-119.

Li, Q.-Y. [et al. 2012], Guo, W., Liao, W.-B., Macklin, J. A., & Li, J.-H. 2012. Generic limits of Pyrinae: Insights from nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences. Bot. Stud. 53: 151-164.

Li, R., & Wen, J. 2013. Phylogeny and biogeography of Dendropanax (Araliaceae), an amphi-Pacific disjunct genus between tropical/subtropical Asia and the Neotropics. Syst. Bot. 38: 536-551.

Li, R. [et al. 2011], Yang, J.-B., Yang, S.-X., & Li, D. Z. 2012. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Pyrenaria complex (Theaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences. Nordic J. Bot. 29: 780-787.

Li, R.-Q. [et al. 2002], Chen, Z.-D., Hong, Y.-P., & Lu, A.-M. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of the "higher" hamamelids based on chloroplast trnL-F sequences. Acta Bot. Sinica 44: 1462-1468.

Li, R.-Q. [et al. 2004], Chen, Z.-D., Lu, A.-M., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., & Manos, P. S. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships in Fagales based on DNA sequences from three genomes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 165: 311-324.

Li, R.-Q. [et al. 2005], Chen, Z.-D., & Lu, A.-M. 2005. Organogenesis of the inflorescence and flowers in Platycarya strobilacea (Juglandaceae). Internat. J. Plant Sci. 166: 449-457.

Li, S. [et al. 2012], Jia, Y., & Wang, Q. 2012. Molecular phylogenetic relationships among basal mosses. Chinese Bull. Bot. 47: 379-394.

Li, W.-P. [et al. 2012], Yang, F.-S., Jivkova, T., & Yin, G.-S. 2012. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data. Ann. Bot. 109: 1341-1357.

Li, X., & Chapple, C. 2010. Understanding lignification: Challenges beyond monolignol biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 154: 449-452.

Li, X.-X., & Zhou, Z.-K. 2006. A cladistic analysis of monocotyledons at the family level based on morphological data. Acta Bot. Yunnanica 28: 241-249. [In Chinese.]

Li, X.-X., & Zhou, Z.-K. 2007. The higher-level phylogeny of monocots based on matK, rbcL and 18S rDNA sequences. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 45: 113-133. [In Chinese.]

Li, Y. [Ya] [et al. 2010], Smith, T., Liu, C.-J., Awashti, N., Yang, J., Wang, Y.-F., & Li, C.-S. 2011. Endocarps of Prunus (Rosaceae: Prunoideae) from the early Eocene of Wutu, Shandong Province, China. Taxon 60: 555-564.

Li, Y. [Yongquan] [et al. 2009], Dressler, S., Zhang, D., & Renner, S. S. 2009. More Miocene dispersal between Africa and Asia - the case of Bridelia (Phyllanthaceae). Syst. Bot. 34: 521-529.

Li, Y.-L., & Zhang, X.-Y. 1990. Studies on comparative wood anatomy of 16 species of vines and trees in Celastraceae. Acta Bot. Sinica 32: 252-261, pl. 1-2.

Li, Y.-L. [et al. 2010], Kvacek, Z., Ferguson, D. K., Wang, Y.-F., Li, C.-S., Yang, J., Ying, T.-S., Ablaev, A. G., & Liu, H.-M. 2010. The fossil record of Berberis (Berberidaceae) from the Palaeocene of NE China and interpretations of the evolution and phytogeography of the genus. Rev. Palaebot. Palynol. 160: 10-31.

Lia, V. V., Confalonieri, V. A., Comas, C. I., & Hunziker, J. H. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of Larrea and its allies (Zygophyllaceae): Reticulate evolution and the probable time of the creosote bush arrival to North America. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 21: 309-320.

Liang, D., & Baas, P. 1991. The wood anatomy of the Theaceae. IAWA Bull. N.S. 12: 333-353.

Liang, G. [et al. 2009], Xu, B., Pan, W., Cao, P., Lu, Y., Wu, Y., & Hao, X. 2009. A novel iridoid from Torricellia angulata var intermedia. Natural Prod. Res. 23: 1-4.

Liang, H.-X., & Tucker, S. C. 1990. Comparative study of the floral vasculature in Saururaceae. American J. Bot. 77: 607-623.

Liang, H.-x. [et al. 1996], Pan, K.-y., & Chen, Z.-D. 1996. Floral organogenesis in Saururus chinensis (Saururaceae). Acta Phytotax. Sinica 34: 565-568.

Liang, X.-Q. [et al. 2010], Wilde, V., Ferguson, D. K., Kvacek, Z., Ablaev, A. G., Wang, Y.-F., & Li, C.-S. 2010. Comptonia naumannii (Myricaceae) from the early Miocene of Weichang, China, and the palaeobiogeographical implication of the genus. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 163: 52-63.

Liao, C. [et al. 2013], Downie, S. R., Li, Q., Yu, Y., He, X., & Zhou, B. 2013. New insights into the phylogeny of Angelica and its allies (Apiaceae) with emphasis on east Asian species, inferred from nrDNA, cpDNA, and morphological evidence. Syst. Bot. 38: 266-281.

Liao, J.-P., & Wu, Q.-G. 2000. A preliminary study of the seed anatomy of Zingiberaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 134: 287-300.

Liao, J.-P. [et al. 2004], Tang, Y.-J., Ye, X.-L., & Wu, Q.-G. 2004. Seed anatomy of species in banana families of Zingiberales and its systematic significance. J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 12: 291-297. [In Chinese.]

Liao, W. F., & Xia, N. H. 2007. Phyllotaxis of vegetative shoots, lamina rotation and their systematic implication in Magnoliaceae. Nordic J. Bot. 25: 199-205.

Liben, L. 1971a. Révision du genre Africain Napoleonaea P. Beuav. (Lecythidaceae). Bull. Jard. National Belgique 41: 363-382.

Liben, L. 1971b. Lecythidaceae. Distrib. Plant. Africanarum 3: maps 81-89.

Lidahl, B. D., & Taylor, A. F. S. 2004. Occurrence of N-acetylhexosaminidase-encoding genes in ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes. New Phytol. 164: 193-199.

Lidahl, B. O. [et al. 2002], Taylor, A. F. S., & Finlay, R. D. 2002. Defining nutritional constraints on carbon cycling in boreal forests - towards a less 'phytocentric' perspective. Plant and Soil 242: 123-135.

Lidén, M. 1986. Synopsis of Fumarioideae (Fumariaceae) with a monograph of the tribe Fumarieae. Op. Bot. 88: 1-133.

Lidén, M. 1993. Fumariaceae, pp. 310-317, and Pteridophyllaceae, pp. 556, in Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., & Bittrich, V. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid families. Springer, Berlin.

Lidén, M. 2007. The genus Dionysia (Primulaceae), a synopsis and five new species. Willdenowia 37: 37-61.

Lidén, M. [et al. 1997], Fukuhara, T., Rylander, J., & Oxelman, B. 1997. Phylogeny and classification of Fumariaceae, with emphasis on Dicentra s.l. based on the plastid gene rps16 intron. Plant Syst. Evol. 206: 411-420.

Lidgard, S., & Crane, P. R. 1988. Quantitative analyses of the early angiosperm radiation. Nature 331: 344-346.

Liede, S. 2001. Subtribe Astephaninae (Apocynaceae-Aclepiadoideae) reconsidered: New evidence based on cpDNA spacers. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 657-668.

Liede, S., & Kunze, H. 1993. A descriptive system for corona analysis in Asclepiadaceae and Periplocaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 185: 275-284.

Liede, S., & Kunze, H. 2002. Cynanchum and Cynanchinae (Apocynaceae - Aclepiadoideae): A molecular, anatomical and latex triterpenoid study. Organisms Divers. Evol. 2: 239-269.

Liede, S., & Täuber, A. 2000. Sarcostemma R. Br. (Apocynaceae - Asclepiadoideae) - a controversial generic circumscription reconsidered: Evidence from trnL-F spacers. Plant Syst. Evol. 225: 133-140.

Liede, S., & Täuber, A. 2002. Circumscription of the genus Cynanchum (Apocynaceae-Sclepiadoideae). Syst. Bot. 27: 789-800.

Liede, S., & Weberling, F. 1995. On the inflorescence structure of Asclepiadaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 197: 99-109.

Liede, S. [et al. 2002], Täuber, A., & Schneidt, J. 2002. Molecular considerations in the Tylophorinae K. Schum. (Apocynaceae - Asclepiadoideae). Edinburgh J. Bot. 59: 377-403.

Liede-Schumann, S., & Hartmann, H. E. K. 2009. Mesembryanthemum - back to the roots? Taxon 58: 345-346.

Liede-Schumann, S. [et al. 2004], Rapini, A., Goyder, D. J., & Chase, M. W. 2004. Phylogenetics of the New World subtribes of Asclepiadeae (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae): Metastelmatinae, Oxypetalinae, and Gonolobinae. Syst. Bot. 30: 184-200.

Liede-Schumann, S. [et al. 2012], Kong, H., Meve, U., & Thiv, M. 2012. Vincetoxicum and Tylophora (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae: Asclepiadeae)-two sides of the same medal: Independent shifts from tropical to temperate habitats. Taxon 61: 803-825.

Liesche, J. [et al. 2011], Martens, H. J., & Schulz, A. 2011. Symplasmic transport and phloem loading in gymnosperm leaves. Protoplasma 248: 181-190.

Ligrone, R. [et al. 2000], Duckett, J. G., & Renzaglia, K. S. 2000. Conducting tissues and phyletic relationships of bryophytes. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B, 355: 795-813.

Ligrone, R. [et al. 2002], Vaughn, K. C., Renzaglia, K. S., Knox, J. P. & Duckett, J. G. 2002. Diversity in the distribution of polysaccharide and glycoprotein epitopes in the cell wall of bryophytes: New evidence for the multiple evolution of water-conducting cells. New Phytol. 156: 491-508.

Ligrone, R. [et al. 2007], Carafa, A., Lumini, E., Bianciotto, V., Bonfante, P., & Duckett, J. G. 2007. Glomeromycotan associations in liverworts: A molecular, cellular, and taxonomic analysis. American J. Bot. 94: 1756-1777.

Ligrone, R. [et al. 2012a], Duckett, J. G., & Renzaglia, K. S. 2012a. Major transitions in the evolution of early land plants: A bryological perspective. Ann. Bot. 119: 851-871.

Ligrone, R. [et al. 2012b], Duckett, J. G., & Renzaglia, K. S. 2012b. The origin of the sporophyte shoot in land plants: A bryological perspective. Ann. Bot. 110: 935-941.

Lihová, J., & Marhold, K. 2006. Phylogenetic and diversity patterns in Cardamine (Brassicaceae) - a genus with conspicuous polyploid and reticulate evolution. Pp. 149-186, in Sharma A. K., & Sharma, A. (eds), Plant Genome Biodiversity and Evolution. Volume 1, Part C. Phanerogams (Angiosperm-Dicotyledons). Science Publishers, Enfield, NH.

Lin, C.-P. [et al. 2010], Huang, J.-P., Wu, C.-S., Hsu, C.-Y., & Chaw, S.-M. 2010. Comparative chloroplast genomics reveals the evolution of Pinaceae genera and subfamilies. Genome Biol. Evol. 2: 504–517. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evq036, PMCID: PMC2997556

Lin, C.-P. [et al. 2012], Wu, C.-S., Huang, Y. Y., & Chaw, S.-M. 2012. The complete chloroplast genome of Ginkgo biloba reveals the mechanism of inverted repeat contraction. Genome Biol. Evol. 4: 374-381. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evqs021, PMCID: PMC3318433

Lin, I. W. [et al. 2014], Sosso, D., Chen, L.-Q., Gase, K., Kim, S.-G., Kessler, D., Klinkenberg, P. M., Gorder, M. K., Hou, B.-H., Qu, X.-Q., Carter, C. J., Baldwin, I. T., & Frommer, W. B. 2014. Nectar secretion requires sucrose phosphate synthases and the sugar transporter SWEET9. Nature 508: 546-549. doi: 10.1038/nature13082

Lin, M.-H. [et al. 2012], Gresshoff, P. M., & Ferguson, B. J. 2012. Systemic regulation of soybean nodulation by acidic growth conditions. Plant Physiol. 160: 2028-2039.

Lin, R.-Z. [et al. 2010], Zeng, J., & Chen, Z.-D. 2010. Organogenesis of reproductive structures in Betula alnoides (Betulaceae). Internat. J. Plant Sci. 171: 586-594.

Lindberg, A. B., & Olesen, J. M. 2001. The fragility of extreme specialization: Passiflora mixta and its pollinating hummingbird Ensifera ensifera. J. Trop. Ecol. 17: 323-329.

Lindblad, P. [et al. 1985], Bergman, B., Hofsten, A. V., Hällbom, & Nylund, J. E. 1985. The cyanobacterium-Zamia symbiosis: An ultrastructural study. New Phytol. 101: 707-716.

Lindenhofer, A., & Weber, A. 2000. Structural and developmental diversity in the androecium of Rosoideae (Rosaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 122: 63-91.

Linder, H. P. 1984. A phylogenetic classification of the genera of African Restionaceae. Bothalia 15: 11-76.

Linder, H. P. 1985. Conspectus of the African species of Restionaceae. Bothalia 15: 387-503.

Linder, H. P. 1998. Morphology and the evolution of wind pollination. Pp. 123-135, in Owens, S. J., & Rudall, P. J. (eds), Reproductive Biology in Systematics, Conservation, and Economic Botany. Royal Botanic Garden, Kew.

Linder, H. P. 2004. Stilbaceae. Pp. 433-440, in Kadereit, J. (ed)., The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. VII. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons. Lamiales (except Acanthaceae including Avicenniaceae). Springer, Berlin.

Linder, H. P. 2006. Melianthaceae. Pp. 250-259, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Volume IX. Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales.... Springer, Berlin.

Linder, H. P. 2008. Plant species radiations: Where, when, why? Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B, 363: 3097-3105.

Linder, H. P., & Caddick, L. R. 2001. Restoniaceae seedlings: Morphology, anatomy and systematic implications. Feddes Repert. 112: 59-80.

Linder, H. P., & Ferguson, I. K. 1985. On the pollen morphology and phylogeny of the Restionales and Poales. Grana 24: 65-76.

Linder, H. P., & Hardy, C. R. 2004. Evolution of the species-rich Cape flora. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B, 359: 1623-1632.

Linder, H. P., & Hardy, C. R. 2010. A generic classification of the Restioneae (Restionaceea), southern Africa. Bothalia 40: 1-35.

Linder, H. P., & Rudall, P. J. 1993. The megagametophyte in Anarthria (Anarthriaceae, Poales) and its implication for the phylogeny of the Poales. American J. Bot. 80: 1455-1464.

Linder, H. P., & Rudall, P. J. 2005. Evolutionary history of Poales. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 36: 107-124.

Linder, H. P. [et al. 1998], Briggs, B. G., & Johnson, L. A. S. 1998. Anarthriaceae, pp. 19-20, Ecdeiocoleaceae, 195-196, and Restionaceae, 425-44, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. IV. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae). Springer, Berlin.

Linder, H. P. [et al. 2000], Briggs, B. G., & Johnson, L. A. S. 2000. Restionaceae: A morphological phylogeny. Pp. 653-660, in Wilson, K. L., & Morrison, D. A. (eds), Monocots: Systematics and Evolution. CSIRO, Collingwood.

Linder, H. P. [et al. 2006], Diamini, T., Henning, J., & Verboom, G. A. 2006. The evolutionary history of Melianthus (Melianthaceae). American J. Bot. 93: 1052-1064.

Linder, H. P. [et al. 2010], Baeza, M., Barker, N. P., Galley, C., Humphreys, A. M., Lloyd, K. M., Orlovich, D,. A., Pirie, M. D., Simon, B. K., Walsh, N., & Verboom, G. A. 2010. A generic classification of the Danthonioideae (Poaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 97: 306-364.

Linder, H. P. [et al. 2012], de Klerk, H. M., Born, J., Burgess, N. D., Fjeldså, J., & Rahbek, C. 2012. The partitioning of Africa: Statistically defined biogeographical regions in sub-Saharan Africa. J. Biogeogr. 39: 1189-1205.

Linder, H. P. [et al. 2013], Antonelli, A., Humphreys, A. M., Pirie, M. D., & Wüest, R. O. 2013. What determines biogeographical ranges? Historical wanderings and ecological constraints in the danthonioid grasses. J. Biogeog. 40: 821-834.

Linder, H. P. [et al. 2014], Rabosky, D. L., Antonelli, A., Wüest, R. O., & Ohlemüller, R. 2014. Disentangling the influence of climate and geological changes on species radiations. J. Biogeog. 41: 1313-1325. doi: 10.1111/jbi.12312

Lindley, J. 1853. The Vegetable Kingdom; .... Bradbury & Evans, London.

Lindo, Z., & Gonzalez, A. 2010. The bryosphere: An integral and influential component of the earth's biosphere. Ecosystems 13: 612-627.

Lindo, Z. [et al. 2013], Nilsson, M.-C., & Gundale, M. J. 2013. Bryophyte-cyanobacteria associations as regulators of the northern latitude carbon balance in response to global change. Global Change Biol. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12175

Lindqvist, C., & Albert, V. A. 2002. Origin of the Hawaiian endemic mints within North American Stachys (Lamiaceae). American J. Bot. 89: 1709-1724.

Lindqvist, C. [et al. 2006], de Laet, J., Haynes, R. R., Aagesen, L., Keener, B. R., & Albert, V. A. 2006. Molecular phylogenetics of an aquatic plant lineage, Potamogetonaceae. Cladistics 22: 568-588.

Lindsey, A. H. 1984. Reproductive biology of Apiaceae. I. Floral visitors to Thaspium and Zizia and their importance in pollination. American J. Bot. 71: 375-387.

Lindsey, A. H., & Bell, C. R. 1985. Reproductive biology of Apiaceae. II. Cryptic specialization and floral evolution Thaspium and Zizia. American J. Bot. 72: 231-247.

Linsley, E. G. 1959. The ecology of soliraty bees. Hildegardia 27: 543-599.

Ling, H.-x. [et al. 1996], Pan, K.-y., & Chen, Z.-D. 1996. Floral organogenesis in Saururus chinensis (Saururaceae). Acta Phytotax. Sinica 34: 565-568.

Link, D. A. 1990. The nectaries of Geraniaceae. Pp. 217-224, in Vorster, P. (ed.), Proceedings of the International Geraniaceae Symposium. University of Stellenbosch, Republic of South Africa. [Reprinted 1994.]

Link, D. A. 1991a. The floral nectaries of Geraniales: III. Lepidobotryaceae. Bull. Jard. Bot. National Belgique 61: 347-354.

Link, D. A. 1991b. Dirachma somaliensis D. A. Link sp. nov. A new species of a remarkable and highly endangered monogeneric family. Bull. Jard. Bot. National Belgique 61: 3-13.

Link, D. A. 1992a. The floral nectaries in the Limnanthaceae [The floral nectaries of the Geraniales and their systematic implications. IV.]. Plant Syst. Evol. 179: 235-243.

Link, D. A. 1992b. The floral nectaries of the Geraniales and their systematic implications. IV. Ctenolophon Badre. Flora 187: 103-107.

Link, D. A. 1992c. The floral nectaries of the Geraniales and their systematic implications. VI. Ixonanthaceae Exell & Mendonca. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 114: 81-90.

Link, D. A. 1994. Dirachma Schweinf. (Dirachmaceae) a highly remarkable and endangered bispecific genus. Pp. 1229-1238, in Seyani, J. H., & Chikuni, A. C. (eds), Proceedings of the 13th Plenary Meeting of AETFAT, Zomba, Malawi, vol. 2. National Herbarium and Botanic Gardens of Malawi, Zomba.

Linkies, A. [et al. 2010], Graeber, K., Knight, C., & Leubner-Metger, G. 2010. The evolution of seeds. New Phytol. 186: 817-831.

Linsbauer, K. 1930. Die Epidermis. In Linsbauer, K. (ed.), Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie, Band 4, Lief. 27. Borntraeger, Berlin.

Linsley, E. G. [et al. 1973], MacSwain, J. W., Raven, P. H., & Thorp, R. W. 1973. Comparative behavior of bees and Onagraceae V. Camissonia and Oenothera bees in cismontane California and Baja California. Univ. California Publ. Entomol. 71: 1-68, pl. 1-6.

Linz, J. [et al. 2010], Stökl, J., Urru, I., Krügel, T., Stensmyr, M. C., & Hansson, B. S. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Arum (Araceae) inferred from multi-locus sequence data and AFLPs. Taxon 59: 405-415.

Liphschitz, N., & Waisel, Y. 1974. Existence of salt glands in various genera of the Gramineae. New Phytol. 73: 507-513.

Lipnerová, I. [et al. 2013], Bures, P., Horová, L., & Smarda, P. 2013. Evolution of genome size in Carex (Cyperaceae) in relation to chromosome number and genomic base complement. Ann. Bot. 79-94.

Lis-Balchin, M. (ed.). 2002. Geranium and Pelargonium: The Genera Geranium and Pelargonium. Taylor and Francis, London.

Lisci, M., Bianchini, M., & Pacini, E. 1996. Structure and function of the elaiosome in some angiosperm species. Flora 191: 131-141.

Liscombe, D. K., MacLeod, B. P., Loukanina, N., Nandi, O. I., & Facchini, P. J. 2005. Evidence for the monophyletic evolution of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in angiosperms. Phytochem. 66: 2500-2520. [Note: this is a corrected version of the article, first published in Phytochem. 66: 1374-1393.]

Liscovsky, I. J. [et al. 2009], Cosa, M. T., & Barboza, G. E. 2009. Flower vascularisation in Solanaceae: A particular pattern in Metternichia J. G. Mikan. Adansonia sér 3, 31: 413-425.

Liston, A. 1995. Use of the polymerase chain reaction to survey for the loss of the inverted repeat in the legume chloroplast genome. Pp. 31-40, in Crisp, M. D., & Doyle, J. J. (eds), Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 7: Phylogeny. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Liston, A. 1997. Biogeographic relationships between the Mediterranean and North American floras: Insights from molecular data. Lagascalia 19: 323-330.

Liston, A. 2003. A new interpretation of floral morphology in Garrya (Garryaceae). Taxon 52: 271-276.

Liston, A. [et al. 1989], Rieseberg, L. H., & Elias, T. S. 1989. Morphological stasis and molecular divergence in the intercontinental disjunct genus Datisca. Aliso 12: 525-542.

Liston, A. [et al. 2003], Gernandt, D. S., Vining, T. F., Campbell, C. S., & Piñero, D. 2006b. Molecular phylogeny of Pinaceae and Pinus. Pp. 107-114, in Mill, R. R. (ed.), IV International Conifer Conference. [ISIS Acta Horticulturae 615.]

Liston, A. [et al. 2006], Ellison, N., & Wlliams, W. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis and chromosome evolution in Trifolium (Leguminosae). P. 235, in Botany 2006 - Looking to the Future - Conserving the Past. [Abstracts: Botanical Society of America, etc.].

Litman, J. R. [et al. 2011], Danforth, B. N., Eardley, C. D., & Praz, C. J. 2011. Why do leafcutter bees cut leaves? New insights into the early evolution of bees. Proc. Royal Soc. B, 278: 3593-3600.

Litsios, G. [et al. 2013], Wüest, R. O., Kostikova, A., Forest, F., Lexer, C., Linder, H. P., Pearman, P. B., Zimmermann, N. E., & Salamin, N. 2014 [= 2013]. Effects of a fire response trait on doversification in replicated radiations. Evolution 68: 453-465.

Litt, A. J. 1999. Floral morphology and phylogeny of Vochysiaceae. Ph. D. Dissertation, City University of New York.

Litt, A. 2013. Comparative evolutionary genomics of land plants. Ann. Plant Rev. 45: 227-276.

Litt, A. J., & Chase, M. W. 1999. The systematic position of Euphronia, with comments on the position of Balanops: An analysis based on rbcL sequence data. Syst. Bot. 23: 401-409.

Litt, A. J., & Irish, V. F. 2004. Duplication and diversification of the APETALA1/FRUITFULL floral homeotic gene lineage: Implications for the evolution of floral development. Genetics 165: 821-833.

Litt, A. J., & Stevenson, D. W. 2003a. Floral development and morphology of Vochysiaceae. I. The structure of the gynoecium. American J. Bot. 90: 1533-1547.

Litt, A. J., & Stevenson, D. W. 2003b. Floral development and morphology of Vochysiaceae. II. The position of the single fertile stamen. American J. Bot. 90: 1548-1559.

Little, D. P. 2006. Evolution and circumscription of the true cypresses (Cupressaceae: Cupressus). Syst. Bot. 31: 461-480.

Little, D. P. [et al. 2004], Schwarzbach, A. E., Adams, R. P., & Hsieh, C.-F. 2004. The circumscription and phylogenetic relationships of Callitropsis and the newly-described genus Xanthocyparis. American J. Bot. 91: 1872-1881.

Little, S. A., & Stockey, R. A. 2006. Morphogenesis of the specialized peridermal tissues in Decodon allenbyensis from the Middle Eocene Princeton Chert. IAWA J. 27: 73-87.

Little, S. A. [et al. 2004], Stockey, R. A., & Keating, R. C. 2004. Duabanga-like leaves from the Middle Eocene Princeton chert and comparative leaf histology of Lythraceae sensu lato. American J. Bot. 91: 1126-1139.

Little, S. A. [et al. 2009], Stockey, R. A., & Penner, B. 2009. Anatomy and development of fruits of Lauraceae from the Middle Eocene Princeton chert. American J. Bot. 96: 637-651.

Little, S. A. [et al. 2010], Kembel, S. W., & Wilf, P. 2010. Paleotemperature proxies from leaf fossils reinterpreted in light of evolutionary history. PLoS ONE 5(12): e15161. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015161.

Little, S. A. [et al. 2013], Jacobs, B., McKechnie, S. J., Cooper, R. L., Christianson, M. L., & Jernstedt, J. A. 2013. Branch anatomy in Ginkgo biloba: Wood anatomy and long shoot-short shoot interactions. American J. Bot. 100: 1923-1935.

Liu, A.-Z. [et al. 2002], Kress, W. J., Wang, H., & Li, D.-Z. 2002. Insect pollination in Musella (Musaceae), a monotypic genus endemic to Yunnan, China. Plant Syst. Evol. 235: 135-146.

Liu, A.-Z. [et al. 2010], Kress, W. J., & Li, D.-Z. 2010. Phylogenetic analyses of the banana family (Musaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal (ITS) and chloroplast (trnL-F) evidence. Taxon 59: 20-28.

Liu, G. [et al. 2014], Cornwell, W. K., Pan, X., Cao, K., Ye, X., Huang, Z., Dong, M., & Cornelissen, J. H. C. 2014. Understanding the ecosystem implications of the angiosperm rise to dominance: Leaf litter decomposability among magnoliids and other basal angiosperms. J. Ecol. 102: 337–344. doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12192

Liu, H.-M. [et al. 2007], Zhang, X.-C., Wang, W., Qiu, Y.-L., & Chen, Z.-D. 2007. Molecular phylogeny of the fern family Dryopteridaceae inferred from chloroplast rbcL and atpB genes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 168: 1311-1323.

Liu, H.-M. [et al. 2013], Jiang, R.-H., Guo, J., Hovenkamp, P., Perrie, L. R., Shepherd, L., Hennequin, S., & Schneider, H. 2013. Towards a phylogenetic classification of the climbing fern genus Arthropteris. Taxon 62: 688-700.

Liu, J. [et al. 2012], Qi, Z.-C., Zhao, Y.-P., Fu, C.-X., & Xiang, Q.-Y. (J.). 2012. Complete cpDNA genome sequence of Smilax china and phylogenetic placement of Liliales - Influences of gene partitions and taxon sampling. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 64: 545-62.

Liu, J. Q. [et al. 2000], Chen, Z. D., & Lu, A. M. 2000. The phylogenetic relationships of the Qinghai-Tibet endemic Sinadoxa, revealed by ITS data. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 42: 301-308.

Liu, J. S., & Cheng, J. R. 1991. On the systematic position of genus Dipentodon Dunn. J. Wuhan Bot. Res. 9: 29-39, pl. 4. [In Chinese.}

Liu, J.-X. [et al. 2003], Xi, Y.-Z., Ning, J.-C., Sun, X.-H., Zhang, J.-M., & Li, Q. 2003. Pollen morphology of the subfamily Ehretioideae in the Boraginaceae from China and its systematic significance. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 41: 209-219. [In Chinese.]

Liu, J.-X. [et al. 2011], Zhang, J., Liu, H.-J., Wang, M., Chen, Z.-K., & Xi, Y.-Z. 2011. Anther structure and pollen morphology of Hosta Tratt. and its systematic significance. Plant Syst. Evol. 29&:n 253-260.

Liu, K.-M. [et al. 2002], Lei, L.-G., & Hu, G.-W. 2002. Developmental study on the inflorescence and flower of Caldesia grandis Samuel (Alismataceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 140: 39-47.

Liu, L. [et al. 2011], Zhao, B., Tan, D., & Wang, J. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships of Brassicaceae in China: Insights from a non-coding chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA set. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 39: 600-608.

Liu, M. [et al. 2003], van Wyk, B.-E., & Tilney, P. M. 2003. The taxonomic value of fruit structure in the subfamily Saniculoideae and related African genera (Apiaceae). Taxon 52: 261-270.

Liu, M. [et al. 2004], van Wyk, B.-E., & Tilney, P. M. 2004. Ontogeny of the fruits of two anomalous African woody genera, Polemanniopsis and Steganotaenia (Apiaceae), and their phylogenetic relationship. Edinburgh J. Bot. 60: 249-257.

Liu, M. [et al. 2006], Plunkett, G. M., Lowry, P. P. II, van Wyk, B.-E., & Tilney, P. M. 2006. The taxonomic value of fruit wing types in the order Apiales. American J. Bot. 93: 1357-1368.

Liu, M. [et al. 2007], van Wyk, B.-E., & Tilney, P. M. 2007. Irregular vittae and druse crystals in Steganotaenia fruit support a taxonomic affinity with the subfamily Saniculoideae (Apiaceae). South African J. Bot. 73: 252-255.

Liu, M. [et al. 2009], van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P. M., Plunkett, G. M., & Lowry, P. P. II. 2009. Evidence from fruit structure supports in general the circumscription of Apiaceae subfamily Azorelloideae. Plant Syst. Evol. 280: 1-13.

Liu, M. [et al. 2012a], Plunkett, G. M., Van Wyk, B. E., Tilney, P. M., & Lowry, P. P. II. 2012a. The phylogenetic significance of the carpophore in Apiaceae. Ann. Bot. 110: 1531-1543.

Liu, M. [et al. 2012b], van Wyk, B.-E., & Tilney, P. M. 2012b. Unusual carpological characters in Marlothiella gummifera (Apiaceae). South African J. Bot. 83: 19-22.

Liu, M.-L. [et al. 2013], Yu, W.-B., Li, D.-Z., Mill, R. R., & Wang, H. 2013. Seed morphological diversity of Pedicularis (Orobanchaceae) and its taxonomic significance. Plant Syst. Evol. 299: 1645-1657.

Liu, M. Q. [et al. 2009], Deng, M., & Zhou, Z. K. 2009. Taxonomic and ecological implications of leaf cuticular morphology in Castanopsis, Castanea, and Chrysolepis. Plant Syst. Evol. 283: 111-123.

Liu, Q. [et al. 2004], Zhao, N.-X., & Hao, G. 2004. Pollen morphology of the Chloridoideae (Gramineae). Grana 43: 238-248.

Liu, Q. [et al. 2005], Zhao, N.-X., & Hao, G. 2005. The phylogeny of the Chloridoideae (Gramineae): A cladistic analysis. J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 13: 432-442.

Liu, Q. [et al. 2010], Zhang, D. X., & Peterson, P. M. 2010. Lemma micromorphological characters in the Chloridoideae (Poaceae) optimized on a molecular phylogeny. South African J. Bot. 76: 196-209.

Liu, T., & Li, X.-X. 2010. Maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference and likelihood ratio tests in the molecular phylogeny of Alismatales. Guihaia 30: 796-804. [In Chinese.]

Liu, W., & Ni, X. 2013. Anatomy and development of gynoecium in Tapiscia sinensis. Front. Plant Evol. Develop. 4: 421. doi: 103389/fpls.2013.00421

Liu, W.-Z. [et al. 2008], Kang, H.-Q., Zheng, H.-C., & Feng, Y-Z. 2008. An investigation on the sexual reproductive cycle in Tapiscia sinensis. J. Syst. Evol. 46: 175-182. [In Chinese.]

Liu, X.-Q. [et al. 2012], Ickert-Bond, S. M., Chen, L.-Q., & Wen, J. 2013 [= 2012]. Molecular phylogeny of Cissus L. of Vitaceae (the grape family) and evolution of its pantropical intercontinental disjunctions. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 66: 43-53.

Liu, Y.-L. [et al. 2005], Xu, L.-M., Ni, X.-M., & Zhao, J.-R. 2005. Phylogeny of the Nymphaeaceae inferred from ITS sequences. Acta Phytotax. Sinica 43: 22-30. [In Chinese.]

Liu, Z. [et al. 2006], Hao, G., Luo, Y.-B., Thien, L. B., Rosso, S. W., Lu, A.-M., & Chen, Z.-D. 2006. Phylogeny and androecial evolution in Schisandraceae, inferred from sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and chloroplast DNA trnL-F regions. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 167: 539-550.

Liu, Z.-W. [et al. 2011], Wang, Z.-H., Zhou, J., & Peng, H. 2011. Phylogeny of Pyroleae (Ericaceae): Implications for character evolution. J. Plant. Res. 124: 325-337.

Livingston, D. P. III [et al. 2009], Hincha, D. K., & Heyer, A. G. 2009. Fructan and its relationship to abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Cell. Molec. Life Sci. 66: 2007-2023.

Livshultz, T. 2009. Phylogeny of crown clade Apocynaceae: Nuclear locus supports surprising milkweed sister group. P. 154, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Livshultz, T. 2010. The phylogenetic position of milkweeds (Apocynaceae subfamilies Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae): Evidence from the nucleus and chloroplast. Taxon 59: 1016-1030. [See also Supplement.]

Livshultz, T., & Kramer, E. 2009. Expression patterns of A- and C-class MADS-box genes identify the corona of Asclepias syriaca (Apocynaceae) as staminal appendages. Pp. 90-91, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Livschultz, T. [et al. 2007], Middleton, D. J., Endress, M. E., & Williams, J. K. 2007. Phylogeny of Apocynoideae and the APSA clade (Apocynaceae s.l.). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 94: 324-359.

Livshultz, T. [et al. 2011], Mead, J. V., Goyder, D. J., & Brannin, M. 2011. Climate niches of milkweeds with plesiomorphic traits (Secamonoideae; Apocynaceae) and the milkweed sister group link ancient African climates and floral evolution. American J. Bot. 98: 1966-1977.

Livschultz, T. [et al. 2013], Liede, S., Meve, U., Forster, P., & Wanntorp, L. 2013. Phylogeny of Marsdenieae (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) and circumscription of Marsdenia R. Br. based on chloroplast and nuclear loci. P. 218, in Botany 2013. Celebrating Diversity! July 27-31 - New Orleans. Abstracts.

Lizarazu, M. A. [et al. 2014], Nicola, M. V., & Salariato, D. L. 2014. Taxonomic re-evaluation of Panicum sections Tuerckheimiana and Valida (Poaceae: Panicoideae) using morphological and molecular data. Taxon 63: 265-274.

Lledó, M. D. [et al. 1998], Crespo, M. B., Cameron, K. M., Fay, M. F., & Chase, M. W. 1998. Systematics of Plumbaginaceae based on cladistic analysis of rbcL sequence data. Syst. Bot. 23: 21-29.

Lledó, M. D. [et al. 2001], Karis, P. O., Crespo, M. B., Fay, M. F., & Chase, M. W. 2001. Phylogenetic position and taxonomic status of the genus Aegialitis and subfamilies Staticoideae and Plumbaginoideae (Plumbaginaceae): Evidence from plastid DNA sequences and morphology. Plant Syst. Evol. 229: 107-124.

Lledó, M. D. [et al. 2004], Davis, A. P., Crespo, M. B., Chase, M. W., & Fay, M. F. 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of Leucojum and Galanthus (Amaryllidaceae) based on plastid matK and nuclear ribosomal spacer (ITS) DNA sequences and morphology. Plant Syst. Evol. 246: 223-243.

Lledó, M. D. [et al. 2005], Crespo, M. B., Fay, M. F., & Chase, M. W. 2005. Molecular phylogenetics of Limonium and related genera (Plumbaginaceae): Biogeographical and systematic implications. American J. Bot. 92: 1189-1198.

Lleras, E. 1976. Revision and taxonomic position of the genus Euphronia Martius ex Martius & Zuccarini (Vochysiaceae). Acta Amazonica 6: 43-47.

Lleras, E. 1978. Flora Neotropica Monograph No. 19. Trigoniaceae. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Lloyd, D. G., & Webb, C. J. 1992. The evolution of heterostyly. Pp. 151-178, in Barrett, S. C. H. (ed.), Evolution and Function of Heterostyly. Springer, Berlin.

Lloyd, F. E. 1899. The comparative embryology of the Rubiaceae. Part 1. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 8: 1-26, pl. 1-4.

Lloyd, F. E. 1902. The comparative embryology of the Rubiaceae. Part 2. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 8: 27-112, pl. 5-15.

Lloyd, F. E. 1942. The Carnivorous Plants. Chronica Botanica, Waltham, Massachusetts.

Lloyd, G. T. [et al. 2008], Davis, K. E., Pisani, D., Tarver, D. E., Ruta, M., Sakamoto, M., Hone, D. W. E., Jennings, R., & Benton, M. J. 2008. Dinosaurs and the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution. Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 275: 2483-2490.

Lloyd, J., & Farquhar, G. D. 1994. 13C discrimination during CO2 assimilation by the terrestrial biosphere. Oecologia 99: 201-215.

Lo, E. Y. Y., & Donoghue, M. J. 2012. Expanded phylogenetic and dating analyses of the apples and their relatives. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 63: 230-243.

Lo, E. Y. Y. [et al. 2007], Stefanović, S., & Dickinson, T. A. 2007. Molecular reappraisal of relationships between Crataegus and Mespilus (Rosaceae, Pyreae) - two genera or one? Syst. Bot. 32: 596-616.

Lo, E. Y. Y. [et al. 2009], Stefanović, S., Christensen, K. I., & Dickinson, T. A. 2009. Evidence for genetic association between East Asian and western North American Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) and rapid divergence of the eastern North American lineages based on multiple DNA sequences. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 51: 157-168.

Lobova, T. A. 1997. Seed morphology and anatomy in the genera Argophyllum and Corokia (Argophyllaceae). Bot. Zhurn. 82(9): 68-78. [In Russian.]

Lobova, T. A. [et al. 2009], Geiselman, C. K., & Mori, S. A. 2009. Seed Dispersal by Bats in the Neotropics. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, N.Y.

Lobreau-Callen, D. 1977. Les pollens des Celastrales: illustrations, commentaires. Ecole Pratique des Hautes Études, Institut de Montpellier, Montpellier.

Lobreau-Callen, D. 1980. Caractères comparés du pollen des Icacinaceae et des Olacaceae. Adansonia Sér. 2, 20: 29-89.

Lobreau-Callen, D. 1982. Structures et affinités polliniques des Cardiopterygaceae, Dipentodontaceae, Erythropalaceae et Octoknemataceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 103: 371-412.

Lobreau-Callen, D. 1989. Les Malpighiaceae et leurs pollinisateurs. Coadaptation ou coévolution. Bull. Mus. National Hist. Naturelle. Sect. B. Adansonia: Bot. Phytochim. 11: 79-94.

Lobreau-Callen, D. [et al. 1998], Le Thomas, A., & Suarez-Cuervera, M. 1998. Caractéres ultrastructuraux du pollen de quelques Podostémales. Affinités avec les Rosidae évoluées. Comtes Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris Sci. Viv. 321: 335-345.

Lobreau-Callen, D. [et al. 2000], Malécot, V., & Suarez-Cervera, M. 2000. Comparative structure of pollen from apetalous Crotonoideae and some other uniovulate Euphorbiaceae: Exine ultrastructure at the aperture. Pp. 301-324, in Harley, M. M., Morton, C. M., & Blackmore, S. (eds), Pollen and Spores: Morphology and Biology. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Lockhart, P. J., & Penny, D. 2005. The place of Amborella within the radiation of angiosperms. Trends Plant Sci. 10: 201-202.

Lockwood, J. D. [et al. 2013], Aleksic, J. M., Zou, J., Wang, J., Liu, J., & Renner, S. S. 2013. A new phylogeny for the genus Picea from plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear sequences. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 69: 717-727.

Loconte, H. 1993. Berberidaceae. Pp. 147-151, in Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J. G., & Bittrich, V. (eds), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants: Dicotyledons, Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families. Springer, Berlin.

Loconte, H., & Stevenson, D. W. 1990. Cladistics of the Spermatophyta. Brittonia 42: 197-211.

Loconte, H. [et al. 1995], Campbell, L. M., & Stevenson, D. W. 1995. Ordinal and familial relationships of Ranunculid genera. Pp. 99-118, in Jensen, U., & Kadereit, J. W. (eds.), Systematics and Evolution of the Ranunculiflorae. Springer, Vienna. [Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 9.]

Löfstrand, S. D. [et al. 2014], Krüger, Å., Razafimandimbison, S. G., & Bremer, B. 2014. Phylogeny and generic delimitations in the sister tribes Hymenodictyeae and Naucleeae (Rubiaceae). Syst. Bot. 39: 304-315.

Logacheva, M. D. [et al. 2008], Samigullin, T. H., Dhingra, A., & Penin, A. A. 2008. Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale - a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat. BMC Plant Biol. 2008, 8: 59.

Logacheva, M. D. [et al. 2010], Valiejo-Roman, C., Degtjareva, G. V., Stratton, J. M., Downie, S. R., Samigullin, T. H., & Pimenov, M. G. 2010. A comparison of nrDNA ITS and ETS loci for phylogenetic inference in the Umbelliferae: An example fom the tribe Tordylieae. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 57: 471-476.

Logacheva, M. D. [et al. 2014], Schelkunov, M. I., Nuraliev, M. S., Samigullin, T. H., & Penin, A. A. 2014. The plastid genome of mycoheterotrophic monocot Petrosavia stellaris exhibits both gene losses and multiple rearrangements. Genome Biol. Evol. 6: 238-246.Logan, K. J., & Thomas, B. A. 1985. Distribution of lignin derivatives in plants. New Phytol. 99: 571-585.

Lohmann, L. G. 2002. Phylogeny and morphological evolution of Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae). P. 134, in Botany 2002: Botany in the Curriculum, Abstracts. [Madison, Wisconsin.]

Lohmann, L. G. 2006. Untangling the phylogeny of neotropical lianas (Bignonieae, Bignoniaceae). American J. Bot. 93: 304-318.

Lohmann, L. G., & Taylor, C. M. 2014. A new generic classification of tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 99: 348-489.

Lohmann, L. G., & Ulloa, C. U. 2007. Bignoniaceae in iPlants Prototype Checklist.

Lohmann, L. G. [et al. 2012], Bell, C. D., Calió, M. F., & Winkworth, R. C. 2012. Pattern and timing of biogeographic history in the neotropical tribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 171: 154-170.

Löhne, C., & Borsch, T. 2005. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility of the petD group II intron: A case study in basal angiosperms. Mol. Biol. Evol. 22: 317-332.

Löhne, C. [et al. 2007], Borsch, T., & Wiersema, J. H. 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of Nymphaeales using fast-evolving and noncoding chloroplast markers. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 154: 141-163.

Löhne, C. [et al. 2008], Yoo, M.-J., Borsch, T., Wiersema, J. H., Wilde, V., Bell, C. D., Barthlott, W., Soltis, D. E., & Soltis, P. S. 2008. Biogeography of Nymphaeales: Extant patterns and historical events. Taxon 57: 1123-1146.

Löhne, C. [et al. 2009], Wiersema, J. H., & Borsch, T. 2009. The unusual Ondinea, actually just another Australian water-lily of Nymphaea subg. Anecphya (Nymphaeaceae). Willdenowia 39: 55-58.

Loivamäki, M. [et al. 2008], Mumm, R., Dicke, M., & Schnitzler, J.-P. 2008. Isoprene interferes with the attraction of bodyguards by herbaceous plants. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105: 17430-17435.

Loizeau, P.-A. [et al. 2005], Barriera, G., Manen, J.-F., & Broennimann, O. 2005. Towards an understanding of the distribution of Ilex L. (Aquifoliaceae) on a world-wide scale. Biol. Skr. 55: 501-520. [Pp. 501-520, in Friis, I., & Balslev, H. (eds), Proceedings of a Symposium on Plant Diversity and Complexity Patterns - Local, Regional and Global Dimensions. Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, Copenhagen.]

Lomáscolo, S. B. [et al. 2008], Speranza, P., & Kimball, R. T. 2008. Correlated evolution of fig size and color supports the disperser syndromes hypothesis. Oecologia 156: 783-796.

Lomáscolo, S. B. [et al. 2010], Levey, D. J., Kimball, R. T., Bolker, B. M., & Alborn, H. T. 2010. Dispersers shape fruit diversity in Ficus (Moraceae). Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107: 14668-14672.

Lombardi, J. A. 2000. Flora Neotropica Monograph 80. Vitaceae-Gêneros Ampelocissus, Ampelopsis e Cissus. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Lombello, R. A., & Forni-Martins, E. R. 1998. Chromosomal studies and evolution in Sapindaceae. Caryologia 51: 81-93.

Long, C. [et al. 2013], Aussagues, Y., Molinier, N., Marcourt, L., Vendier, L., Samson, A., Poughon, V., Chalo Mutiso, P. B., Ausseil, F., Sautel, F., Arimondo, P. B., & Massiot, G. 2013. Dichapetalins from Dichapetalum species and their cytotoxic properties. Phytochem. 94: 184-191.

Longino, J. T. 1991. Azteca ants in Cecropia trees: Taxonomy, colony structure, and behaviour. Pp. 271-288, in Huxley, C. R., & Cutler, D. F. (eds), Ant - Plant Interactions. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Longrich, N. R. [et al. 2011], Tokaryk, T., & Field, D. J. 2011. Mass extinction of birds at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108: 15253-15257.

Longrich, N. R. [et al. 2012], Bhullar, B.-A. S., & Gauthier, J. A. 2012. Mass extinction of lizards and snakes at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109: 21396-21401.

Looy, C. V. [et al. 1999], Brugman, W. A., Dilcher, D. L., & Visscher, H. 1999. The delayed resurgence of forests after the Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96: 13857-13862.

López, A., & Morrone, O. 2012. Phylogenetic studies in Axonopus (Poaceae, Panicoideae, Paniceae) and related genera: Morphology and molecular (nuclear and plastid) combined analyses. Syst. Biol. 37: 671-676.

Lopez, B. R. [et al. 2011], Bashan, Y., & Bacillo, M. 2011. Endophytic bacteria of Mammillaria fraileana, an endemic rock-colonizing cactus of the southern Sonoroan Desert. Arch. Microbiol. 193: 527-541.

López-Bucio, J. [et al. 2003], Cruz-Ramírez, A., & Herrera-Estrella, L. 2003. The role of nutrient availability in regulating root architecture. Curr. Opin. Plant biol. 6: 280-287.

López-Vinyallonga, S. [et al. 2009], Mehregan, I., Garcia-Jacas, N., Tscherneva, O., Susanna, A., & Kadereit, J. W. 2009. Phylogeny and evolution of the Arctium-Cousinia complex (Compositae, Cardueae-Carduinae). Taxon 58: 153-171.

Lopez-Vaamonde, C. [et al. 2001], Rasplus, J. Y., Weiblen, G. D., & Cook, J. M. 2001. Molecular phylogenies of fig wasps: Partial cocladogenesis between pollinators and parasites. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 21: 55-71.

Lopez-Vaamonde, C. [et al. 2003], Godfray, C., & Cook, J. M. 2003. Evolutionary dynamics of host-plant use in a genus of leaf mining moths. Evolution 57: 1804-1821.

Lopez-Vaamonde, C. [et al. 2006], Wikström, N., Labandeira, C., Godfray, H. C. J., Goodman, S. J., & Cook, J. M. 2006. Fossil calibrated molecular phylogenies reveal that leaf-mining moths radiated millions of years after their host plants. J. Evol. Biol. 19: 1314-1326.

Lopez-Vaamonde, C. [et al. 2009], Wikström, N., Kjer, K. M., Weiblen, G. D., Rasplus, J. Y., Machado, C. A., & Cook, J. M. 2009. Molecular dating and biogeography of fig-pollinating wasps. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 52: 715-727.

Lo Presti, R. M. [et al. 2010], Oppolzer, S., & Oberprieler, C. 2010. A molecular phylogeny and a revised classification of the Mediterranean genus Anthemis s.l. (Compositae, Anthemidae) based on threee molecular markers and micromorphological characters. Taxon 59: 1441-1456.

Lora, J. [et al. 2009a], Herrero, M., & Hormaza, J. I. 2009a. The coexistence of bicellular and tricellular pollen in Annona cherimola (Annonaceae): Implications for pollen evolution. American J. Bot. 96: 802-808.

Lora, J. [et al. 2009b], Testillano, P. S., Risueño, m. C., Hormaza, J. I., & Herrero, M. 2009b. Pollen development in Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae). Implications for the evolution of aggregated pollen. BMC Plant Biol. 9:129.

Lord, J. M. 2009. Comment: Clintonia's unique embryology not apomixis. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 170: 699.

Lord, J. M., & Westoby, M. 2012. Accessory costs of seed production and the evolution of angiosperms. Evolution 66: 200-210.

Lorence, A., & Nessler, C. L. 2004. Camptothecin, over four decades of surprising findings. Phytochem. 65: 2735-2749.

Lorence, D. H. 1985. A monograph of the Monimiaceae (Laurales) in the Malagasy region (southwest Indian Ocean). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 72: 1-165.

Lorenzen, E. D. [et al. 2011], Nogués-Bravo, D., Orlando, L., Weinstock, J., Binladen, J., Marske, K. A., Ugan, A., Borregaard, M. K., Gilbert, M. T. P., Nielsen, R., Ho, S. Y. W., Goebel, T., Graf, K. E., Byers, D., Stenderup, J. T., Rasmussen, M., Campos, P. F., Leonard, J. A., Koepfli, K.-P., Froese, D., Zazula, G., Stafford, T. W., Aaris-Sørensen, K., Batra, P., Haywood, A. M., Singarayer, J. S., Valdes, P. J., Boeskorov, G., Burns, J. A., Davydov, S. P., Haile, J., Jenkins, D. L., Kosintsev, P., Kuznetsova, T., Lai, X., Martin, L. D., McDonald, H. G., Mol, D., Meldgaard, M., Munch, K., Stephan, E., Sablin, M., Sommer, R. S., Sipko, T., Scott, E., Suchard, M. A., Tikhonov, A., Willerslev, R., Wayne, R. K., Cooper, A., Hofreiter, M., Sher, A., Shapiro, B., Rahbek, C., & Willerslev, E. 2011. Species-specific responses of Late Quaternary megafauna to climate and humans. Nature 479: 359-364.

Lorenzo, E. 1981. Sobre la inflorescencia, morfologia floral y embriologia de Janusia guaranitica (Malpighiaceae). Kurtziana 14: 101-124.

Loreto, F. [et al. 2009], Bagnoli, F., & Fineschi, S. 2009. One species, many terpenes: Matching chemical and biological diversity. Trends Plant Sci. 14: 416-420.

Lorts, C. M. [et al. 2008], Briggeman, T., & Sang, T. 2008. Evolution of fruit and seed dispersal: A phylogenetic and ecological snapshot. J. Syst. Evol. 46: 396-404.

Lotocka, B., & Osinska, E. 2010. Shoot anatomy and secretory structures in Hypericum species (Hypericaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 163: 70-86.

Lotova, L. I., & Timonin, A. C. 1998. Anatomy of cortex and secondary phloem of Rosaceae. 2. Spiraeoideae except Spiraeeae and Lyonothamneae. Bot. Zhurn. 83 (9): 14-27.

Lotova, L. I., & Timonin, A. C. 1998. 1999. Anatomy of cortex and secondary phloem in Rosaceae. 3. Quillajoideae. Bot. Zhurn. 84(2): 34-41.

Lotova, L. I., & Timonin, A. C. 1998. 2002. Anatomy of cortex and secondary phloem of Rosaceae. 13. Maloideae. Bot. Zhurn. 87(10): 31-53.

Lötscher, P. K. 1905. Über den Bau und die Funktion der Antipoden in der Angiospermen-Samenanlage. Flora 94: 213-262, pl. 1-2.

Lott, J. N. A. 1981. Protein bodies in seeds. Nordic J. Bot. 1: 421-432.

Lott, T. A. [et al. 1998], Manchester, S. R., & Dilcher, D. L. 1998. A unique and complete polemoniaceous plant from the middle Eocene of Utah, U.S.A.. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 104: 39-49.

Louis, S. [et al. 2007], Delobel, B., Gressent, B., Duport, G., Diol, O., Rahioui, I., Charles, H., & Rahbé, Y. 2007. Broad screening of the legume family for variability in seed insecticidal activities and for the occurence of the A1b-like knottin peptide entomotoxins. Phytochem. 68: 521-535.

Lourteig, A. 1965. On the systematic position of Alzataea verticillata R. & P. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 52: 371-378.

Lourteig, A. 1994. Lyallia kerguelensis Hook. f. and its artificial propagation. Pp. 321-327, in Behnke, H.-D., & Mabry, T. J. (eds), Caryophyllales: Evolution and Systematics. Springer, Berlin.

Lourteig, A. 2000. Oxalis L. subgéneros Monoxalis (Small) Lourt., Oxalis y Trifidus Lourt. Bradea 7: 201-629.

Löv, L. 1926. Zur Kenntnis der Entfaltungszellen monokotyler Blätter. Flora 120: 283-343.

Löve, Á, 1984. Conspectus of the Triticeae. Feddes Repert. 95: 425-451.

Lovis, D. J. 1977. Evolutionary patterns and processes in ferns. Pp. 229-440, in Preston, R. D., & Woolhouse, H. W. (eds), Adv. Bot. Res. 229-440. - check.

Lovisetto, A. [et al. 2011], Guzzo, F., Tadiello, A., Toffali, K., Favretto, A., & Casadoro, G. 2012 [= 2011]. Molecular analyses of MADS-box genes trace back to gymnosperms the invention of fleshy fruits. Mol. Biol. Evol. 29: 409-419.

Lovo, J. [et al. 2012], Winkworth, R. C., & Mello-Silva, R. 2012. New insights into Trimezieae (Iridaceae) phylogeny: What do molecular data tell us? Ann. Bot. 110: 689-702.

Löwe, S. A. [et al. 2013], Mohr, B. A. R., Coiffard, C., & Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M. E. C. 2013. Friedsellowia gracilifolia gen. nov. et sp. nov., a new gnetophyte from the Lower Cretaceous Crato formation (Brazil). Palaeontographica, Abt. B., Paläophytol 289: 139-177.

Lowry, P. P. Jr. 1986. A systematic study of Delarbrea Vieill. (Araliaceae). Allertonia 4: 169-201.

Lowry, P. P. II, & Plunkett, G. M. 2010. Recircumscription of Polyscias (Araliaceae) to include six related genera, with a new infrageneric classification and a synopsis of species. Plant Divers. Evol. 128: 55-84.

Lowry, P. P. Jr. [et al. 1987], Goldblatt, P., & Tobe, H. 1987. Notes on the floral biology, cytology, and embryology of Campynemanthe (Liliales: Campynemataceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74: 573-576.

Lowry, P. P. Jr. [et al. 2001], Plunkett, G. M., & Oskolski, A. A. 2001. Early lineages in Apiales: Insights from morphology, wood anatomy and molecular data. Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 207-220.

Lowry, P. P. Jr. [et al. 2003], Plunkett, G. M., & Wen, J. 2003. Generic relationships in Araliaceae: Looking into the crystal ball. South African J. Bot. 70: 382-392.

Lozana-Contreras, G. 1994. Duganiodendron y Talauma (Magnoliaceae) en el neotropico. Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional, Santafe de Bogota.

Lozana-Contreras, G., & de Lozano, N. B. 1988. Metteniusaceae. Pp. 1-53, in Pinto, P., & Lozano, G. (eds), Flora de Colombia, Monografia No. 11. Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

LPWG [Legume Phylogeny Working Group]. 2013. Legume phylogeny and classification in the 21st century: Progress, prospects and lessons for other species-rich clades. Taxon

Lu, A.-M. 1985. Embryology and probable relationships of Eriospermum (Eriospermaceae). Nordic J. Bot. 5: 229-240.

Lu, H.-F. [et al. 2008], Shen, J.-B., Lin, X.-Y., & Fu, J.-L. 2008. Relevance of Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and leaf anatomy for species classification in Camellia (Theaceae). Taxon 57: 1274-1288.

Lu, L[u]. [et al. 2007], Wang, H., Blackmore, S., Li, D. Z., & Dong, L. N. 2007. Pollen morphology of the tribe Rhinantheae (Orobanchaceae) and its systematic significance. Plant Syst. Evol. 268: 177-198.

Lu, L. [et al. 2009], Fritsch, P. W., Wang, H., Li, H.-T., Li, D.-Z., & Chen, J.-Q. 2009. Pollen morphology of Gaultheria and related genera of subfamily Vaccinioideae: Taxonomic and evolutionary significance. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 154: 106-123.

Lu, L. [et al. 2010a], Fritsch, P. W., Bush, C. M., Dong, L.-N., Li, H.-T., & Li, D.-Z. 2010a. Systematic implications of seed coat diversity in Gaultherieae (Ericaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 162: 477-495.

Lu, L. [et al. 2010b], Fritsch, P. W., Cruz, B. C., Wang, H., & Li, D.-Z. 2010b. Reticulate evolution, cryptic species, and character convergence in the core East Asian clade of Gaultheria (Ericaceae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 57: 364-379.

Lu, L[imin]. [et al. 2013], Wang, W., Chen, Z., & Wen, J. 2013. Phylogeny of the non-monophyletic Cayratia Juss. (Vitaceae) and implications for character evolution and biogeography. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 68: 502-515.

Lu, M. (R.) [et al. 2010], Plunkett, G. M., & Lowry, P. P. II. 2010. Fruit anatomy provides structural synapomorphies to help define Myodocarpaceae (Apiales). Syst. Bot. 35: 675-681.

Lu, P.-L., & Morden, C. 2010. Phylogenetics of the plant genera Dracaena and Pleomele (Asparagaceae). J. Plant Sci. 7: 64-72.

Lu, P.-L., & Morden, C. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships among Dracaena, Pleomele, and Sansevieria (Asparagaceae: Nolinoideae). P. 236, in Botany 2013. Celebrating Diversity! July 27-31 - New Orleans. Abstracts.

Lu, P.-L., & Morden, C. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships among dracaenoid genera (Asparagaceae: Nolinoideae) ninferred from chloroplast DNA loci. Syst. Bot. 39: 90-104.

Lubbock, J. 1881. On stipules, their form and function. J. Linnean Soc. London (Botany) 28: 217-243.

Lubbock, J. 1892. A Contribution to Our Knowledge of Seedlings. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., London

Lubbock, J. 1899. On Buds and Stipules. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., London.

Lucas, E. J. 2007. Myrtaceae. Pp. 225-226, in Heywood, V. H., Brummitt, R. K., Culham, A., & Seberg, O. (eds), Flowering Plant Families of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Lucas, E. J. [et al. 2005], Belsham, S. R., Nic Lughadha, E. M., Orlovich, D. A., Sakuragui, C. M., Chase, M. W., & Wilson, P. G. 2005. Phylogenetic patterns in fleshy-fruited Myrtaceae - preliminary molecular evidence. Plant Syst. Evol. 251: 31-51.

Lucas, E. J. [et al. 2007], Harris, S. A., Mazine, F. F., Belsham, S. R., Nic Lughadha, E. M., Telford, A., Gasson, P. E., & Chase, M. W. 2007. Suprageneric phylogenetics of Myrteae, the generically richest tribe in Myrtaceae (Myrtales). Taxon 56: 1105-1128.

Lucas, E. J. [et al. 2011], Matsumoto, K., Harris, S. A., Nic Lughadha, E. M., Bernadini, B., & Chase, M. W. 2011. Phylogenetics, morphology, and evolution of the large genus Myrcia s.l. (Myrtaceae). Internat. J. Plant Sci. 172: 915-934.

Lucero, L. E. [et al. 2014], Vegetti, A. C., & Reinheimer, R. 2014. Evolution and development of the spikelet and flower of Rhynchospora (Cyperaceae). Internat. J. Plant Sci. 175: 186-201.

Lück, J. [et al. 1990], Lück, H. B., & Bakkali, M. 1990. A comprehensive model for acrotonic, mesotonic and basitonic branchings in plants. Acta Biotheor. 38: 257-288.

Luckner, M., & Wichtl, M. 2000. Digitalis: Geschichte, Biologie, Biochemie, Chemie, Physiologie, Molekularbiologie, Pharmakologie, Medizinische Anwendung. Wissenschafliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart.

Luckow, M. [et al. 2003], Miller, J. T., Murphy, D. J., & Livshultz, T. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of the Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) based on chloroplast DNA sequence data. Pp. 197-220, in Klitgaard, B. B., & Bruneau, A. (eds), Advances in Legume Systematics, Part 10, Higher Level Systematics. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Luckow, M. [et al. 2005], Fortunato, R. H., Sede, S., & Livshultz, T. 2005. The phylogenetic affinities of two mysterious monotypic mimosoids from southern South America. Syst. Bot. 30: 585-602.

Ludwig, M. 2011a. The molecular evolution of ß-carbonic anhydrase in Flaveria. J. Experim. Bot. 62: 3071-3081.

Ludwig, M. 2011b. Carbonic anhydrase and the molecular evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Plant Cell Environ.

Ludwig, M. 2011c. The evolution of beta carbonic anhydrases in C4 plants. P. 128, in XVIII International Botanical Congress 2011, Melbourne. [Abstracts.]

Luebert, F., & Wen, J. 2008. Phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary diversification of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropaceae) in the Atacama desert. Syst. Bot. 33: 390-402.

Luebert, F. [et al. 2011a], Hilger, H. H., & Weigend, M. 2011a. Diversification in the Andes: Age and origins of South American Heliotropium lineages (Heliotropaceae, Boraginales). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 61: 90-102.

Luebert, F. [et l. 2011b], Brokamp, G., Wen, J. Weigend, M., & Hilger, H. H. 2011b. Phylogenetic relationships and morphological diversity in neotropical Heliotropium (Heliotropaceae). Taxon 60: 663-680.

Luer, C. A. 2006. Icones Pleurothallidinarum XXVIII. Reconsideration of Masdevallia, and the Systematics of Specklinia and Vegetatively Similar Genera. Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, MO. [Monographs in Systematic Botany, vol. 105.]

Lugardon, B., & Brousmiche-Delcambre, C. 1994. Exospore ultrastructure in Carboniferous sphenopsids. Pp. 53-66, in Kurmann, M. H., & Doyle, J. A. (eds), Ultrastructure of Fossil Spores and Pollen. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Lu-Irving, P. [et al. 2009], Marx, H., & Olmstead, R. 2009. Molecular systematics and character evolution in the Lantana-Lippia complex (Verbenaceae). P. 163, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Lu-Irving, P. [et al. 2014], O'Leary, N., O'Brien, A., & Olmstead, R. 2014. Resolving the genera Aloysia and Acantholippia within tribe Lantaneae (Verbenaceae), using chloroplast abnd nuclear sequences. Syst. Bot. 39: 644-655.

Luna, I., & Ochoterena, H. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of the genera of Theaceae based on morphology. Cladistics 20: 223-270.

Lunau, K. 2006. Stamens and mimic stamens as components of floral colour patterns. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 127: 13-41.

Lundberg, J. 2001a. The asteralean affinity of the Mauritian Roussea (Rousseaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 137: 267-276.

Lundberg, J. 2001b. Phylogenetic Studies in the Euasterids II with Particular Reference to Asterales and Escalloniaceae. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.

Lundberg, J. 2001c. Polyosmaceae. Chapter III, in Lundberg, J., Phylogenetic Studies in the Euasterids II with Particular Reference to Asterales and Escalloniaceae. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.

Lundberg, J. 2001d. Escalloniaceae. Chapter IV, in Lundberg, J., Phylogenetic Studies in the Euasterids II with Particular Reference to Asterales and Escalloniaceae. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.

Lundberg, J. 2001e. A well resolved and supported phylogeny of Euasterids II based on a Bayesian inference, with special emphasis on Escalloniaceae and other incertae sedis. Chapter V, in Lundberg, J., Phylogenetic Studies in the Euasterids II with Particular Reference to Asterales and Escalloniaceae. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.

Lundberg, J. 2009. Asteraceae and relationships in Asterales. Pp. 157-169, in Funk, V. A., Susanna, A., Stuessy, T. F. & Bayer, R. J. (eds), Systematics, Evolution, and Biogeography of Compositae. I.A.P.T.

Lundberg, J. & Bremer, K. 2001. A phylogenetic study of the order Asterales using one morphological and three molecular data sets. Chapter I, in Lundberg, J., Phylogenetic Studies in the Euasterids II with Particular Reference to Asterales and Escalloniaceae. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.

Lundberg, J. & Bremer, K. 2003. A phylogenetic study of the order Asterales using one morphological and three molecular data sets. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 164: 553-578.

Lundberg, M. [et al. 2009], Töpel, M., Eriksen, B., Nylander, J. A. A., & Eriksson, T. 2009. Allopolyploidy in Fragariinae (Rosaceae): Comparing four DNA sequence regions, with comments on classification. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 51: 269-280.

Luo, J., Yoshikawa, N., Hodson, M. C., & Hall, B. D. 2007. Duplication and paralog sorting of RPB2 and RPB1 genes in core eudicots. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 44: 850-862.

Luo, M. C. [et al. 2009], Deal, K. R., Akhunov, E. D., Akhunova, A. R., Anderson, O. D., Anderson, J. A., Blake, N., Clegg, M. T., Coleman-Derr, D., Conley, E. E., Crossman, C. C., Dubcovsky, J., Gill, B. S., Gu, Y. Q., Hadam, J., Heo, H., Huo, N., Lazo, G. R., Lundy, K. E., Ma, Y., Matthews, D. E., Mcguire, P. E., Morrell, P. L., Nicolet, C. M., Qualset, C. O., Renfro, J., Tabano, D., Talbert, L. E., Tian, A., Toleno, D. M., Warburton, M. L., You, F. M., Zhang, W. J., Dvorak, J. 2009. Genome comparisons reveal a dominant mechanism of chromosome number reduction in grasses and accelerated genome evolution in Triticeae. Proc. National Acad. Sci U.S.A. 106: 15780-15785.

Luo, S. [et al. 2011], Peng, J., Li, K., Wang, M., & Kuang, H. 2011. Contrasting evolutionary patterns of the Rp1 resistance gene family in different species of Poaceae. Mol. Biol. Evol. 28: 313-325.

Luo, Y. [et al. 2005], Zhang, F.-M., & Yang, Q.-E. 2005. Phylogeny of Aconitum subgenus Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) inferred from ITS sequences. Plant Syst. Evol. 252: 11-25.

Luo, Y. [et al. 2012], Bian, F.-H., & Luo, Y.-B. 2012. Different patterns of floral ontogeny in dimorphic flowers of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Caryophyllaceae). Internat. J. Plant Sci. 173: 150-160.

Lupia, R. [et al. 1999], Lidgard, S., & Crane, P. R. 1999. Comparing palynological abundance and diversity: Implications for biotic replacement during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation. Paleobiology 25: 305-340.

Luque Arias, R. [et al. 2006], Escalona, A., Hernández, C., & Estrada Sánchez, J. 2007. Anatomía de Melianthiaceae (s. l.) de Venezuela. Plantula 4: 1-21.

Lusk, C. H. [et al. 2007], Jiménez-Castillo, M., & Salazar-Ortega, N. 2007. Evidence that branches of evergreen angiosperm and coniferous trees differ in hydraulic conductance but not in Huber values. Canadian J. Bot. 85: 141-147.

Luteyn, J. L. (ed.) 1995. Flora neotropica Monograph 66. Ericaceae Part II. The Superior-Ovaried Genera. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Luteyn, J. L. 2000. Neotropical Blueberries: The Plant Family Ericaceae. http://www.nybg.org/bsci/res/lut2/.

Luteyn, J. L. 2002. Diversity, adaptation and endemism in neotropical Ericaceae: Biogeographical patterns in the Vaccinieae. Bot. Review 68: 55-87.

Luther, H. E., & Norton, K. F. 2008. Epiphytism in Bromeliaceae: A synopsis. Selbyana 29: 215-216.

Lüttge, U. 2004. Ecophysiology of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM). Ann. Bot. 93: 629-652.

Lüttge, U. 2005. Genotypes - phenotypes - ecotypes: Relations to Crassulacean Acid Metabolism. Nova Acta Leopoldina NF 92: 177-193.

Lüttge, U. (ed.). 2007. Clusia: A Woody Neotropical Genus of Remarkable Plasticity and Diversity. Springer, Berlin. [Ecol. Studies 194.]

Lüttge, U. 2013. Green nectaries: The role of photosynthesis in secretion. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 173: 1-11.

Lüttge, U. [et al. 2011], Beck, E., & Bertels, D. (eds). 2011. Plant Dessication Tolerance. Springer, Berlin. [Ecological Studies vol. 215.]

Luza, J. G., & Polito, V. S. 1991. Porogamy and chalazogamy in walnut (Juglans regia L.). Bot. Gaz. 152: 100-106.

Lyal, C. H. C., & Curran, L. M. 2003. More than black and white: A new genus of nanophyine seed predators of Dipterocarpaceae and a review of Meregallia Alonso-Zarazaga (Coleoptera: Curculionidea: Nanophyidae). J. Natural Hist. 37: 57-105.

Lyew, J. [et al. 2007], Li, Z., Yuan, L.-C., Luo, Y.-B., & Sage, T. L. 2007. Pollen tube growth in association with a dry-type stigmatic transmitting tissue and extragynoecial compitum in the basal angiosperm Kadsura longipedunculata. American J. Bot. 94: 1170-1182.

Lynch, A. H. [et al. 2001], Rudall, P. J., & Cutler, D. F. 2001. Leaf anatomy and systematics of Hyacinthaceae. Kew Bull. 61: 145-159.

Lynch, A. J. J. [et al. 1998], Barnes, R. W., Cambecedes, J., & Vaillancourt, R. E. 1998. Genetic evidence that Lomatia tasmanica (Proteaceae) is an ancient clone. Australian J. Bot. 46: 25-33.

Lynch, M., & Conery, J. S. 2000. The evolutionary fate and consequences of duplicate genes. Science 29: 1151-1155.

Lyons, E. [et al. 2008], Pedersen, B., Kane, J., & Freeling, M. 2008. The value of nonmodel genomes and an example using SynMap within CoGe to dissect the hexaploidy that predates the rosids. Trop. Plant Biol. 1: 181-190.

Lysack, M. A. [et al. 2005], Koch, M. A., Pecinka, A., & Schubert, I. 2005. Chromosome triplication across the tribe Brassiceae. Genome Res. 15: 516-525.

Lysack, M. A. [et al. 2006], Berr, A., Pecinka, A., Schmidt, R., McBreen, K., & Schubert, I. 2006. Mechanisms of chromosome number reduction in Arabidopsis thaliana and related Brassicaceae species. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103: 5224-5229.

Lysack, M. A. [et al. 2007], Cheung, K., Kitschke, M., & Bureŝ, P. 2007. Ancestral chromosome blocks are triplicated in Brassiceae species with varying chromosome number and genome size. Plant Physiol. 145: 402-410.

Lysack, M. A. [et al. 2009], Koch, M. A., Beaulieu, J. M., Meister, A., & Leitch, I. J. 2009. The dynamic ups and downs of chromosome size evolution in Brassicaceae. Mol. Biol. Evol. 26: 85-98.


[Back to Top]


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y |Z