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Table 1. Morphological and anatomical comparison of Canastra with related taxa of Paniceae.

Taxon CharactersCanastraArthropogonAltoparadisiumHomolepisStreptostachys asperifoliaPanicum sect. LaxaPanicum sect. LoreaPanicum sect. PrionitiaAchlaena
Anatomical type C3 C4 MS C4 MS C3 C3 C3 C3 C4 MS C4 MS
Fusoid cells present absentabsentpresent present present absent absent absent
Distinctive Kranz Cells absent absent present absent absent absent absent absent present
Compression of the spikelet dorsiventral lateral dorsiventral dorsiventral dorsiventral dorsiventral dorsiventral dorsiventral lateral
Hairy callus absent present present absent absent absent absent absent present
Stipe absent absent absent absent present, and torose absent absent absent present, and pointed
Lower glume (LG) awned awned absent or awned muticous muticous muticous muticous muticous awned
Relative length of the LG relative to spikelet 1/3 1/2-3/4 absent or reduced 1/1 2/3-4/5 1/3-2/4 1/2-4/5 1/2-3/4 reduced
Nervation of LG 1-nerved 3-nerved 1-nerved 5-9-nerved 5-7-nerved 1-3-nerved 1-5-nerved 3-nerved 1-nerved
Upper glume (UG) awned awned awned muticous muticous muticous muticous muticous awned
Texture of UG herbaceous coriaceous herbaceous herbaceous herbaceous herbaceous herbaceous herbaceous coriaceous
Lower flower present present absent present or absent absent present or absent present or absent present absent
Upper anthecium cartilaginious hyaline hyaline indurated indurated membranous to indurateindurate indurate hyaline
Hilum punctiformpunctiformpunctiformlinear 1/1linear 1/1punctiformpunctiformpunctiformpunctiform

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