The Moss Flora of China
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Checklist of Chinese Mosses | References | Guide for Contributors
Moss Flora of China (English Version) Project Guide for Contributors
II. Guidelines for Authors and Reviewers
- Purpose of the guidelines
1.1 The purpose of these guidelines is to help authors, reviewers,
and editors to achieve overall consistency within a specific manuscript or
between manuscripts prepared for the publication of the Moss Flora of China
- Scope and sources of treatments
2.1 Treatments in the Flora should be synoptic, not monographic.
Manuscripts should be based on existing literature, herbarium specimens,
and author's research experience. Authors are encouraged to borrow as
many specimens as possible from at least the following five major Chinese
herbaria (Institute of Botany, Beijing; East China Normal University,
Shanghai; South China Institute of Botany, Guangzhou; Kunming Institute
of Botany; Institute of Applied Ecology, Shenyang). Chinese types and
Chinese moss collections deposited in western herbaria should also be
consulted. Examination of these collections can be arranged by western
co-authors, inter-herbarium loans or by visits to appropriate western
herbaria, if possible.
3.1 The goal of this project is to produce a floristic treatment
that is acceptable to the majority of taxonomists and useful to the greatest
number of users. Therefore, taxonomic decisions about circumscription and
rank of a taxon should promote nomenclatural stability. At the same time,
treatments should also reflect present knowledge of the taxa throughout
their range worldwide. The classifications should be based on all available
evidence and a careful analysis of published literature. For problematic
taxa, authors should provide best of their interpretation, and mention other
treatments with appropriate references in the discussion section.
3.2 Authors are encouraged to publish their results separately in
recognized journals before the pertinent volume of the Flora is published.
- Submission of manuscript
4.1 Authors are encouraged to submit both hardcopy (printed copy) and
computer diskette of the manuscripts to the editorial center for processing. (Diskette will be returned upon request of the
4.2 The hardcopy should be printed on one side and double-space only.
Maintain at least 25 mm (1 inch) margins and use 10 or 12 point fonts.
Italicize Roman letters and foreign words, including collector's names
and numbers. Do not use right-justified margin and proportional spacing.
Start each generic description at the top of a new page.
4.3 Submitted diskettes should be IBM PC-compatible or Macintosh
formatted. Label diskette with computer type, word-processing program
and version, and file names, e.g.: IBM, WordPerfect 6.0, BRYUM.WP6.
- Arrangement of taxa
5.1 The sequence of familial arrangements in the eight-volume printed
Flora is more or less phylogenetic and roughly follows the Brotherus system
(1924-1925). The basic arrangements of major families will be similar to
that of P.-C. Chen as outlined in his books entitled Genera Muscorum
Sinicorum, part I & II, Science Press, Beijing (1963, 1978). However, the
circumscription of some families will reflect the present understanding of
the groups or with modifications to be suggested by the editorial committee,
if necessary. The sequence of genera and species within a family will be
arranged alphabetically for ease of use.
6.1 The author(s) of a family treatment in formal published volumes of
the Flora will be the same individual(s) of any other separate English
publications on the same family published before.
- Keys to taxa
7.1 Keys will be provided for all accepted taxa in the Flora. A Key
to genera will be placed directly after the family description. Likewise,
a key to species will be placed directly after the generic description and
discussion, and a key to infraspecific taxa will be directly after the
specific description and discussion.
7.2 All keys will be dichotomous, indented in pairs, and in general,
artificial. The halves of each dichotomy should be unambiguous and
contrasting. The order of characters in each leaf of a couplet should be
the same and proceed from diagnostically important to less important. All
features mentioned in first half of a couplet must be contrasted in the
second. Polychotomies will not be accepted. If the two halves of a
dichotomous key have an unequal number of taxa, the lead including fewer
taxa should be listed first.
7.3 Use of geography in the keys should be minimized and unambiguous.
Geography is not to be the main distinction in a couplet; generally it is
the last "characteristic" if it is used.
7.4 Number species according to taxonomic sequence in the text, not
according to the order in the keys.
- Taxonomic treatment
8.1 Treatments should be diagnostic, descriptive, and succinct.
Descriptions should confirm identifications made with keys and repeat in
descriptions all characteristics that are used in the keys. Descriptions of
all taxa within a rank should be made directly comparable (parallel). For
example, within a genus, if pseudoparaphyllia is mentioned for one species,
it must be mentioned for all other species in that genus.
8.2 Taxonomic treatments will be from the level of family down to
species or infraspecific taxa. Since the taxonomic account is not intended
to be monographic, any intermediate categories above the specific level
(e.g., subfamily, subgenus, section, and subsection) are not encouraged.
8.3 Characters that are always present at a higher level should not
be repeated in the descriptions for taxa at lower levels. Important
characteristics that occur outside Chinese Flora area should be given in
Brackets [ ]. In general, the treatment at each level will be as follows:
- The family names provided with no authority and bibliographic
citations will be followed by its Chinese characters and its Hanyu Pinyin in
parentheses. The author's name(s) of a familial treatment will appear just
below the next line and will be centered. A concise morphologic description
of not more than 150 words will be imposed, plus a statement concerning the
total number of genera in the world and the number of genera accepted for
China. Additional statements on unique features or peculiar pattern of
distribution of a family may be added. Normally, the description of a family
should be shorter than any of its included generic descriptions; and the
description of a genus shorter than species description, specially for a
- The name of a genus will be followed by its authority and its
Chinese name with its Hanyu Pinyin in parentheses. Type species,
bibliographic citation, and synonymy should not be listed unless the type
or the generic synonym is Chinese taxa. The author of a generic treatment,
if different from the family, will be given and flushed right. A concise
generic description and the number of species in the genus from the world
and China will be provided. Comments on the history, taxonomy, diagnostic
characters, and nomenclatural problems of difficult or controversial genera
may be added.
- The name of a species will be followed by its authority, its
bibliographic citation, and its Chinese name with the Hanyu Pinyin in
parentheses. Only Asiatic synonymy and type information of the Chinese
taxa will be given. For each species, the species description, new
illustrations (or reference to previously published illustrations), habitat
information and other ecological data, distribution, and listing of selected
Chinese specimens examined will be given. Taxonomic comments on species
identity and notes on medical and economic uses in China are welcome
additions. Subspecies and varieties, if accepted, will be treated
essentially the same way as species, but it will be provided with much
- New combinations, new names and new taxa
9.1 New combinations, new synonyms, and new taxa will be included in
the Moss Flora of China (English version). The same information is
encouraged to be published separately by the authors of the treatment in
an appropriate journal prior to their uses in the flora. When this
information is published separately, acknowledgement of this project and
acquisition of a project publication serial number are required.
9.2 The holotype of a new species will be deposited in an appropriate
Chinese herbarium, with isotypes distributed in the related western herbaria
unless a discovered type specimen belongs to a western herbarium. In latter
case, whenever is possible, an isotype or paratype (if any) should be
arranged to be deposited in a major Chinese herbarium.
- Citation of literature in the text
10.1 Only original literature mentioned in the text will be listed in
the literature cited section. Auxiliary literature mentioned in the
nomenclatural bibliographic section of the text needs not be cited.
11.1 All measurements are metric. For dimensional measurements, if
both length and width are desired, the measurements are given as length
times width (e.g., stem leaves 5.0 mm x 2.5 mm). In case of discontinuous
states found in a measurement beyond the normal range of a taxon, such as
an extreme measurement of leaf length, the use of parentheses to indicate
this state is recommended [e.g., leaves 2-5(-10) mm long].
12.1 Descriptions and keys to all taxa should be based on actual
Chinese specimens examined. They should not be taken from the literature
unless the structure concerned is not available in Chinese material. Under
this circumstance the description of the missing structure in the Flora
may be based on non-Chinese material or quoted from other sources. When
discrepancies between Chinese specimens and reports from literature occur,
the observation should be mentioned in a brief discussion after the
12.2 Descriptions of family, genus and species should be as concise as
possible, but they must include all essential characters. Remember, taxonomic
treatments in this Flora should not be monographic in extent. A key
diagnostic description at any generic or specific rank must be parallel for
all taxa at the same rank (i.e., an attribute mentioned for one species,
like papillae of leaf cells, should be discussed for all other species
within the same genus). Efforts should be made to avoid contradictions
in characters used in the descriptions and in the keys.
12.3 If a species has more than one infraspecific taxon in China, there
will be a full description of the species followed by diagnostic statements
of each infraspecific taxon. If the infraspecific taxon of a species
occurring in China is not the autonym, there will be no description under
the species, but a full description will be provided under the infraspecific
taxon. Any species that has yet been found from China, but has a possibility
of occurring in the country based on assumption, e.g., through a
phytogeographic analysis, can be mentioned in the discussion without a full
12.4 Descriptions at any taxonomic rank will follow a conventional
order from gross morphology to cellular details. The format should be kept
consistent throughout the manuscripts (i.e., plant habit, stems, leaves,
costae, leaf cells, sexuality, perigonia, perichaetia, asexual propagules,
setae, capsules, peristome, opercula, spores, and calyptrae). Each major
part of a description will be separated by a period into sentences, with
semicolons used to separate subparts within the sentence. The following
are the suggested characters of mosses, and their order to be described:
- size, habit, and color.
- size, branching pattern, cross section, central strand, rhizoids,
axillary hairs, paraphyllia, and pseudoparaphyllia.
- secondary stem and branch leaves, arrangement, stature when dry
and moist, shape, texture, size, apex, base, margin, serration, and
- number, length, ventral and dorsal surfaces, cross section, guide
cells, and stereid band.
- Leaf cells-
- upper, median, basal cells, color, areolation, length and width,
wall thickness and structure, porosity, surface ornamentation (e.g.,
papilla or mammilla); marginal cells, border differentiation; alar
cells, color, size, arrangement, and wall conditions.
- Asexual reproduction-
- gemmae, brood bodies, and rhizoidal tubers.
- type of sex (autoicous, dioicous, synoicous, etc.).
- position and perigonial leaf morphology.
- position, perichaetial leaf morphology, and paraphyses.
- length, color, and ornamentation.
- position, exsertion, orientation, shape, size, ornamentation,
urn, neck differentiation, exothecial cells, and stomata morphology.
- degree of differentiation, size, inflation, and structure.
- shape, length, and ornamentation.
- type, color, orientation when dry and moist, exostomial
surface structure and endostomial structure, and cilia.
- shape, size, color, and ornamentation.
- shape, length, lobbing base and ornamentation.
12.5 Bryological terminology will follow Glossarium Polyglottum
Bryologiae (ed. R. Magill, 1990; Missouri Botanical Garden publication).
- Chinese names of mosses
13.1 Each recognized taxon in the Moss Flora of China (English
version) should have only one Chinese name in characters followed by its
corresponding transliteration in Hanyu Pinyin. To keep consistency and
to avoid confusions, the Chinese names of mosses in the English version
should be the same as those used in the Chinese version of the same flora
or other published Chinese references. An index of Chinese names of mosses
according to their Hanyu Pinyin and their corresponding Latin scientific
names given inside the parentheses will be prepared and included as an
appendix to each volume.
- Author citations
14.1 Abbreviations for author's name(s) in a binomial way will follow
mainly Sayer et al. (The Bryologist 67: 113-135, 1964) except for names
that are not included in this publication. Under this case, decisions to
formulate the citations will be made by the editorial committee.
14.2 The alphabetized spelling of the names of modern Chinese authors
and collectors should be based on the Hanyu Pinyin system, with the old
spelling, if any, placed inside parentheses to avoid confusions [e.g.,
Manxiang Zhang (Manshiang Chang)]. The Chinese author(s) of a scientific
name, however, are spelled exactly the same as they appeared behind the
scientific name in the protologue of the original publication.
14.3 A Chinese author's name is in an order of the given name followed
by family name. The given name of a Chinese botanist can be shortened to two
initials of its Hanyu Pinyin spelling with a hyphen in between for literature
citation, and it should be spelled out completely without a hyphen in the
title pages (i.e., M.-X. Zhang, or Manxiang Zhang, not Manshiang Chang, M.-S.
Chang, or M. S. Chang).
14.4 The editorial committee may choose the old alphabetized spelling
rather than its conventional usage for a Chinese author's name when there is
an established history of this old usage in East Asian botanical literature.
- Citation of journals and books
15.1 Periodical abbreviations will follow Bridson's Botanico-
Periodicum-Huntianum/ Supplementum (BPH) (Pittsburgh; Hunt Institute, 1991).
The book abbreviations will follow Stafleu & Cowan's Taxonomic Literature,
ed.2 (TL-2) (Utrecht, Bohn, Scheltrema & Holkema, 1976), but the convention
for capitalization will be consistent with BPH. In case of uncertainty as
to what abbreviations should be used, the questions will be decided on a case
by case basis by the editorial committee.
16.1 For species range outside China, a country's name will be the
smallest unit to be cited. A mountain range, like the Himalayas, which
traverses more than one country, may be mentioned as a unit without listing
the names of the countries included. For a widely distributed taxon, a more
general description, such as Circumboreal, Eurasia, Pacific Islands, and Old
World Tropics can be used.
16.2 Names of rivers, mountains, or islands within the Chinese border
will follow the Chinese usage, with an English translation of the Chinese
meaning, if used, placed inside the parenthesis [e.g., Heilong River, Heilong
Jiang, or Heilongjiang (River), but not Heilongjiang River or Amur River; Mt.
Changbai, Changbai Shan or Changbaishan (Mt.), but not Mt. Changbaishan].
16.3 The names of Chinese places will be the recent standard names
that are spelled out according to Gazetteer of China- An index to the Atlas
of the People's Republic of China, Map Press, Beijing printed in 1983 (i.e.,
"Beijing" not "Peking", "Jinghong" not "Cheli", and "Youyiguang" not
16.4 Official spelling of the names of Chinese provinces and autonomous
regions are listed alphabetically as follows: Anhui, Beijing, Fujian, Gansu,
Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei,
Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Menggu, Ningxia, Qinghai,
Shaanxi, Shanghai, Shanxi, Shangdong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Tianjin, Xinjiang,
Xizang, Yunnan, and Zhejiang.
16.5 When the distribution of a taxon is extensive in China, a more
generalized regional term can be used, such as "East China", "SW China",
or "throughout China except Xinjiang". In any discussion in the text, as
much as possible, authors should try to avoid enumerating names of
provinces from where a taxon is collected. The same provincial information
can be found in the section of representative Chinese specimens cited.
16.6 When the distribution of a taxon is found only from a locality
in one province of China or is found to be localized in a mountain range,
a more specific geographical description can be used in listing the
distribution in China, such as "SW Guangdong", "northern Zhejinag" or
"Jiangxi (Lu Shan)".
16.7 Distribution maps may be included using the China base map
provided to authors by the project center. Substituted maps are
unacceptable because camera-ready maps will be developed directly from
computer scans of distributions drawn by authors on provided maps. No
more than three taxa should be included in a single distribution map.
Use "dot method", instead of the "outline method" to show the range of
distribution. Label maps with the species name(s) and the sequence
number(s) of the taxa within the genus. All dotted maps should have
legends for the species symbols that are explained on a separate page.
- Citation of Chinese specimens
17.1 Citations of Chinese specimens examined must be concise.
Geographic names are arranged in the order of decreasing political
magnitude. Representative specimens are first listed alphabetically
by provincial names in capital letters preceded by a hyphen mark and
followed by a colon mark. This will be followed by the names of
regional district or city and ended with county's name (Xian) as the
smallest unit within a respective province. The terms "province" and
"city" need not be cited after the provincial and city's names. The
term "county" should be abbreviated as "Co." after the county's names.
Names of small town, village or commune should not be listed under their
respective county unless a taxon is highly restricted to a locality and a
detailed account on distribution is desirable. Under such a case, a more
exact information of the locality can be mentioned (e.g., -HUBEI: Donda,
Lichuan Co., Red Star Commune).
17.2 Each specimen citation should be in the following strict order:
province (autonomous city), county, collector's family name (or with
abbreviated given names preceded by family names to specify Chinese
collectors), collection number (or the date of collection if no number;
use "s.n." symbol, if no number and no year is available), and ended with
the herbarium acronyms.
17.3 For any species, there should be only one specimen cited from
each county or from each of the geographical locality listed, such as a
mountain and a nature reserve. When dealing with a widely distributed
species in China, specimens from two counties may be cited within a
province. Ideally, the specimens cited will be selected from the counties
with distance, e.g., one is located in the most northern part and the other
in the most southern part of the province; or one is located in the most
eastern part and the other in the most western part of the province.
18.1 Each genus should be illustrated fully by at least one species,
with the remaining species of the genus being shown by their respective
diagnostic characters. All illustrations should be done with waterproof
black ink on white drawing paper, on tracing paper or on bristol board.
Lines should be clear enough to withstand reduction. It is advisable not
to crowd full drawings of more than two species into a single plate
illustrations. Also, avoid placing drawings of species of unrelated genera
on the same plate. Line scales must appear on the plate to indicate size
and magnification. All plates should be numbered in Arabic. The included
figures on each plate should be identified with a letter (e.g., Plate
1a-g or Plate 2a-e).
18.2 Legend(s) should be submitted on separate sheets together with
the illustration(s). It should begin with the plate number followed by the
inclusive figure letters, the name of a taxon, and the information of voucher
specimen placed inside a parenthesis. For example, Plate 1a-e. Trematodon
longicollis (Xinjing, Wu 350, PE). -a. Plant habit; -b. Stem cross-section;
-c. Leaf cells; -d. Capsule; -e. Peristome.
18.3 All drawings must be original and they are not taken from
illustrations of published floras or references. If no new illustrations
are provided for a species, references to previously published illustrations,
especially to those published in the Bryophyte Flora of China (Chinese
version) should be cited after the species discussion section.
18.4 All Chinese endemics and new taxa described in the Flora should
be fully illustrated. Authors are encouraged to provide illustrations of
East Asiatic taxa that are of taxonomic importance.
- Optional miscellanies
19.1 Chromosome numbers that are not based on Chinese material need
not be reported for a species under discussion. However, information on
the biology of a threatened species or on the status of an endangered taxon
- Related literature
20.1 Since the checklist of mosses of China being prepared by Paul L.
Redfearn, Jr., et al. (1994 & 1995 versions) is the most comprehensive
account of the names of Chinese mosses, contributors should consult the
names of all relevant species, subspecies and varieties listed in this
checklist. This checklist regularly updates the nomenclature of previously
published names. The revised version of the checklist will be in press in
1995. Those names that are not being accepted for the Moss Flora of China
(English version) should appear in synonymy or in discussion.
20.2 Authors are expected to check the following major floristic works
published in Chinese. Contributors are also responsible for the recent
literature related to their groups.
- Chen, P.-C. et al. 1963. Genera Muscorum Sinicorum, Pars Prima. Science
- Chen, P.-C. et al 1978. Genera Muscorum Sinicorum, Pars Secunda. Science
- Institute of Forestry and Pedology, Academia Sinica. 1977. Flora of
Muscorum China Boreali-Orientalis. Science Press, Beijing.
- Li, X.-J. (ed.). 1985. Bryoflora of Xizang (Tibet). Science Press. Beijing.
- Redfearn, P. L., Jr. 1994. List of Mosses of China. 245 + 11 + 26 + 55 pp.
Ozarks Regional Herbarium, Springfield, Missouri.
- Zhang, M.-X. 1978. Bryophyta Flora Tsinlingensis. vol. 3, Part 1. Science
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