www.mobot.org Research Home | Search | Contact | Site Map  
 
Research
W³TROPICOS
QUICK SEARCH

MO PROJECTS:
Africa
Asia/Pacific
Mesoamerica
North America
South America
Floras
General Taxonomy
Photo Essays
Training in Latin
  America

MO RESEARCH:
Wm. L. Brown Center
Bryology
GIS
Graduate Studies
Research Experiences
  for Undergraduates

Imaging Lab
Library
MBG Press
Publications
Climate Change
Catalog Fossil Plants
MO DATABASES:
W³MOST
Image Index
Rare Books
Angiosperm
  Phylogeny

Res Botanica
All Databases
INFORMATION:
What's New?
People at MO
Visitor's Guide
Herbarium
Jobs & Fellowships
Symposium
Research Links
Site Map
Search

Projects

Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana

<< Back

CLUSIACEAE

16. VISMIA Vand., Fl. Lusit. Bras. Spec. 51, t. 3, fig. 24. 1788.

by Norman K. B. Robson

Trees or shrubs, branches ± spreading, with simple trichomes at least inside petals, stellate or dendroid indumentum at least on vegetative buds, amber or reddish to blackish glands, and yellow to orange latex darkening to reddish on exposure. Stem internodes terete or irregularly angled. Leaves opposite, petiolate. Flowers ± numerous, usually in thyrsoid inflorescences, homostylous or heterostylous. Sepals 5, quincuncial; petals 5, white to yellow or green, internally whitish-villous. Stamen fascicles 5, antepetalous; filaments slender, connate more than half way; anthers small. Ovary 5-locular, placentation axile, usually many ovules per carpel; styles 5, spreading to ascending; stigmas broadly capitate. Fruit a berry. Seeds with small cotyledons.

Southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad-Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia; 65 species, 15 in Venezuela, 13 of these in the flora area.

Key to the Species of Vismia

1. Stamen fascicles persisting after petals fall ..... 2

1. Stamen fascicles deciduous with petals ..... 4

2(1). Lower surface of leaf blades chestnut- to cinnamon-tomentellous, the glands obscured; sepals persistently appressed-tomentellous ..... V. steyermarkii

2. Lower surface of leaf blades with distinct stellate to dendroid ferruginous trichomes, the glands clearly visible between; sepals with at least some spreading trichomes ..... 3

3(2). Young stems and inflorescence axes densely to sparsely appressed-tomentose, sometimes glabrescent; flower buds ellipsoid to cylindric, grayish-papillose with scattered ferruginous trichomes; inflorescence broadly pyramidal; leaf base cordate to rounded ..... V. macrophylla

3. Young stems and inflorescence axes densely spreading-tomentose; flower buds obovoid with spreading rufous trichomes; inflorescence narrowly pyramidal; leaf base usually rounded to cuneate ..... V. sandwithii

4(1). Petals with punctiform glands only; sepals usually reflexed in fruit; mature leaves glabrous on lower surface, the glands ± visible ..... 5

4. Petals with linear glands or apparently eglandular; sepals usually erect to spreading in fruit; mature leaves usually tomentellous on lower surface, the glands rarely visible ..... 8

5(4). Sepals densely reddish brown-tomentellous, ascending to spreading in fruit; leaf blades mostly 6.5-9.5 cm wide with large and small glands ..... V. sessilifolia

5. Sepals sparsely stellate-puberulous (at least when young) or glabrous, reflexed in fruit; leaf blades either narrower (2-6 cm wide) or with small glands only ..... 6

6(5). Sepals glabrous or with a few stellate trichomes; lower surface of leaves red-brown with dense, small gland dots; fruits globose ..... V. sprucei

6. Sepals sparsely stellate-puberulous; lower surface of leaves pale green with a large gland in each venation areole, sometimes with less obvious smaller glands; fruits ellipsoid to cylindric ..... 7

7(6). Leaves with 11 or 12 pairs of secondary veins, the intersecondaries less prominent or absent, the base cuneate; fruits ellipsoid to cylindric ..... V. cayennensis

7. Leaves with 12-24 pairs of secondary veins, the intersecondaries almost equally prominent, the base rounded to subangustate; fruits ovoid-cylindric to cylindric ..... V. tenuinervia

8(4). Outer sepals ovate-deltoid to ovate; sepals 8-10 mm long; lower surface of leaves tawny- to mustard-tomentellous ..... V. japurensis

8. Outer sepals oblong to elliptic or lanceolate; sepals 4-8 mm long; lower surface of leaves variously tomentellous ..... 9

9(8). Lower surface of leaves reddish brown; sepals and pericarp coriaceous ..... V. schultesii

9. Lower surface of leaves ferruginous or fawn to whitish or green; sepals chartaceous to coriaceous, pericarp thin ..... 10

10(9). Petals with broad linear glands; leaves often glabrescent ..... 11

10. Petals apparently eglandular (except subapically) or with narrow linear glands (sometimes interrupted); lower surface of leaves persistently tomentellous ..... 12

11(10). Sepals and lower surface of leaves chestnut- to ferruginous-tomentellous or -pubescent; leaves ovate or ovate-oblong to lanceolate, the apex straight; fruits 12-15 mm long with sepals appressed ..... V. lauriformis

11. Sepals and lower surface of leaves fulvous- to ferruginous-tomentellous; leaves triangular-lanceolate to lanceolate or narrowly oblong, the apex often falcate; fruits 10-12 mm long with sepals often spreading to subreflexed ..... V. laxiflora

12(10). Leaf blades mostly ovate or triangular-ovate to oblong; petals 7-11 mm long, yellowish; sepals spreading to reflexed in fruit, oblong to lanceolate ..... V. baccifera

12. Leaf blades lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate to elliptic; petals 6-7 mm long, mostly green to white; sepals appressed in fruit, ovate-oblong to oblong ..... V. guianensis

Vismia baccifera (L.) Triana & Planch., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. sér. 4, 17: 298. 1862. -Hypericum bacciferum L., Mant. Pl. 3: 277. 1771.

Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia; 2 subspecies, both in Venezuela, 1 of these in the flora area.

V. baccifera subsp. dealbata (H.B.K.) Ewan, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 35: 334. 1962. -Vismia dealbata H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. (quarto ed.) 5: 184, t. 454. 1821 [1822].
Vismia confertiflora auct. non Spruce ex Reichardt 1878: sensu Ewan, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 35: 356. 1962.

Tree 3-15(-22) m tall; branches densely ferruginous-tomentellous; leaves with petiole 15-25 mm long; blade 10-21 cm long, ovate or triangular-ovate to oblong or lanceolate, subcoriaceous to chartaceous; petals 7-11 mm long, ca. 1.5 times the length of the sepals, narrowly obovate to oblanceolate; fruits green, sometimes tinged purple when ripe, (9-)10-11(-14) mm long. Evergreen lowland to montane forests, 100-1300 m; Bolívar (La Escalera), Amazonas (banks of Río Casiquiare and Río Negro). Northwestern Venezuela; other countries as in the species entry.

Vismia cayennensis (Jacq.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 86. 1807. -Hypericum cayennensis Jacq., Enum. Syst. Pl. 28. 1760. -Lacre, Lacre blanco, Palo de gallineta.

Shrub or tree 2-15(-25) m tall; branches soon glabrous; petiole 4-10 mm long; blade 5-11.5 cm long, broadly to narrowly elliptic or oblong-elliptic to lanceolate or ovate or oblanceolate; petals 8-9 mm long, 1.2-1.5 times the sepals, oblanceolate-spathulate to oblanceolate; fruits 10-15 mm long. Forest edges, savannas, semideciduous and evergreen lowland to lower montane forests, 100-1000 m; widespread in Delta Amacuro, Bolívar, and Amazonas. Southeastern Apure, Monagas; Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, northeastern Brazil.

Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Choisy, Prodr. Monogr. Hypéric. 34. 1821. -Hypericum guianense Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 784, t. 311. 1775. -Lacre, Lacre hoja fina, Onotillo, Uadama.

Hypericum acuminatum Lam., Encycl. 4: 150. 1797. -Vismia acuminata (Lam.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 86. 1807. -Vismia guianensis var. acuminata (Lam.) M.E. Berg, Bol. Mus. Paraense Emilio Goeldi, n.s., Bot. 40: 7. 1971.

Vismia caparosa H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. (quarto ed.) 5: 182. 1821 [1822].

Vismia ferruginea H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. (quarto ed.) 5: 183. 1821 [1822].

Tree or rarely a shrub 2-15(-25) m tall; young branches densely ferruginous to brown-tomentellous; petiole 7-20 mm long; blade 4-15 cm long, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or more rarely elliptic, subcoriaceous; petals 6-7 mm long, ca. 1.2 times the sepals, obovate; fruits green to yellow-green, ca. 10 mm long. Evergreen lowland to montane forests, savanna scrub, 50-1400 m; southern Delta Amacuro, widespread in Bolívar and Amazonas. Barinas, Miranda, Monagas, Sucre; Trinidad, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, northeastern Brazil. Fig. 231.

Vismia japurensis Reichardt in Mart., Fl. Bras. 12(1): 209, t. 39. 1878. -Lacre amarillo, Lacre hoja gruesa, Lacre hoja larga, Raia'are, Waasanokua (Yekwana).

Tree or more rarely a shrub (1.5-)3-10 m tall; young branches densely chocolate-tomentellous; petiole 13-30 mm long; blade (1.2-)1.4-2.2 m long, broadly ovate to lanceolate, coriaceous; petals 12-15 mm long, obovate; fruits dark purple, 10-17 mm long. Evergreen lowland to lower montane forests, gallery forests, savannas, often on white sand, granitic outcrops, 50-1000 m; Bolívar (El Dorado, between Icabarú and Los Caribes, Río Tabaro in Río Nichare basin, Serranía de los Pijiguaos), Amazonas (Caño Caname, Caño Ucata, Río Casiquiare, Río Coromoto, Río Guayapo, Río Mawarinuma, San Antonio, San Carlos de Río Negro). Apure; Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, Ecuador, Amazonian Brazil. Fig. 233.

Vismia lauriformis (Lam.) Choisy, Prodr. Monogr. Hypéric. 35. 1821. -Hypericum lauriforme Lam., Encycl. 4: 152. 1797.

Tree 4-15(-25) m tall; young branches densely chestnut-brown, tomentellous; petiole (15-)20-35 mm long; blade (7-)10-20 cm long, broadly ovate or broadly ovate-oblong to lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, subcoriaceous; petals 9-10 mm long, 1.2-1.5 times the sepals, obovate to elliptic-obovate; fruits green, 12-15 mm long. Evergreen montane forests, 900-1800 m; Bolívar (Macizo del Chimantá [Amurí-tepui], Sierra de Lema). Táchira; Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia. Fig. 230.

Vismia laxiflora Reichardt in Mart., Fl. Bras. 12(1): 203. 1878. -Lacre, Lacre amarillo, Sangrito.

Vismia angustifolia Rusby, Descr. S. Amer. Pl. 59. 1920.

Vismia falcata Rusby, Descr. S. Amer. Pl. 59. 1920.

Tree or shrub (1-)3-12(-20) m tall; branches densely ferruginous, tomentellous; petiole 10-22 mm long; blade 10-20 cm long, triangular-lanceolate or lanceolate or narrowly oblong, chartaceous; petals 8-9 mm long, ca. 1.5 times the sepals, obovate to oblanceolate; fruits ca. 10-12 mm long. Evergreen lowland to lower montane forests, forest edges, moist savannas, 0-800 m; Delta Amacuro (Caño Orocoima), northern and eastern Bolívar, eastern Amazonas. Anzoátegui, Guárico, Sucre; Amazonian Colombia, Trinidad-Tobago, northwestern Guyana, Brazil (Roraima). Fig. 232.

Vismia macrophylla H.B.K., Nov. Gen. Sp. (quarto ed.) 5: 184. 1821 [1822]. -Dausimo, Lacre.

Vismia angusta Miq., Linnaea 18: 27. 1844.

Tree or rarely a shrub 2-25(-43) m tall; branches densely to sparsely appressed, ferruginous-tomentose, grayish in age, glabrescent; petiole 10-25 mm long; blade 10-40 cm long, ovate to lanceolate or narrowly oblong, coriaceous to subcoriaceous; petals 10-13 mm long, ca. 2 times the sepals, narrowly oblong-lanceolate; fruits green to olive-brown or reddish, 12-14 mm long. Riparian and evergreen lowland to lower montane, 0-600 m; widespread in Delta Amacuro, Bolívar, and Amazonas. Apure, Táchira, Zulia; Central America, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Amazonian Brazil, Bolivia. Fig. 235.

Vismia sandwithii Ewan, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 35: 309. 1962. -Lacre.

Shrub or tree 1.5-10 m tall; branches densely ferruginous or rufous velutinous-tomentose; petiole 8-20(-25) mm long; blade 12-30(-38) cm long, elliptic to narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, coriaceous to subcoriaceous; petals 6-8 mm long, ca. 1.3-1.5 times the sepals, narrowly oblanceolate to oblong-spathulate; fruits purplish brown to grayish green, 7-8 mm long. Evergreen lowland to montane forests, 100-1300 m; southern Amazonas (Río Siapa, Sierra Parima). Amazonian Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Ecuador, Brazil (Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Roraima).

Vismia schultesii N. Robson, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 410. 1990.

Vismia tomentosa auct. non Ruiz & Pav. 1798: sensu Ewan in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 35: 343. 1962, pro parte.

Tree 3-14 m tall; young branches densely dark chocolate-tomentellous; petiole 10-20 mm long; blade (10-)14-28 cm long, broadly ovate or ovate-oblong to oblong or rarely lanceolate, coriaceous; petals 8-10 mm long, 1.2-1.3 times the sepals, obovate; fruits (immature) green, 10 mm long. Poorly drained white sand and quartzite in gallery forests, 50-200 m; Amazonas (Río Emoni in lower Río Siapa basin). Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil (Amazonas, Pará, RondŁnia).

Vismia sessilifolia (Aubl.) Choisy in DC., Prodr. 1: 542. 1824. -Hypericum sessilifolium Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 787, t. 312, fig. 2. 1775. -Vismia cayennensis var. sessilifolia (Aubl.) M.E. Berg, Acta Amazon. 4: 16. 1974.

Hypericum rufescens Lam., Encycl. 4: 150. 1797. -Vismia rufescens (Lam.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 86. 1806.

Shrub or tree 2-15 m tall; branches densely chestnut-tomentellous at first, soon glabrous; leaves subsessile or with petiole to 10 mm long; blade 10.5-22 cm long, elliptic to lanceolate-oblong, softly chartaceous; petals 9-12 mm long, ca. twice as long as the sepals, oblanceolate; fruits light cream-colored, ca. 15 mm long. Riparian forests, ca. 50 m; Bolívar (Ciudad Bolívar). Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil (Amapá, Pará).

Vismia sessilifolia has been found only once in Venezuela, by Humboldt and Bonpland in 1800.

Vismia sprucei Sprague, Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 22: 428. 1905. -Chiaperu, Lacre.

Shrub or tree 2-15 m tall; branches rather sparsely subappressed fawn-puberulous at first, soon glabrous; petiole 7-15 mm long; blade (5.5-)8-19 cm long, broadly to narrowly elliptic or oblong-elliptic, chartaceous; petals 8-10 mm long, 1.2-1.4 times the sepals, oblanceolate-spathulate; fruits dark red, 8-12 mm long, ovoid-globose to globose. Evergreen lowland forests, shrub savannas, 100-200 m; Amazonas (near San Carlos de Río Negro). Colombia (coastal and Amazonian), Amazonian Ecuador, Amazonian Peru, western Brazil, Amazonian Bolivia.

Vismia steyermarkii N. Robson, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 411. 1990.

Tree 3-5 m tall; young branches densely chocolate-tomentellous; petiole 8-15 mm long; blade (9.5-)11-18 cm long, elliptic, or more rarely elliptic-lanceolate, subcoriaceous; petals 7-8(?-9) mm long, 1.2-1.4 times the sepals, oblanceolate; fruits (immature) green, 8 mm long. Lower montane to montane forests, 500-1100(-1300) m; eastern Bolívar (northern Gran Sabana, La Escalera). Endemic.

Vismia tenuinervia (M.E. Berg) N. Robson, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 411. 1990. -Vismia cayennensis var. tenuinervia M.E. Berg, Acta Amazon. 4: 16. 1974. -Lacre blanco.

Tree 2-16(-30) m tall; branches sparsely appressed golden- to brown-puberulous at first, very soon glabrous; petiole 7-12 mm long; blade 6.5-12(-15.5) cm long, oblong to elliptic or lanceolate, chartaceous; petals 8-11 mm long, ca. 1.35 times the sepals, oblanceolate to narrowly oblong; fruits red, 10-15 mm long. Gallery forests, disturbed evergreen lowland forests, 50-200 m; Amazonas (base of Cerro Duida, Río Negro, Río Orinoco and its tributaries). Apure; Colombia (Río Guainía), Amazonian Brazil. Fig. 234.

TOP

Scientific Comments:
Paul Berry (peberry@facstaff.wisc.edu) or Kay Yatskievych (kay.yatskievych@mobot.org).

 
 
© 1995-2014 Missouri Botanical Garden, All Rights Reserved
P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299
(314) 577-5100

E-mail
Technical Support