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Articles or books by two or more authors are cited as follows. When there are two authors, citation is alphabetical after the second author's name. When there are three or more authors, references are cited in the body of the text as (e.g.) Chase et al. 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, and are listed following these sometimes alphabetically qualified dates of publication immediately after all the single- or two-authored articles by the first author.

Qi, X. S. [et al. 2012], Chen, C., Comes, H. P., Sakagushi, S., Liu, Y.-H., Tanaka, N., Sakio, H. & Qiu, Y.-X. 2012. Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal a highly dynamic evolutionary history of the East Asian Tertiary relict Cercidiphyllum (Cercidiphyllaceae). New Phytol. 196: 617–630.

Qi, Z. [et al. 2012], Li, P., Zhao, Y., Cameron, K., & Fu, C. 2012. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Smilacaceae (Liliales), a cosmopolitan family of monocots. P. 197, in Botany 2012: The Next Generation. July 7-11 - Columbus, Ohio. Abstracts.

Qi, Z. [et al. 2013], Cameron, K. M., Li, P., Zhao, Y., Chen, S., Chen, G., & Fu, C. 2013. Phylogenetics, character evolution, and distribution patterns of the greenbriers, Smilacaceae (Liliales), a near cosmopolitan family of monocots. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 173: 535-548.

Qian, H. 2014. Contrasting relationships between clade age and temperature along latitudinal versus elevational gradients for woody angiosperms in forests of South America. J. Vegetat. Sci. 25: 1208–1215. doi: 10.1111/jvs.12175

Qian, H., & Ricklefs, R. E. 2004. Taxon richness and climate in angiosperms: Is there a globally consistent relationship that precludes region effects? American Naturalist 163: 773-779 [see Electronic Appendix for plant distributions].

Qian, H., & Ricklefs, R. E. 2016. Out of the tropical lowlands: Latitude versus elevantion. Trends Ecol. Evol.31: 738-741.

Qian, H., & Zhang, J. 2014. Using an updated time-calibrated family-level phylogeny of seed plants to test for non-random patterns of life forms across the phylogeny. J. Syst. Evol. 52: 423-430.

Qiu, H., & Gilbert, M. G. 2003. Loranthaceae. Pp. 220-239, in Wu, Z., Raven, P. H., et al. (eds), Flora of China. 5. Ulmaceae through Basellaceae. Science Press, Beijing.

Qin, H.-N. 1998. A taxonomic revision of the Lardizabalaceae. Cathaya 8-9: 1-214.

Qiu, J. 2016. Trouble in Tibet. Nature 529: 142-145.

Qiu, R.-L. [et al. 2012], Tang, Y.-T., Zeng, X.-W., Thangavel, P., Tang, L., Gan, Y.-Y., Ying, R.-R., & Wang, S.-Z. 2012. Mechanisms of Cd hyperaccumulation and detoxification in heavy metal hyperaccumulators: How plants cope with Cd. Prog. Bot. 73: 127-.

Qiu, Y. [et al. 2014], Filipenko, S. J., Darracq, A., & Adams, K. L. 2014. Expression of a transferred nuclear gene in a mitochondrial genome. Curr. Plant Biol. 1: 68-72.

Qiu, Y. L., & Estabrook, G. F. 2008. Inference of phylogenetic relationships among key angiosperm lineages using a compatabilty method on a molecular data set. J. Syst. Evol. 46: 130-141.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1995], Chase, M. W., & Parks, C. R. 1995. A chloroplast DNA phylogenetic study of the eastern Asia - east North America disjunct section Rhytidospermum of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae). American J. Bot. 82: 1582-1588.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1998a], Chase, M. W., Hoot, S. B., Conti, E., Crane, P. R., Sytsma, K. J., & Parks, C. R. 1998a. Phylogenetics of the Hamamelidae and their allies: Parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 159: 891-905.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1998b], Cho, Y., Cox, J. C., & Palmer, J. D. 1998b. The gain of three mitochondrial introns identifies liverworts as the earliest land plants. Nature 394: 671-674.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 1999], Lee, J., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Zimmer, E. A., Chen, Z., Savolainen, V., & Chase, M. W. 1999. The earliest angiosperms: Evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genes. Nature 402: 404-407.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2000], Lee, J., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Zimmer, E. A., Chen, Z., Savolainen, V., & Chase, M. W. 2000. Phylogeny of basal angiosperms: Analyses of five genes from three genomes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 161(6: suppl. [Current Perspectives on Basal Angiosperms]): S3-S27.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2001], Lee, J., Whitlock, B. A., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., & Dombrovska, O. 2001. Was the ANITA rooting of the angiosperm phylogeny affected by long-branch attraction? Mol. Biol. Evol. 18: 1745-1753.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2005], Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Li, L., Whitlock, B. A., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F., Rest, J. S., Davis, C. C., Borsch, T., Hilu, K. W., Renner, S. S., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., Zanis, M. J., Cannone, J. J., Gutell, R. R., Powell, M., Savolainen, V., Chatrou, L. W., & Chase, M. W. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of basal angiosperms based on nine plastid mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 166: 815-842.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2006a], Li, L., Wang, B., Chen, Z., Knoop, V., Groth-Malonek, M., Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Kent, L., Rest, J. S., Estabrook, G. F., Hendry, T. A., Taylor, D. W., Testa, C. M., Ambros, M., Crandall-Stotler, B., Duff, R. J., Stech, M., Frey, W., Quandt, D., & Davis, C. C. 2006a. The deepest divergences in land plants inferred from phylogenomic evidence. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103: 15511-15516.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2006b], Li, L., Hendry, T, Li, R., Taylor, D. W., Issa, M. J., Ronen, A. J., Vekaria, M. L., & White, A. M. 2006b. Reconstructing the basal angiosperm phylogeny: Evaluating information content of mitochondrial genes. Taxon 55: 837-856.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2007], Li, L., Wang, B., Chen, Z., Dombrovska, O., Lee, J., Kent, L., Li, R., Jobson, R. J., Hendry, T. A., Taylor, D. W., Testa, C. M., & Ambros, M. 2007. A nonflowering land plant phylogeny inferred from nucleotide sequences of seven chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 168: 691-708.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2010], Li, L., Wang, B., Xue, J.-Y., Hendry, T. A., Li, R.-Q., Brown, J. W., Liu, Y., Hudson, G. T., & Chen, Z.-D. 2010. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from sequences of four mitochondrial genes. J. Syst. Evol. 48: 391-425.

Qiu, Y.-L. [et al. 2012], Taylor, A. B., & McManus, H. A. 2012. Evolution of the life cycle in land plants. J. Syst. Evol. 50: 171-194.

Qiu, Z.-J. [et al. 2015], Lu, Y.-X., Li, C.-Q., Smith, J. F., & Wang, Y.-Z. 2015. Origin and evolution of Petrocosmea (Gesneriaceae) inferred from both DNA sequence and novel findings in morpholoogy with a test of morphology-based hypotheses. BMC Plant Biol. 15:167. doi: 10.1186/s12870-015-0540-3

Quandt, D., & Stech, M. 2003. Molecular systematics of bryophytes in context of land plant phylogeny. Pp. 267-295, in Sharma, A. K., & Sharma, A. (eds), Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution. Volume 1, part A. Phanerogams. Scientific Publications, Enfield, NH.

Quandt, D. [et al. 2004], Müller, K., Stech, M., Frahm, J.-P., Frey, W., Hilu, K. W., & Borsch, T. 2004. Molecular evolution of the chloroplast trnL-F region in land plants. Pp. 15-37, in Goffinet, B., Hollowell, V., & Magill, R. (eds), Molecular Systematics of Bryophytes. Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, MO.

Queenborough, S. A. [et al. 2013], Metz, M. A., Valencia, R., & Wright, S. J. 2013. Demographic consequences of chromatic leaf defence in tropical tree communities: Do red young leaves increase growth and survival. Ann. Bot. 112: 677-684.

Quental, T. B., & Marshall, C. R. 2010. Diversity dynamics: Molecular phylogenies need the fossil record. Trends Ecol. Evol. 25: 434-441.

Quested, H. M. [et al. 2003], Cornelissen, J. H. C., Press, M. C., Callaghan, T. V., Aerts, R., Trosien, F., Riemann, P., Gwynn-Jones, D., Kondratchuk, A., & Jonasson, S. E. 2003. Decomposition of sub-Arctic plants with differing nitrogen economies: A functional role for hemiparasites. Ecology 84: 3209-3221.

Quezada, I. M., & Gianoli, E. 2011. Crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis in Bromeliaceae: An evolutionary key innovation. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 104: 480-486.

Quijano-Abril, M. A. [et al. 2006], Callejas-Posada, R., & Miranda-Esquivel, D. R. 2006. Areas of endemism and distribution patterns for Neotropical Piper species (Piperaceae). J. Biogeogr. 33: 1266-1278.

Quilichini, T. D. [et al. 2015], Grienenberger, E., & Douglas, C. j. 2015. The biosynthesis, composition and assembly of the outer pollen wall: A tough case to crack. Phytochem. 113: 170-182.

Quinn, C. J. 1986. Embryogeny in Phyllocladus. New Zealand J. Bot. 24: 575-579.

Quinn, C. J. [et al. 2002], Price, R. A., & Gadek, P. A. 2002. Familial concepts and relationships in the conifers based on rbcL and matK sequence comparisons. Kew Bull. 57: 513-531.

Quinn, C. J. [et al. 2003], Crayn, D. M., Heslewood, M. M., Brown, E. A., & Gadek, P. A. 2003. A molecular estimate of the phylogeny of Styphelieae (Ericaceae). Australian Syst. Bot. 16: 581-594.

Quinn, C. J. [et al. 2005], Brown, E. A., Heslewood, M. M., & Crayn, D. M. 2005. Generic concepts in Styphelieae (Ericaceae): The Cyathodes group. Australian Syst. Bot. 18: 439-454.

Quinn, C. J. [et al. 2015], Crowden, R. K., Brown, E. A., Southam, M. J., Thornhill, A. H., & Crayn, D. M. 2015. A reappraisal of the generic concepts of Epacris, Rupicola and Budawangia (Ericaceae, Epacridoideae, Epacrideae) based on phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data. Australian Syst. Bot. 28: 63-77.

Quint, M., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2006a. Phylogeny of Bruniaceae based on matK and ITS sequence data. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 167: 135-146.

Quint, M., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2006b. Floral ontogeny, petal diversity and nectary uniformity in Bruniaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 152: 459-477.

Quint, M., & Claßen-Bockhoff, R. 2008. Ancient or recent? Insights into the temporal evolution of the Bruniaceae. Organisms Diversity Environ. 8: 293-304.

Quintinar, A. [et al. 2007], Castroviejo, S., & Catalán, P. 2007. Phylogeny of the tribe Aveneae (Pooideae, Poaceae) inferred from plastid trnT-F and nucear ITS sequences. American J. Bot. 94: 1554-1569.

Quintinar, A. [et al. 2010], Catalán, P., & Castroviejo, S. 2010. A review of the systematics and phylogenetics of the Koeleriinae (Poaceae: Poeae). Pp. 539-556, in Seberg, O., Petersen, G., Barfod, A. S., & Davis, J. I. (eds), Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons. Aarhus University Press, Århus.

Quirk, J. [et al. 2012], Beerling, D. J., Banwart, S. A., Kakonyi, G., Romero-Gonzalez, M. E., Leake, J. R. 2012. Evolution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi intensifies silicate mineral weathering. Biol. Lett. 8: 1006-1011. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2012.0503

Quirk, J. [et al. 2014], Andrews, M. Y., Leake, J. R., Banwart, S. A., & Beerling, D. J. 2014 Ectomycorrhizal fungi and past high CO2 atmospheres enhance mineral weathering through increased below-ground carbon-energy fluxes. Biol. Lett. 10: 20140375.

Quirk, J. T. 1980. Wood anatomy of the Vochysiaceae. IAWA Bull. N.S. 1: 172-179.

Quiroga, M. P. [et al. 2016], Mathiasen, P., Iglesias, A., Mill, R. R., & Premoli, A. C. 2016. Molecular and fossil evidence disentangle the biogeographical history of Podocarpus, a key genus in plant geography. J. Biogeogr. 43: 372-383.

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Raab, T. K. [et al. 1999], Lipson, D. A., & Monson, R. K. 1999. Soil amino acid utilization among species of Cyperaceae: Plant and soil processes. Ecology 80: 2408-2419.

Rabaey, D. [et al. 2006], Lens, F., Smets, E., & Jansen, S. 2006. The micromorphology of pit membranes in tracheary elements of Ericales: New records of tori or pseudo-tori? Ann. Bot. 98: 943-951.

Rabaey, D. [et al. 2010], Lens, F., Smets, E., & Jansen, S. 2010. The phylogenetic significance of vestured pits in Boraginaceae. Taxon 59: 510-516.

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Rabosky, D. L. 2010b. Primary controls on species richness in higher taxa. Syst Biol. 59: 634-645.

Rabosky, D. L. 2010c. Extinction rates should not be estimated from molecular phylogenies. Evolution 64: 1816-1824.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. F. 1991b. The impact of receptacular growth on polyandry in the Myrtales. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 105: 257-269.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. F. 1991d. The floral ontogeny of some members of the Phytolaccaceae (subfamily Rivinoideae) with a discussion of the evolution of the androecium in the Rivinoideae. Biol. Jaarb. Dodonaea 59: 77-99.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. F. 1992a. An updated interpretation of the androecium of the Fumariaceae. Canadian J. Bot. 70: 1765-1776.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1995a. The androecium of monocotyledons. Pp. 143-254, in Rudall, P. J., Cribb, P. J., Cutler, D. F., & Humphries, C. J. (eds), Monocotyledons: Systematics and Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

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Ronse Decraene, L. P., & Smets, E. 1995d. The floral development of Neurada procumbens L. (Neuradaceae). Acta Bot. Neerlandica 44: 439-451. [Reprinted with better illustrations - Acta Bot. Neerlandica 45: 229-241. 1996.]

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1997a. A floral ontogenetic study of some species of Capparis and Boscia, with special emphasis on the androecium. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 119: 231-255.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1997b. Evidence for carpel multiplications in the Capparaceae. Belgian J. Bot. 130: 59-67.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1998a. Notes on the evolution of androecial organisation in the Magnoliophytina (angiosperms). Bot. Acta 111: 77-86.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1998b. The floral development and anatomy of Carica papaya (Caricaceae). Canadian J. Bot. 77: 583-598.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1998c. Meristic changes in gynoecium morphology, exemplified by floral ontogeny and anatomy. Pp. 85-112, in Owens, S. J., & Rudall, P. J. (eds), Reproductive Biology in Systematics, Conservation and Economic Botany. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 1999. Similarities in floral ontogeny and anatomy between the genera Francoa (Francoaceae) and Greyia (Greyiaceae). Internat. J. Plant Sci. 160: 377-393.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 2000. Floral development of Galopina tomentosa with a discussion of sympetaly and placentation in the Rubiaceae. Syst. Geogr. Plants 70: 155-170.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 2001a. Floral developmental evidence for the systematic relationships of Tropaeolum (Tropaeolaceae). Ann. Bot. 88: 879-892.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Smets, E. 2010b. Staminodes: Their morphological and evolutionary significance. Bot. Review 67: 351-402.

Ronse De Craene, L.-P., & Stuppy, W. 2010. Floral development and anatomy of Aextoxicon punctatum (Aextoxicaceae-Berberidopsidales): An enigmatic tree at the base of core eudicots. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 171: 244-257.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P., & Wanntorp, L. 2006. Evolution of floral characters in Gunnera (Gunneraceae). Syst. Bot. 31: 671-688.

Ronse De Craene, L.-P., & Wanntorp, L. 2008. Morphology and anatomy of the flower of Meliosma (Sabiaceae): Implications for pollination biology. Plant Syst. Evol. 271: 79-91.

Ronse De Craene, L.-P., & Wanntorp, L. 2009. Floral development and anatomy of Salvadoraceae. Ann. Bot. 104: 913-923.

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Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1996], De Laet, J., & Smets, E. F. 1996. Morphological studies in Zygophyllaceae. II. The floral development and vascular anatomy of Peganum harmala. American J. Bot. 83: 201-215.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1997], Vanvinckenroye, P., & Smets, E. 1997. A study of the floral morphological diversity in Phytolacca (Phytolaccaceae) based on early floral ontogeny. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 158: 57-72.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1998a], Smets, E. F., & Vanvinckenroye, P. 1998a. Pseudodiplostemony, and its implications for the evolution of the androecium in the Caryophyllaceae. J. Plant Res. 111: 25-43.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1998b], Smets, E. F., & Vanvinckenroye, P. 1998b. Floral development and anatomy of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae): What is the evidence for a Capparalean or Sapindalean affinity? Ann. Bot. 82: 273-284.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1998c], Roels, P., Smets, E. F., & Backlund, A. 1998c. The floral development and floral anatomy of Chrysosplenium alternifolium, an unusual member of the Saxifragaceae. J. Plant Res. 111: 573-580.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 1999], Volgin, S. A., & Smets, E. F. 1999. The floral development of Pleuropetalum darwinii, an anomalous member of Amaranthaceae. Flora 194: 189-199.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 2000a], Linder, P. H., & Smets, E. F. 2000a. The questionable relationship of Montinia (Montiniaceae): Evidence from a floral ontogenetic and anatomical study. American J. Bot. 87: 1408-1424.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 2000b], Smets, E., & Clinckemaillie, D. 2000b. Floral anatomy and ontogeny in Koelreuteria with special emphasis on monosymmetry and septal cavities. Plant Syst. Evol. 223: 91-107.

Ronse Decraene, L.-P. [et al. 2000c], Hong, S.-P., & Smets, E. 2000c. Systematic significance of fruit morphology and anatomy in tribes Persicarieae and Polygoneae (Polygonaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 134: 301-337.

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Smith, F. A., & Smith, S. E. 1997. Structural diversity in (vesicular)-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses. New Phytol. 137: 373-388.

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Smith, G. F., & van Wyk, B.-E. 1992. Systematic leaf anatomy of selected genera of southern African Alooidae (Asphodelaceae). South African J. Bot. 58: 349-357.

Smith, G. F., & van Wyk, B.-E. 1998. Asphodelaceae. Pp. 130-140, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. III. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Lilianae (except Orchidaceae). Springer, Berlin.

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Smith, J. A. C. [et al. 2005], Crayn, D. M., & Winter, K. 2005. Evolution of epiphytism and crassulacean acid metabolism in Bromeliaceae in relation to changing environments and palaeoclimates. Pp. 121-122, in XVII International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, Europe. [Abstracts.]

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Smith, J. F. 2001. The phylogenetic relationships of Lembocarpus and Goyazia (Gesneriaceae) based on ndhF sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88: 135-143.

Smith, J. F., & Clark, J. L. 2013. Molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal undiscovered monospecific genera in the tribe Episcieae (Gesneriaceae). Syst. Bot 38: 451-463.

Smith, J. F. [et al. 1997a], Brown, K. D., Carroll, C. L., & Denton, D. S. 1997a. Familial placement of Cyrtandromoea, Titanotrichum, and Sanango, three problematic genera of the Lamiales. Taxon 46: 65-74.

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Smith, J. F. [et al. 2004a], Hileman, L. C., Powell, M. P., & Baum, D. A. 2004a. Evolution of GCYC, a Gesneriaceae homolog of CYCLOIDEA, within Gesnerioideae (Gesneriaceae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 31: 765-779.

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Smith, J. F. [et al. 2005], Stevens, A. C., & Davidson, C. 2005. A phylogenetic analysis of Piperaceae focusing on its major geographic centers of diversification and placement of African species. P. 144, in Botany 2005. Learning from Plants. [Abstracts: Botanical Society of America, etc.]

Smith, J. F. [et al. 2006], Funke, M. M., & Woo, V. L. 2006. A duplication of gcyc predates divergence within tribe Coronanthereae (Gesneriaceae): Phylogenetic analysis and evolution. Plant Syst. Evol. 261: 245-256.

Smith, J. F. [et al. 2008], Tepe, E. J., Stevens, A. C., & Davidson, C. 2008. Placing the origin of two species-rich genera in the late Cretaceous with later species divergence in the Tertiary: A phylogenetic, biogeographic and molecular dating analysis of Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae). Plant Syst. Evol. 275: 9-30.

Smith, J. F. [et al. 2013], Ooi, M. T., Schulte, L., Amaya-Márquez, M., Pritchard, R., & Clark, J. L. 2013. Searching for monophyly in the subgeneric classification systems of Columnea (Gesneriaceae). Selbyana 31: 126-142.

Smith, L. B., & Ayensu, E. S. 1976. A revision of American Velloziaceae. Smithsonian Cont. Bot. 30: 1-173.

Smith, L. B., & Downs, R. J. 1974. Flora neotropica. Monograph No. 14 (Pitcairnioideae) (Bromeliaceae). Hafner Press, New York.

Smith, L. B., & Downs, R. J. 1977. Flora neotropica. Monograph No. 14, Part 2 (Tillandsioideae) (Bromeliaceae). Hafner Press, New York.

Smith, L. B., & Downs, R. J. 1979. Flora neotropica. Monograph No. 14, Part 3 (Bromelioideae) (Bromeliaceae). New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Smith, L. B., & Schubert, B. G. 1958. Flora of Panama. Part VII. Fascicle 1. Begoniaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45: 41-67.

Smith, L. B., & Till, W. 1998. Bromeliaceae. Pp. 74-99 in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. IV. Flowering Plants: Monocotyledons. Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae). Springer, Berlin.

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Smith, M. D., & Knapp, A. N. 2003. Dominant species maintain ecosystem function with non-random species loss. Ecol. Letters 6: 599-617.

Smith, M. E., & Pfister, D. H. 2009. Tuberculate ectomycorrhizae of angiosperms: The interaction between Boletus rubropunctus (Boletaceae) and Quercus species (Fagaceae) in the United States and Mexico. American J. Bot. 96: 1665-1675.

Smith, M. E. [et al. 2011], Henkel, T. W., Aime, M. C., Fremier, A. K., & Vilgalys, R. 2011. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and community structure on three co-occurring leguminous canopy tree species in a neotropical rainforest. New Phytol. 192: 699-712.

Smith, M. E. [et al. 2013], Henkel, T. W., Uehling, J. K., Fremier, A. K., Clarke, H. D., & Vilgalys, R. 2013. The ectomycorrhizal fungal community in a neotropical forest dominated by the endemic dipterocarp Pakaraimea dipterocarpacea. PLoS ONE 8(1): e55160. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055160

Smith, N. [et al. 2004], Mori, S. A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D. W., & Heald, S. V. 2004 (eds). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Smith, P. M. 1976. The Chemotaxonomy of Plants. Arnold, London.

Smith, R. A., & DePamphilis, C. W. 1998. Phylogenetic placement of the holoparasistic family Lennoaceae: Preliminary molecular evidence. American J. Bot. 65(6): 157.

Smith, R. A. [et al. 2000], Ferguson, D. M., Barkman, T. J., & Depamphilis, C. W. 2000. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the origin of Lennoaceae: A case of adelphoparasitism in the angiosperms? American J. Bot. 87 (supplement): 158.

Smith, R. S. [et al. 2006], Gyomarc'h, S., Mandel, T., Reinhardt, D., Kuhlemeier, C., & Prusinkiewicz, P. 2006. A plausible model of phyllotaxis. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103: 1301-1306.

Smith, R. Y. [et al. 2012], Basinger, J. F., & Greenwood, D. R. 2012. Early Eocene plant diversity and dynamics in the Falkland flora, Okanagan Highlands, British Columbia, Canada. Palaeobiol. Palaeoenv. 92: 309-328.

Smith, S., & Stewart, G. R. 1990. Effect of potassium levels on the stomatal behavior of the hemi-parasite Striga hermonthica. Plant Physiol. 94: 1472-1476.

Smith, S. A. 2009. Taking into account phylogenetic and divergence-time uncertainty in a parametric biogeographical analysis of a Northern Hemisphere plant clade Caprifolieae. J. Biogeog. 36: 2324-2337.

Smith, S. A., & Beaulieu, J. M. 2009. Life history influences rates of climatic niche evolution in flowering plants. Proc. Royal Soc. B 276: 4345-4352.

Smith, S. A., & Donoghue, M. J. 2008. Rates of molecular evolution are linked to life history in flowering plants. Science 322: 86-89.

Smith, S. A. [et al. 2010], Beaulieu, J. M., & Donoghue, M. J. 2010. An uncorrelated relaxed-clock analysis suggests an earlier origin for flowering plants. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107: 5897-5902.

Smith, S. A. [et al. 2011], Beaulieu, J. M., Stamatkis, A., & Donoghue, M. J. 2011. Understanding angiosperm diversification using small and large phylogenetic trees. American J. Bot. 98: 404-414.

Smith, S. D., & Baum, D. A. 2006. Phylogenetics of the florally diverse Andean clade Iochrominae (Solanaceae). American J. Bot. 93: 1140-1153.

Smith, S. D. [et al. 2009], Ané, C., & Baum, D. A. 2009. Macroevolutionary tests of pollination syndromes: A reply to Fenster et al. Evolution 63: 2763-2767.

Smith, S. D. [et al. 2010], Miller, R. E., Otto, S. P., FitzJohn, R. G., & Rauscher, M. D. 2010. The effects of flower color transition on diversification rates in morning glories (Ipomoea subg. Quamoclit, Convolvulaceae). Pp. 202-226, in Long, M., Gu, H., & Zhou, Z. (eds), Darwin's Heritage Today: Proceedings of the Darwin 200 Beijing International Conference. Higher Education Press, Beijing.

Smith, S. E., & Read, D. J. 2008. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Ed. 3. Academic Press, London.

Smith, S. E. [et al. 2011], Jakobsen, I., Grønlund, M., & Smith, F. A. 2011. Roles of arbuscular mycorrhizas in plant phosphorus nutrition: Interactions between pathways of phosphorus uptake in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots have important implications for understanding and manipulating plant phosphorus acquisition. Plant Physiol. 156: 1050-1057.

Smith, S. V. 1981. Marine macrophytes as a global carbon sink. Science 211: 838-840.

Smith, S. Y. 2007. Morphology, Anatomy, and Phylogeny of Fossil and Extant Saururaceae: Insights from the Middle Eocene Princeton Chert. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta.

Smith, S. Y. 2013. The fossil record of noncommelinid monocotyledons. Pp. 29-59, in Wilkin, P., & Mayo, S. J. (eds), Early Events in Monocot Evolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [Systematics Association Special Volume 83.]

Smith, S. Y., & Stockey, R. A. 2003. Aroid seeds from the Middle Eocene Princeton chert (Keratosperma allenbyense, Aracaeae): comparisons with extant Lasioideae. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 164: 239-250.

Smith, S. Y., & Stockey, R. A. 2007a. Pollen morphology and ultrastructure of Saururaceae. Grana 46: 250-267.

Smith, S. Y., & Stockey, R. A. 2007b. Establishing a fossil record for the perianthless Piperales: Saururus tuckerae sp. nov. (Saururaceae) from the Middle Eocene Princeton chert. American J. Bot. 94: 1642-1657.

Smith, S. Y. [et al. 2008], Collinson, M. E., & Rudall, P. J. 2008. Fossil Cyclanthus (Cyclanthaceae, Pandanales) from the Eocene of Germany and England. American J. Bot. 95: 688-699.

Smith, S. Y. [et al. 2009a], Collinson, M. E., Simpson, D. A., Rudall, P. J., Marone, F., & Stampanoni, M. 2009a. Elucidating the affinities and habitat of ancient, widespread Cyperaceae: Volkeria messelensis gen. et sp. nov., a fossil mapanioid sedge from the Eocene of Europe. American J. Bot. 96: 1506-1518.

Smith, S. Y. [et al. 2009b], Collinson, M. E., Simpson, D. A., Rudall, P. J., Marone, F., & Stampanoni, M. 2009b. Ancient Cyperaceae: Evidence for widespread tropical forest sedges from the Eocene of Europe. P. 133, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Smith, S. Y. [et al. 2010], Collinson, M. E., Rudall, P. J., & Simpson, D. A. 2010. Cretaceous and Paleogene fossil record of Poales: Review and current research. Pp. 333-356, in Seberg, O., Petersen, G., Barfod, A. S., & Davis, J. I. (eds), Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons. Aarhus University Press, Århus.

Smith, S. Y. [et al. 2013a], Little, S. A., Cooper, R. L., Burnham, R. J., & Stockey, R. A. 2013a. A ranunculalean liana stem from the Cretaceous of British Columbia, Canada: Atli morinii gen. et sp. nov. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 174; 818-831.

Smith, S. [et al. 2013b], Benedict, J., Specht, C., Collinson, M., Leong-Äkornicková, J., Kvacek, J., Xiao, X., Fife, J., & Marone, F. 2013b. Reevaluation of the oldest fossils in Zingiberales and implications for inferring the evolutionary history of gingers, bananas, and relatives. Pp. 43-44, in Botany 2013. Celebrating Diversity! July 27-31 - New Orleans. Abstracts.

Smithies, S. J., & Burgoyne, P. M. 2010. 659. Cytinus visseri. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 26: 322-332.

Smits, W. T. M. 1994. Dipterocarpaceae: Mycorrhizae and Regeneration Tropenbos Foundation, Wageningen. [Tropenbos Series 9.]

Smithson, A. 2009. A plant's view of cheating in plant-pollinator mutualisms. Israel J. Plant Sci. 57: 151-163.

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