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Articles or books by two or more authors are cited as follows. When there are two authors, citation is alphabetical after the second author's name. When there are three or more authors, references are cited in the body of the text as (e.g.) Chase et al. 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, and are listed following these sometimes alphabetically qualified dates of publication immediately after all the single- or two-authored articles by the first author.

Earle, C. J. 1997 onwards. Gymnosperm Database.

Eastwood, D. C. [et al. 2011], Floudas, D., Binder, M., Majcherczyk, A., Schneider, P., Aerts, A., Asiegbu, F. O., Baker, S. E., Barry, K., Bendiksby, M., Blumentritt, M., Coutinho, P. M., Cullen, D., de Vries, R. P., Gathman, A., Goodell, B., Henrissat, B., Ihrmark, K., Kauserud, H., Kohler, A., LaButti, K., Lapidus, A., Lavin, J. L., Lee, Y. H., Lindquist, E., Lilly, W., Lucas, S., Morin, E., Murat, C., Oguiza, J. A., Park, J., Pisabarro, A. G., Riley, R., Rosling, A., Salamov, A., Schmidt, O., Schmutz, J., Skrede, I., Stenlid, J., Wiebenga, A., Xie, X., Kües, U., Hibbett, D. S., Hoffmeister, D., Högberg, N., Martin, F., Grigoriev, I. V., & Watkinson, S. C. 2011. The plant cell wall-decomposing machinery underlies the functional diversity of forest fungi. Science 333: 762-765.

Eaton, C. J. [et al. 2010], Cox, M. P., Ambrose, B., Becker, M., Hesse, U., Schardl, C. J., & Scott, B. 2010. Disruption of signaling in a fungal-grass symbiosis leads to pathogenesis. Plant Physiol. 153: 1780-1794.

Eaton, D. A. R. [et al. 2012], Fenster, C. B., Hereford, J., Shuang-Quan, H., & Ree, R. H. 2012. Floral diversity and community structure in Pedicularis (Orobanchaceae). Ecology 93 [suppl.]: S182-S194.

Ebel, F. 1998. Die Schildblaättrigkeit krautiger Angiospermen-Sippen in inhrer Beziehung zu Standort und Verbreitung. Flora 193: 203-224.

Eben, A. 1999. Host plant breadth and importance of cucurbitacins for the larvae of diabroticites (Galerucinae: Luperini). Pp. 361-374, in Cox, M. L. (ed.), Advances in Chrysomelidae Biology 1. Backhuys, Leiden.

Eberhard, S. H. [et al. 2009], Hikl, A. L., Boggs, C. L., & Krenn, H. W. 2009. Saliva or regurgitated nectar? What Heliconius butterflies use for pollen feeding. Ann. Entom. Soc. America 102: 1105-1108.

Eberwein, R. [2009], Nickrent, D. L., & Weber, A. 2009. Development and morphology of flowers and infloresences in Balanophora papuana and B. elongata (Balanophoraceae). American J. Bot. 96: 1055-1067.

Ebihara, A. 2011. RbcL phylogeny of Japanese pteridophyte flora and implications on infrafamilial systematics. Bull. National Mus. Nat. Sci., Ser. B, 37: 63-74.

Ebihara, A. [et al. 2007], Iwatsuki, K., Ito, M., Hennequin, S., & Dubuisson, J.-Y. 2007. A global molecular phylogeny of the fern genus Trichomanes (Hymenophyllaceae) with special reference to stem anatomy. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 155: 1-27.

Ebihara, A. [et al. 2009], Matsumoto, S., & Ito, M. 2009. Hybridization involving independent gametophytes in the Vandenboschia radicans complex (Hymenophyllaceae): A new perspective on the distribution of fern hybrids. Molec. Ecol. 18: 4904-4911.

Ebihara, A. [et al. 2013], Yamaoka, A., Mizukami, N., Sakoda, A., Nitta, J. H., & Imaichi, R. 2013. A survey of the fern gametophyte flora of Japan: Frequent independent occurrences of noncordiform gametophytes. American J. Bot. 100: 735-743.

Echternacht, L. [et al. 2014], Sano, P. T., Bonillo, C., Cruaud, C., Couloux, A., & Dubuisson, J.-Y. 2014. Phylogeny and taxonomy of Syngonanthus and Comanthera (Eriocaulaceae): Evidence from expanded sampling. Taxon 63: 47-63.

Eckardt, N. A., & Baum, D. 2010. The podostemad puzzle: The evolution of unusual morphology in the Podostemaceae. Plant Cell.

Eckardt, T. 1937. Untersuchungen über Morphologie, Entwicklungeschichte und systematische Bedeutung des pseudomonomeren Gynoeceums. Nova Acta Leopoldina N.F. 5(26): 1-122.

Eckardt, T. 1963. Some observations on the morphology and embryology of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 42A [Maheshwari Commemorative Volume]: 27-34.

Eckardt, T. 1974. Vom Blütenbau der Centrospermen-Gattung Lophiocarpus Turcz. Phyton (Austria) 16: 13-27, pl. 2.

Eckenwalder, J. E. 1976. Re-evaluation of Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae: A proposed merger. Madroño 23: 237-256.

Eckenwalder, J. E. 2009. Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press, Portland.

Eckert, A. J., & Hall, B. D. 2006. Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and patterns of diversification for Pinus (Pinaceae): Phylogenetic tests of fossil-based hypotheses. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 40: 166-182.

Eckert, G. 1966. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche und blütenanatomische Untersuchungen zum Problem der Obdiplostemonie. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. Pflanzenges. Pflanzengeog. 85: 523-604.

Edens-Meier, R., & Bernhardt, P. 2014a. The sun orchids (Thelymitra) then and now: Large flowers versus small flowers and their evolutionary implications. Pp. 173-198, in Edens-Meier, R., & Bernhardt, P. (eds), Darwin's Orchids Then and Now. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Edens-Meier, R., & Bernhardt, P. (eds). 2014b. Darwin's Orchids Then and Now. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Edens-Meier, R. [et al. 2014], Luo, Y.-b., Pemberton, R., & Bernhardt, R. 2014. Pollination and floral evolution of slipper orchids (subfamily Cypripedioideae). Pp. 265-287, in Edens-Meier, R., & Bernhardt, P. (eds), Darwin's Orchids Then and Now. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Eddie, W. M. [et al. 2002], Haberle, R. C., & Jansen, R. K. 2002. The phylogeny of the Campanulaceae inferred from DNA sequences of the chloroplast gene matK. P. 122, in Botany 2002: Botany in the Curriculum, Abstracts. [Madison, Wisconsin.]

Eddie, W. M. [et al. 2004], Shulkina, T., Gaskin, J. F., Haberle, R. C., & Jansen, R. K. 2004. The phylogeny of Campanulaceae s. str. inferred from ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 544-576.

Eddie, W. M. [et al. 2010], Cupido, C. N., & Skvarla, J. J. 2010. Pollen and reproductive morphology of Rhigiophyllum and Siphocodon (Campanulaceae): Two unique genera of the fynbos vegetation of South Africa. Bothalia 40: 103-115.

Edeoga, H. O., & Ikem, C. I. 2001. Midrib anatomy and systematics in Dioscorea L. (Dioscoreaceae). Pp. 191-195, in Maheshwari, J. K., & Jain, A. P. (eds), Recent Researches in Plant Anatomy and Morphology. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur.

Edgar, J. A. 1984. Parsonsieae: Ancestral larval foodplants of the Danainae and Inthomiinae. Pp. 92-93, in Vane-Wright & Ackery, P. R. (eds), The Biology of Butterflies. Academic Press, London. [Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society, vol. 11.]

Edgar, J. A. [et al. 1974], Culvenor, C. C. J., & Pliske, T. E. 1974. Coevolution of danaid butterflies with their host plants. Nature 250: 646-648.

Edger, P. P. [et al. 2015], Heidel-Fischer, H. M., Bekaert, M., Rota, J., Glöckner, G., Platts, A. E., Heckel, D. G., Der, J. P., Wafula, E. K., Tang, M., Hofberger, J. A., Smithson, A., Hall, J. C., Blanchette, M., Bureau, T. E., Wright, S. I., dePamphilis, C. W., Schranz, M. E., Barker, M. S., Conant, G. C., Wahlberg, N., Vogel, H., Pires, J. C., & Wheat, C. W. 2015. The butterfly plant arms-race escalated by gene and genome duplications. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112: 8362-8366. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1503926112

Edlund, A. F. [et al. 2016], Zheng, Q., lowe, N., Kuseryk, S., Ainsworth, K. L., Lyles, R. H., Sibener, S. J., & Preuss, D. 2016. Pollen from Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae are functionally omniaperturate. American J. Bot. 103: 1006-1019.

Edwards, D. [Dawn], & Hawkins, J. A. 2007. Are Cape floral clades the same age? Contemporaneous origins of two lineages in the genistoids s.l. (Fabaceae). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 45: 952-970.

Edwards, D. [Dianne] 1993. Cells and tissues in the vegetative sporophytes of early land plants. New Phytol. 125: 225-247.

Edwards, D. 2003. Xylem in early tracheophytes. Plant Cell. Environ. 26: 57-72.

Edwards, D., & Richardson, J. B. 2004. Silurian and Lower Devonian plant assemblages from the Anglo-Welsh basin: A palaeobotanical and palynological synthesis. Geol. J. 39: 375-402.

Edwards, D. [et al. 2003], Axe, L., & Duckett, J. G. 2003. Diversity of conducting cells in early land plants and comparisons with extant bryophytes. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 141: 297-347.

Edwards, D. [et al. 2006], Li, C.-S., & Raven, J. A. 2006. Tracheids in an early vascular plant: A tale of two branches. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 150: 115-130.

Edwards, D. [et al. 2014], Morris, J. L., Richardson, J. B., & Kenrick, P. 2014. Cryptospores and cryptophytes reveal hidden diversity in early land floras. New Phytol. 202: 50-78. doi: 10.1111/nph.12645

Edwards, D. L. [et al. 2010], Ansell, F. A., Woodcock, P., Fayle, T. M., Chey, V. K., & Hamer, K. C. 2010. Can the failure to punish promote cheating in mutualism? Oikos 119: 45-52.

Edwards, E. J. 2006. Correlated evolution of stem and leaf hydraulic traits in Pereskia (Cactaceae). New Phytol. 172: 479-489.

Edwards, E. J. 2009. C4 the straw man? Evolution of cold tolerance better explains global distribution of C3/C4 grasslands. P. 109, in Botany and Mycology 2009. Snowbird, Utah July 25-29. Abstract Book.

Edwards, E. J., & Diaz, M. 2006. Ecological physiology of Pereskia guamacho, a cactus with leaves. Plant Cell Environ. 29: 247-256.

Edwards, E. J., & Donoghue, M. J. 2006. Pereskia and the origin of the cactus life form. American Naturalist 167: 777-793.

Edwards, E. J., & Ogburn, R. M. 2012. Angiosperm responses to a low CO2 world: CAM and C4 photosynthesis as parallel evolutionary trajectories. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 173: 724-733.

Edwards, E. J., & Smith, S. A. 2010. Phylogenetic analyses reveal the shady history of C4 grasses. Proc. National Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107: 2532-2537.

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Edwards, E. J., & Still, C. J. 2008. Climate, phylogeny and the ecological distribution of C4 grasses. Ecol. Letters 11: 266-276.

Edwards, E. J. [et al. 2005], Nyffeler, R., & Donoghue, M. J. 2005. Basal cactus phylogeny: Implications of Pereskia paraphyly for the transition to the cactus life form. American J. Bot. 92: 1177-1188.

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Edwards, E. J. [et al. 2010], Osborne, C. P., Strömberg, C. A. E., Smith, S. A., & C4 Grasses Consortium. 2010. The origins of C4 grasslands: Integrating evolutionary and ecosystem science. Science 328: 587-591.

Edwards, E. J. [et al. 2016], Spriggs, E. L., Chatelet, D. S., & Donoghue, M. J. 2016. Unpacking a century-old mystery: Winter buds and the latitudinal gradient in leaf form. American J. Bot. 103: 975-978.

Edwards, G. E., & Voznesenskaya, E. V. 2011. C4 photosynthesis: Kranz forms and single-cell C4 in terrestrial plants. Pp. 29-61, in Raghavendra, A. S., & Sage, R. F. (eds), C4 Photosynthesis and Related CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms. Springer, Dordrecht.

Edwards, R. D. [et al. 2010], Craven, L. A., Crisp, M. D., & Cook, L. G. 2010. Melaleuca revisited: cpDNA and morphological data confirm that Melaleuca L. is not monophyletic. Taxon 59: 744-754.

Edwards, J. [et al. 2005], Whitaker, D., Klionsky, S., & Laskowski, M. J. 2005. Botany: A record-breaking pollen catapult. Nature 435: 164.

Edwards, S. V. [et al. 2016], Xi, Z., Janke, A., Faircloth, B. C., McCormack, J. E., Glenn, T. C., Zhong, B., Wu, S., Lemmon, E. M., Lemmon, A. R., Leaché, A. D., Liu, L., & Davis, C. C. 2016. Implementing and testing the multispecies coalescent model: A valuable paradigm for phylogenomics. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 94: 447-462.

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Hynson, N. A. [et al. 2015], Bidartondo, M. I., & Read, D. J. 2015. Are there geographical mosaics of mycorrhizal specificity and partial mycoheterotrophy? A case study in Moneses uniflora (Ericaceae). New Phytol. 208: 1003-1007.

Hynson, N. A. [et al. 2016], Schiebold, J. M.-L., & Gebauer, G. 2016. Plant family identity distinguishes patterns of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope abundance and nitrogen concentration in mycoheterotrophic plants associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Ann. Bot. 118: 467-479.

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