THE CHECKLIST

 


ABIES Mill. (Pinaceae)

Abies alba Michx. = Picea glauca (Moench) Voss

A. balsamea (L.) Mill., Balsam Fir, Canada Balsam, Blisters

Abies canadensis Michx. = Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.

Abies nigra Poir. of Clinton's Journal (1864) = Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP

 

ABUTILON Mill. (Malvaceae)

Abutilon abutilon (L.) Rusby = Abutilon theophrasti Medik.

*A. theophrasti Medik., Velvet-leaf, Butter-print, Pie-marker, Indian Mallow

         = A. avicennae Gaertn.

         = A. abutilon (L.) Rusby

         = Sida abutilon L.

Abutilon avicennae Gaertn. = Abutilon theophrasti Medik.

 

ACALYPHA L. (Euphorbiaceae)

Acalypha rhomboidea Raf. = A. virginica var. rhomboidea (Raf.) Cooperrider

A. virginica L., Three-seeded Mercury

     var. rhomboidea (Raf.) Cooperrider

         = A. rhomboidea Raf.

     var. virginica

 

ACER L. (Aceraceae)

*A. campestre L., Hedge-maple

Acer dasycarpum Ehrh. = Acer saccharinum L.

Acer eriocarpum Michx. = Acer saccharinum L.

*A. ginnala Maxim., Amur Maple

          = A. tataricum L. var. ginnala Maxim.

Acer glaucum Marsh. = Acer saccarinum L.

*A. negundo L., Box Elder, Ash-leaf Maple, Manitoba Maple

         = A. negundo var. violaceum Mill.

         = Negundo negundo (L.) Karst.

A. nigrum Michx.f., Black Maple

         = A. saccharum var. nigrum (Michx.f.) Britt.

A. pensylvanicum L., Striped Maple, Moosewood, Green-striped Maple, Whistlewood

*A. platanoides L., Norway Maple

*A. pseudoplatanus L., Sycamore-maple

 A. rubrum L., Red Maple, Swamp Maple, Scarlet Maple

     var. rubrum

     var. trilobum Torr. & Gray ex Koch, Three-lobed red maple.

           = A. rubrum var. tridens Wood

A. rubrum × saccharinum = A. × freemanii Murr., Soft Maple, Hybrid Swamp Maple

A. saccharinum L., Silver Maple, White Maple, River Maple

         = A. dasycarpum Ehrh.

         = A. eriocarpum Michx.

         = A. glaucum Marsh.

Acer saccharinum Wang. = Acer saccharum Marsh.

A. saccharum Marsh., Sugar Maple, Rock Maple, Hard Maple

         = A. saccharum var. schneckii Rehd.

         = A. saccharinum Wang.

A. spicatum Lam., Mountain Maple

Acer tataricum L. var. ginnala Maxim. = Acer ginnala Maxim.

Acerates viridiflora (Raf.) Eat. = Asclepias viridiflora L.

 

ACHILLEA L. (Asteraceae)

*A. millefolium L., Common Yarrow, Milfoil

     *var. millefolium

     *var. occidentalis DC., Woolly Milfoil

         = A. asplenifolia of authors, not Vent.

         = A. millefolium ssp. lanulosa (Nutt.) Piper

         = A. lanulosa Nutt.

         = A. occidentalis (DC.) Ref. ex Rydb.

         = A. tomentosa Pursh

*A. ptarmica L., White Tansy Sneezeweed

Achillea tomentosa Pursh = Achillea millefolium var. occidentalis DC.

 

ACINOS Mill. (Lamiaceae)

*A. arvensis (Lam.) Dandy, Mother of Thyme

         = Clinopodium acinos (L.) Kuntze

         = Satureja acinos (L.) Scheele

 

ACORUS L. (Araceae)

A. americanus (Raf.) Raf., Calamus, Sweet Flag, Flagroot

         = A. calamus of American authors, not L.

Acrostichum thelypteris L. = Thelypteris palustris Schott

 

ACTAEA L. (Ranunculaceae)

A. pachypoda Ell., White Baneberry, Doll's Eyes, White Cohosh

         = A. alba of American authors, not (L.) Mill.

         = A. spicata var. alba L.

A. pachypoda × spicata ssp. rubra, Baneberry

         = A. × ludovicii Boivin

         = A. alba × rubra

         = A. pachypoda × rubra

A. spicata L., Red Baneberry, Baneberry, Black Cohosh, Snakeberry

     ssp. rubra (Ait.) Hultén

         = A. rubra (Ait.) Willd.

         = A. spicata var. rubra Ait.

Actaea spicata var. alba L. = Actaea pachypoda Ell.

Actinomeris alternifolia (L.) DC. = Verbesina alternifolia (L.) Britt.

 

ADIANTUM L. (Pteridaceae)

A. pedatum L., Maidenhair Fern

Adicia fontana Lunell = Pilea fontana (Lunnell) Rydb.

Adicia pumila (L.) Raf. = Pilea pumila (L.) A. Gray

 

ADLUMIA Raf. (Fumariaceae)

A. fungosa (Ait.) Greene ex BSP., Allegheny Vine, Mountain Fringe, Climbing Fumitory

         = A. asiatica Ohwi

         = A. cirrhosa Raf.

         = Fumaria fungosa Ait.

         = F. recta Raf.

 

AEGILOPS L. (Poaceae)

*A. cylindrica Host, Jointed Goatgrass

 

 AEGOPODIUM L. (Apiaceae)

*A. podagraria L., Goutweed, Goat's-foot

 

AESCULUS L. (Hippocastanaceae)

*A. hippocastanum L., Horse-chestnut

*A. glabra Willd., Ohio Buckeye

 

AETHUSA L. (Apiaceae)

*A. cynapium L., Fool's Parsley 

 

AGALINIS Raf. (Scrophulariaceae)

A. paupercula (Gray) Britt., Small-flowered Purple Gerardia, False-foxglove, Gerardia

     var. borealis Pennell

         = Gerardia paupercula var. borealis (Pennell) Deam

         = G. purpurea  var. parviflora Benth.

A. tenuifolia (Vahl) Raf., Slender Gerardia

     var. parviflora (Nutt.) Pennell

         = Gerardia tenuifolia var. parviflora Nutt.

     var. tenuifolia

         = Gerardia tenuifolia Vahl

 

AGASTACHE Clayt. ex Gronov. (Lamiaceae)

A. nepetoides (L.) Kuntze, Yellow Giant Hyssop

         = Lophanthus nepetoides (L.) Benth.

A. scrophulariifolia (Willd.) Kuntze, Purple Giant Hyssop

         = A. scrophulariifolia var. mollis (Fern.) Heller

         = A. urticifolia sensu House (1924), not (Benth.) Kuntze

         = Lophanthus scrophulariaefolius (Willd.) Benth.

Ageratina altissima (L.) R. King & H. Robinson = Eupatorium rugosum Houtt.

 

AGRIMONIA L. (Rosaceae)

Agrimonia bicknellii of NY reports, not (Kearney) Rydb. ex Bickn. = Agrimonia pubescens Wallr.

*A. eupatoria L., Common Agrimony, Cocklebur

Agrimonia eupatoria of Ontario reports, not L. = Agrimonia striata Michx. (q.v.)

A. gyrosepala Wallr., Tall Hairy Agrimony, Agrimony, Cocklebur, Harvest Lice, Stickseed

A. parviflora Solander ex Ait., Small-flowered Agrimony, Agrimony, Cocklebur

A. pubescens Wallr., Soft Agrimony

         = A.bicknellii of NY reports, not (Kearney) Rydb. ex Bickn.

         = A. mollis (Torr. & A. Gray) Britt.

A. rostellata Wallr., Agrimony

A. striata Michx., Grooved Agrimony, Britton's Agrimony, Harvest Lice, Cocklebur

         = A. eupatoria of Ontario reports, not L.

 

AGROPYRON Gaertn. (Poaceae)

Agropyron caninum (L.) Beauv. = Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners ssp. subsecundus (Link) Barkworth & D. Dewey

Agropyron caninum var. tenerum (Vasey) Pease & Moore = Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners ssp. trachycaulus

*A. cristatum L., Crested Wheatgrass

          = A. desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schultes

Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schultes = Agropyron cristatum L.

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. = Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. var. littoreum Anderss. = Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. var. nemorale Anderss. = Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. var. pilosum Scribn. = Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski

Agropyron smithii Rydb. = Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) Á. Löve

Agropyron tenerum Vasey = Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners ssp. trachycaulus

Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte ex Lewis = Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners ssp. trachycaulus

Agropyron trachycaulum var. glaucum (Pease & Moore) Malte = Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners ssp. subsecundus (Link) Barkworth & D. Dewey

Agropyron trachycaulum var. majus (Vasey) Fern. = Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners ssp. subsecundus (Link) Barkworth & D. Dewey

Agropyron trachycaulum var. novae-angliae (Scribn. ex Brainerd) Fern. = Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners ssp. trachycaulus

Agropyron trachycaulum var. unilaterale (Vasey) Malte = Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners ssp. trachycaulus

Agrypyron violaceum (Hornem.) Lange = Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners ssp. trachycaulus

 

AGROSTEMMA L. (Caryophyllaceae)

Agrostemma coronaria L. = Lychnis coronaria (L.) Desr.

*A. githago L., Corn-Cockle, Corn-rose, Purple Cockle

         = Lychnis githago (L.) Scop.

 

AGROSTIS L. (Poaceae)

Agrostis alba of authors, not L. = Agrostis gigantea Roth

Agrostis alba var. maritima (Lam.) G.F.W. Mey. = Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw.

Agrostis alba var. palustris (Huds.) Pers. = Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw.

*A. capillaris L., Rhode Island Bent, Colonial Bent

         = A. tenuis Sibth.

         = A. vulgaris With.

Agrostis geminata Trin. = Agrostis scabra Willd.

*A. gigantea Roth, Redtop, Black Bent

         = A. gigantea var. dispar (Michx.) Philipson

         = A. stolonifera var. major (Gaud.) Farw.

         = A. alba of authors, not L.

A. hyemalis (Walt.) BSP., Hair-grass, Southern Hairgrass, Ticklegrass

Agrostis maritima Lam. = Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris (Huds.) Farw.

Agrostis palustris Huds. = Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw.

A. perennans (Walt.) Tuckerm., Upland Bent, Autumn

         = A. schweinitzii Trin.

A. scabra Willd., Hairgrass, Fly-away Grass, Ticklegrass

         = A. geminata Trin.

         = A. hyemalis var. tenuis (Tuckerman) Gleason

         = A. peckii House

         = A. scabra var. geminata (Trin.) Swallen

Agrostis schweinitzii Trin. = Agrostis perennans (Walt.) Tuckerm.

*A. stolonifera L., Creeping Bent, Carpet Bent

     var. palustris (Huds.) Farw.

         = A. alba var. maritima (Lam.) G.F.W. Mey.

         = A. alba var. palustris (Huds.) Pers.

         = A. maritima Lam.

         = A. palustris Huds.

         = A. palustris var. stricta

         = A. stolonifera var. compacta Hartm.

     var. stolonifera

Agrostis tenuis Sibth. = Agrostis capillaris L.

 

AILANTHUS Desf. (Simaroubaceae):

*A. altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus, Copal Tree

         = A. glandulosa Desf.

Aira cespitosa L. = Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv.

Aira flexuosa L. = Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin.

 

ALCEA L. (Malvaceae)

*A. rosea L., Garden Hollyhock

         = Althaea rosea (L.) Cav.

 

ALCHEMILLA L. (Rosaceae)

*A. monticola Opiz, Lady's Mantle

         = A. vulgaris of NY reports, not L.

 

ALISMA L. (Alismataceae)

Alisma geyeri Torr. = Alisma gramineum Lej.

A. gramineum Lej., Water-plantain, Grassy-leaved Water-plantain

         = A. geyeri Torr.

A. subcordatum Raf., Water-plantain

         = A. plantago-aquatica of American authors in part, not L.; sensu Zenkert, 1934 p. 88.

         = A. plantago-aquatica var. parviflorum (Pursh) Torrey (of Eaton & Schrot 1987 p.124).

         = A. plantago-aquatica ssp. subcordatum (Raf.) Hultén

 

ALLIARIA Heist. ex Fabr. (Brassicaceae)

*A. petiolata (Bieb.) Cav. & Grande, Garlic Mustard, Hedge-garlic

         = A. alliaria (L.) Britt.

         = A. officinalis Andrz. ex Bieb.

         = Erysimum alliaria L.

Allionia nyctaginea Michx. = Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacM.

 

ALLIUM L. (Liliaceae)

A. burdickii (Hanes) A. Jones, Wild Leek

         = A. tricoccum var. burdickii Hanes

A. canadense L., Wild Garlic, Wild Onion

*A. cepa L., Garden Onion

A. cernuum Roth, Wild Onion

A. tricoccum Ait., Wild Leek, Ramp

Allium tricoccum var. burdickii = Allium burdickii (Hanes) A. Jones

*A. vineale L., Field Garlic, Scallion

Allosorus atropurpureus (L.) Kunze ex Presl. = Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link

 

ALNUS Mill. (Betulaceae)

*A. glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., Black Alder, European Alder

         = A. alnus (L.) Britt.

         = A. vulgaris Hill

A. incana (L.) Moench, Speckled Alder, Hoary Alder

     ssp. rugosa (DuRoi) Clausen, Hazel Alder

         = A. rugosa (DuRoi) Spreng.

         = A. serrulata (of Day, 1882)

 

ALOPECURUS L. (Poaceae)

A. aequalis Sobol, Short-awned Foxtail

         = A. aristulatus Michx.

         = A. geniculatus (of Day, 1882)

*A. geniculatus L., Marsh-foxtail, Water-foxtail

         = A. pallescens Piper

Alopecurus pallescens Piper = Alopecurus geniculatus L.

*Alopecurus pratensis L., Meadow Foxtail

Alsine aquatica (L.) Britt. = Myosoton aquaticum (L.) Moench

Alsine marginata (DC. ex Lam. & DC.) Reichenb. = Spergularia media (L.) C. Presl ex Griseb.

Alsine media (L.) Druce = Spergularia media (L.) C. Presl ex Griseb.

Alsine rubra (L.) Crantz = Spergularia rubra (L.) J. & C. Presl

 

ALTHAEA L. (Malvaceae)

*A. officinalis L., Marsh Mallow, White Mallow

Althaea rosea (L.) Cav. = Alcea rosea L.

 

ALYSSUM L. (Brassicaceae)

*A. alyssoides (L.) L., Yellow Alyssum

         = A. calycinum L.

         = Clypeola allyssoides L.

Alyssum incanum L. = Berteroa incana (L.) DC.

 

AMARANTHUS L. (Amaranthaceae)

*A. albus L., Tumbleweed, Pale Amaranth

         = A. graecizans of some authors, not L.

 A. blitoides S. Wats., Tumbleweed, Prostrate Amaranth

         = A. graecizans of some authors, not L.

*A. blitum L., Purplish Amaranth, Livid Amaranth

         = A. ascendens Loisel

         = A. lividus L.

Amaranthus chlorostachys Willd. = Amaranthus hybridus L.

[*Amaranthus cruentus L., Blood Amaranth, Purple Amaranth, Zander and Pierce (1979) report this species as a synonym of A. hybridus L. Clemants (1992) recognized it as a species derived “probably through selective cultivation of A. hybridus.” He does not, however, offer a record of its occurrence in western New York: excluded.]

Amaranthus graecizans of American authors in part, not L. = Amaranthus albus L.

Amaranthus graecizans of American authors in part, not L. = Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats.

*A. hybridus L., Green Amaranth, Pigweed, Wild Beet, Prince's-Feather

         = A. chlorostachys Willd.

         = A. incurvatus Ti ex Gren. & Godr.

         = A. patulus Berol.

*A. hypochondriacus L., Prince's Feather

Amaranthus incurvatus Ti ex Gren. & Godr. = Amaranthus hybridus L.

Amaranthus lividus L. = Amaranthus blitum L.

Amaranthus patulus Berol. = Amaranthus hybridus L.

*A. powellii S. Wats., Amaranth

         = A. retroflexus L. var. powellii (S. Wats.) Boivin

*A. retroflexus L., Green Amaranth, Pigweed, Wild Beet, Redroot Amaranth

Amaranthus retroflexus L. var. powellii (S. Wats.) Boivin = Amaranthus powellii S.  Wats.

*A. rudis Sauer, Water-hemp

          = Acnida tamariscinus Nutt.

          = Amaranthus tamariscinus (Nutt.) Wood

*A. spinosus L., Spiny Amaranth, Thorny Amaranth

*A. tuberculatus (Moq. ex DC.) Sauer, Rough-fruited Water-hemp, Tall Water-hemp

          = A. altissimus Riddell

          = Montelia tamariscina (Nutt.) A. Gray

 

AMBROSIA L. (Asteraceae)

A. artemisiifolia L., Common Ragweed, Ragweed, Hogweed, Bitterweed

          = A. artemisiifolia varieties

          = A. elatior L. var. artemisiifolia (L.) House

*A. coronopifolia Torr. & A. Gray, Western Ragweed

          = Ambrosia psilostachya DC.

          = Ambrosia psilostachya DC. var. coronopifolia (Torr. & A. Gray) Farw.

Ambrosia elatior L. var. artemisiifolia (L.) House = Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

Ambrosia psilostachya DC. = Ambrosia coronopifolia Torr. & A. Gray

A. trifida L., Great Ragweed, Giant Ragweed, Great Ragweed, Buffalo-weed

         = A. trifida var. integrifolia (Muhl.) Torr.& A. Gray

 

AMELANCHIER Medik. (Rosaceae)

Amelanchier amabilis Wieg. = Amelanchier sanguinea (Pursh) DC.

A. arborea (Michx.f.) Fern., Tree Shadbush, Serviceberry

Amelanchier arborea var. laevis (Wieg.) Ahles = Amelanchier laevis Wieg.

A. canadensis (L.) Medik., Canadian Shadbush, Serviceberry, Shadbush, Juneberry

         = A. canadensis var. botryapium Torr. & A. Gray, sec. House 1924.

         = A. canadensis var. oblongifolia Torr. & A. Gray

         = A. oblongifolia (Torr. & A. Gray) Roemer

Amelanchier canadensis var. rotundifolia Torr. & A. Gray, sec. House 1924 = Amelanchier sanguinea (Pursh.) DC.

A. humilis Wieg., Bush Juneberry

A. intermedia Spach, Serviceberry

         = A. arborea × canadensis

A. laevis Wieg., Smooth Shadbush

         = A. arborea var. laevis (Wieg.) Ahles

Amelanchier oblongifolia (Torr. & A. Gray) Roemer = Amelanchier canadensis (L.) Medik.

A. sanguinea (Pursh.) DC., Round-leaved Juneberry

         = A. amabilis Wieg.

         = A. canadensis var. rotundifolia Torr. & A. Gray, sec. House 1924.

         = A. sanguinea var. grandiflora (Wieg.) Rehd.

Amelanchier sanguinea var. grandiflora (Wieg.) Rehd. = Amelanchier sanguinea (Pursh) DC.

A. stolonifera Wieg., Serviceberry

         = A. spicata (Lam.) Koch in part

 

AMMOPHILA Host (Poaceae)

Ammophila arenaria (of authors) = Ammophila breviligulata Fern.

A. breviligulata Fern., Beach Grass, Dunegrass

         = A. arenaria (of authors)

[Note: Calamagrostis arenaria Roth. of Gray's Manual ed. 5 (1862) has Arundo L. and Psamma Beauv. as generic synonyms (p. 616). House (1924) gives Psamma as an earlier synonym of Ammophila, hence Ammophila arenaria Am. Auth., not A. arenaria (L.) Link, of Europe = Ammophila breviligulata Fernald, according to House.]

 

AMORPHA L. (Fabaceae)

*A. fruticosa L., False Indigo, Indigo-bush (Regl. M. Niag. Oldham 1999).

 

Ampelamus albidus (Nutt.) Britt. = Cynanchum laeve (Michx.) Pers.

 

AMPELOPSIS Michx. (Vitaceae)

*A. brevipedunculata (Maxim.) Trautv., Porcelain Berry

Ampelopsis quinquefolia (L.) Michx. = Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch ex DC.

Amphicarpa of authors = Amphicarpaea

 

AMPHICARPAEA Ell. ex Nutt. (Fabaceae)

Amphicarpaea bracteata var. comosa (L.) Fern. = Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Rickett & Stafleu

Amphicarpaea comosa (L.) G. Don = Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Rickett & Stafleu

Amphicarpaea monoica (L.) Ell. = Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Rickett & Stafleu

A. bracteata (L.) Rickett & Stafleu, Hog Peanut

         = A. monoica (L.) Ell.

         = A. bracteata var. comosa (L.) Fern.

         = A. comosa (L.) G. Don

         = Falcata comosa (L.) Kuntze

         = Glycine bracteata L.

         = G. comosa L.

Amygdalus persica L. = Prunus persicaria (L.) Batsch

Anacharis canadensis (Rich. ex Michx.) Planch. = Elodea canadensis Rich. ex Michx.

Anacharis planchonii (Casp.) Rydb. = Elodea canadensis Rich. ex Michx.

 

ANAGALLIS L. (Primulaceae)

*A. arvensis L., Scarlet Pimpernel, Poor-man's-Weatherglass, Shepherd's-clock

 

ANAPHALIS DC. (Asteraceae)

A. margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Clarke, Pearly Everlasting

         = Antennaria margaritacea (L.) R. Br.

         = A. margaritacea subspecies and varieties

Anchistea virginica (L.) Presl = Woodwardia virginica (L.) Sm.

 

ANCHUSA L. (Boraginaceae)

*A. arvensis (L.) Bieb., Small Bugloss

         = Lycopsis arvensis L. of Zenkert (1934), Zander & Pierce (1979), Gleason (1952)

Anchusa myosotidiflora Lehm. = Brunnera macrophylla (Adams) I. M. Johnston

 

ANDROMEDA L. (Ericaceae)

Andromeda baccata Wang = Gaylussacia baccata (Wang.) Koch

Andromeda calyculata L. = Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench

Andromeda canescens Small = Andromeda glaucophylla Link.

A. glaucophylla Link., Bog Rosemary, Moorwort

         = A. canescens Small

         = A. polifolia L. ssp. glaucophylla (Link) Hultén

         = A. polifolia L. var. angustifolia Ait.

         = A. polifolia L. var. glaucophylla (Link.) DC.

         = A. polifolia L. var. latifolia Ait.

         = A. rosmarinifolia Pursh, not Gilib.

Andromeda rosmarinifolia Pursh, not Gilib. = Andromeda glaucophylla Link.

 

ANDROPOGON L. (Poaceae)

Andropogon furcatus Muhl. = Andropogon gerardii Vitm.

A. gerardii Vitm., Big Bluestem, Turkey-foot

         = A. furcatus Muhl. of Zenkert 1934

Andropogon scoparius Michx. var. scoparius = Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash ssp. scoparium

Andropogon scoparius var. frequens Hubbard = Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash ssp. scoparium

Andropogon scoparius var. glaucescens House = Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash ssp. scoparium

Andropogon scoparius var. septentrionalis Fern. & Grisc. = Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash ssp. scoparium

A. virginicus L., Broomsedge

 

ANEMONE L. (Ranunculaceae)

Anemone aconitifolia Michx. = Anemone canadensis L.

Anemone acutiloba (DC.) Lawson = Hepatica nobilis Mill. var. acuta (Pursh) Steyerm.

A. canadensis L., Canada Anemone, Wind-Flower

         = A. aconitifolia Michx.

         = A. pennsylvanica L.

         = A. dichotoma (of authors)

A. cylindrica Gray, Long-fruited Anemone, Thimbleweed, Thimble-head Anemone

Anemone dichotoma (of authors) = Anemone canadensis L.

Anemone groenlandica Oed. = Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb.

Anemone hepatica (of authors) = Hepatica nobilis Mill. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyerm.

Anemone nemorosa var. quinquefolia (L.) Pursh = Anemone quinquefolia L.

Anemone pennsylvanica L. = Anemone canadensis L.

A. quinquefolia L., Wood Anemone, Snowdrops

         = A. nemorosa var. quinquefolia (L.) Pursh

Anemone thalictroides L. = Thalictrum thalictroides (L.) Eames & Boivin

A. virginiana L., Thimbleweed, Tall Anemone

     var. alba (Oakes) Wood

         = A. riparia Fern.

         = A. virginiana var. riparia (Fern.) Boivin

      var.  virginiana

Anemonella thalictroides (L.) Spach = Thalictrum thalictroides (L.) Eames & Boivin

Anethum in part = Foeniculum according to A. Wood (no date) The American Botanist and Florist, Part IV

 

ANETHUM L. (Apiaceae)

Anethum foeniculum of Clinton's Journal, 1862, Oct. 9 = Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

*A. graveolens L., Dill

 

ANGELICA L. (Apiaceae)

A. atropurpurea L., Purple-stemmed Angelica, Alexanders

         = A. atropurpurea var. occidentalis Fassett

         = Archangelica. atropurpurea Hoffm.

A. venenosa (Greenway) Fern., Hairy Angelica, Deadly Angelica

         = A. villosa (Walt.) BSP

         = Archangelica hirsuta Torr. & A. Gray

Annona triloba L. = Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal

 

ANTENNARIA Gaertn. (Asteraceae)

Antennaria arnoglossa Greene = Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards.

Antennaria brainerdii Fern. = Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards.

Antennaria canadensis Greene = Antennaria neglecta Greene

Antennaria fallax Greene and var. ambigens (Greene) Fern. = Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards.

Antennaria howellii Greene, including  ssp. canadensis (Greene) Bayer, ssp. petaloidea (Fern.) Bayer and ssp. neodioica (Greene) Bayer = Antennaria neglecta Greene

Antennaria margaritacea (L.) R. Br. = Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth.& Hook.f. ex Clarke

Antennaria munda Fern. = Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards.

A. neglecta Greene, Everlasting, Pussy's-toes

         = A. canadensis Greene

         = A. grandis (Fern.) House

         = A. howellii Greene

         = A. howellii Greene ssp. canadensis (Greene) Bayer

         = A. howellii Greene ssp. neodioica (Greene) Bayer

         = A. howellii Greene ssp. petaloidea (Fern.) Bayer

         = A. neglecta ssp. neodioica (Greene) Bayer

         = A. neglecta var. attenuata (Fern.) Cronq.

         = A. neglecta var. howellii (Greene) Cronq.

         = A. neglecta var. randii (Fern.) Cronq.

         = A. neglecta var. simplex Peck

         = A. neodioica Greene

         = A. neodioica Greene ssp. petaloidea (Fern.) Bayer & Stebbins

         = A. neodioica Greene var. chlorophylla Fern.

         = A. oneidica Greene

         = A. petaloidea Fern.

         = A. petaloidea Fern. var. novaboracensis Fern.

         = A. randii Fern.

         = A. virginica of New York reports, not Stebbins

“Note: “Under the International Rules of 1981, new combinations will have to be made here at the varietal level” (Mitchell 1986).

Antennaria neodioica Greene, including both ssp. petaloidea (Fern.) Bayer & Stebbins and var. chlorophylla Fern. = Antennaria neglecta Greene

Antennaria occidentalis Greene = Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards.

Antennaria oneidica Greene = Antennaria neglecta Greene

Antennaria parlinii Fern. and ssp. fallax (Greene) Bayer & Stebbins = Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards.

Antennaria parlinii var. arnoglossa (Greene) Fern. = Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards.

Antennaria petaloidea Fern. and var. novaboracensis Fern. = Antenaria neglecta Greene

Antennaria petiolata Fern. = Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards.

A. plantaginifolia (L.) Richards., Everlasting, Pussy's-toes, Lady's Tobacco

         = A. arnoglossa Greene

         = A. brainerdii Fern.

         = A. fallax Greene

         = A. fallax Greene var. ambigens (Greene) Fern.

         = A. munda Fern.

         = A. occidentalis Greene

         = A. parlinii Fern. (ssp. parlinii)

         = A. parlinii Fern. ssp. fallax (Greene) Bayer & Stebbins

         = A. petiolata Fern.

         = A. plantaginifolia var. ambigens (Greene) Cronq.

         = A. plantaginifolia var. arnoglossa (Greene) Cronq.

         = A. plantaginifolia var. petiolata (Fern.) Heller

         = A. solitaria Rydb.

“Note: Under the International Rules of 1981, new combinations will have to be made here at the varietal level,” (Mitchell 1986).

Antennaria randii Fern. = Antennaria neglecta Greene

Antennaria solitaria Rydb. = Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richards.

Antennaria virginica of New York reports, not Stebbins = Antennaria neglecta Greene

 

ANTHEMIS L. (Asteraceae)

*A. arvensis L., Corn Chamomile, Dog Fennel

         = A. arvensis var. agrestis (Wallr.) DC.

         = Chamemelum arvense (L.) Schreb.

*A. cotula L., Mayweed, Stinking Chamomile, Stinkweed, Dogweed, Dog Fennel

         = Maruta cotula (L.) DC.

*A. tinctoria L., Yellow Chamomile, Dyer's Chamomile

         = Chamemelum tinctorium (L.) Schreb .

         = Cota tinctoria (L.) Gay

 

ANTHOXANTHUM L. (Poaceae)

*A. odoratum L., Sweet Vernal Grass

 

ANTHRISCUS Pers. emend. Hoffm. (Apiaceae)

*A. cerefolium (L.) Hoffm., Chervil

*A. sylvestris (L.) Hoffm., Wild Chervil

         =  Chaerophyllum sylvestre L.

Anychia divaricata Raf. = Paronychia fastigiata (Raf.) Fern. 

Anychia polygonoides Raf. = Paronychia fastigiata (Raf.) Fern.

Apalanthe schweinitzii Planch. = Elodea canadensis Rich. ex Michx.

Apargia hispida (L.) Willd. = Leontodon hispidus L.

Apargia nudicaulis (of authors) = Leontodon taraxacoides (Vill.) Merat

Aphyllon uniflorum (L.) Torrey & Asa Gray ex Asa Gray = Orobanche uniflora L.

 

APIOS Fabr. (Fabaceae)

A. americana Medik., Groundnut, Wild Bean, Potato-bean, Creek-potato

         = A. tuberosa Moench

         = Glycine apios L.

Apios tuberosa Moench = Apios americana Medik.

 

APLECTRUM (Nutt.) Torrey (Orchidaceae)

A. hyemale (Muhl. ex Willd.) Nutt., Putty-root Orchid, Adam-and-Eve

 

APOCYNUM L. (Apocynaceae)

A. androsaemifolium L., Spreading Dogbane, Pink Dogbane, Indian Hemp

         = A. androsaemifolium var. incanum A. DC.

         = A. scopulorum Greene ex Rydb.

A. androsaemifolium × cannabinum = A. × floribundum Greene, Intermediate Dogbane, Indian Hemp

         = A. medium Greene of Zenkert 1934

         = A. × medium Greene

         = A. milleri Britt.

A. cannabinum L., Clasping-leaved Dogbane, Indian Hemp, Dogbane

     var. cannabinum

         = A. cannabinum var. glaberrimum A. DC.

         = A. cannabinum var. pubescens (Mitchell ex R. Br.) A. DC.

         = A. pubescens Mitchell ex R. Br.

     var. hypericifolium Gray

         = A. sibiricum Jacq.

Apocynum medium Greene of Zenkert 1934 = [Apocynum androsaemifolium × cannabinum = A. × floribundum Greene]

Apocynum pubescens Mitchell ex R. Br. = Apocynum cannabinum L.

Apocynum scopulorum Greene ex Rydb. = Apocynum androsaemifolium L.

Apocynum sibiricum Jacq. = Apocynum cannabinum L. var. hypericifolium Gray

 

AQUILEGIA L. (Ranunculaceae)

A. canadensis L., Wild Columbine, Red Columbine, Rock-Bells, Meetinghouses  3

         = A. canadensis var. coccinea (Small) Munz

         = A. coccinea Small

Aquilegia coccinea Small = Aquilegia canadensis L.

*A. vulgaris L., Garden Columbine, Blue or Purple Columbine

 

ARABIDOPSIS Heynh. (Brassicaceae)

Arabidopsis lyrata (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz ssp. lyrata = Arabis lyrata L.

*A. thaliana (L.) Heynh., Mouse-ear Cress

         = Arabis thaliana L.

         = Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Britt. ex Britt. & Brown

         = Sisymbrium thalianum (L.) J. Gay & Monn.

 

ARABIS L. (Brassicaceae)

Arabis billardieri DC. = Arabis caucasica Schlect. ex Willd.

Arabis brachycarpa (Torrey & A. Gray) Britt. = [Arabis drummondii × holboellii = A. × divaricarpa A. Nels.]

Arabis bulbosa Schreb. ex Muhl. = Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb. ex Muhl.) BSP

A. canadensis L., Sickle-pod

         = A. falcata Michx.

         = Boerchera Canadensis (L.) Al-Shehbaz

*A. caucasica Schlect. ex Willd., Wall Rock-cress, Arrowleaf

         = A. albida Steven ex Bieb.

         = A. alpina L. in part

         = A. billardieri DC.

Arabis confinis “as to [Ontario] reports in part, not of S. Watson” is either A. divaricarpa, considered here a hybrid [Arabis drummondii × holboellii = A. × divaricarpa A. Nels] or A. drummondii A. Gray according to Morton and Venn (1990).

Arabis dentata (Torr.) Torr. & A. Gray = Arabis shortii (Fern.) Gleason

Arabis divaricarpa A. Nels. = [Arabis drummondii × holboellii = A. × divaricarpa A. Nels.]

A. drummondii A. Gray, Drummond's Rock Cress

         = Boechera drummondii (A. Gray) Á. & D. Löve

         = Turritis stricta Graham, not Arabis stricta Huds. according to House, 1924 p.365

A. drummondii × holboellii = A. × divaricarpa A. Nels., Purple Rock-cress

         = A. brachycarpa (Torrey & A. Gray) Britt.

Arabis falcata Michx. = Arabis canadensis L.

A. glabra (L.) Bernh., Tower Cress, Tower-Mustard

         = A. perfoliata Lam.

         = Turritis glabra L.

A. hirsuta (L.) Scop., Hairy Rock Cress

     var. pycnocarpa (Hopk.) Rollins

         = A. hirsuta ssp. pycnocarpa (Hopk.) Hultén

         = A. pycnocarpa Hopk.

A. laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Poir. ex Lam., Smooth Rock Cress

         = Boerchera laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Al-Shehbaz

A. lyrata L., Lyre-leaved Rock Cress

         = Arabidopsis lyrata (L.)  O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz ssp. lyrata

         = Arabis lyrata var. kamschatica Fisch. ex DC.

         = Cardamine spathulata Michx.

         = Cardaminopsis lyrata (L.) Hiitonen.

Arabis perfoliata Lam. = Arabis glabra (L.) Bernh.

Arabis perstellata var. shortii Fern. = Arabis shortii (Fern.) Gleason

Arabis pycnocarpa Hopk. = Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. var. pycnocarpa (Hopk.) Rollins

Arabis rhomboidea Pers. = Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb. ex Muhl.) BSP

A. shortii (Fern.) Gleason, Short's Rock Cress, Toothed Rock-Cress

         = A. dentata (Torr.) Torr. & A. Gray

         = A. perstellata var. shortii Fern.

Arabis stricta Huds., see Arabis drummondii A. Gray

Arabis thaliana L. = Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

 

ARALIA L. (Araliaceae)

A. hispida Vent., Bristly Sarsaparilla, Dwarf-Elder

A. nudicaulis L., Wild Sarsaparilla

A. racemosa L., Spikenard, Petty-Morrel, Life-of-Man

A. spinosa L., Hercules' Club, Devil's Walking-Stick, Angelica-Tree, Prickly-Ash

 

ARCEUTHOBIUM Bieb. (Viscaceae)

A. pusillum C. Peck, Dwarf Mistletoe

         = Razoumofskya pusilla (C. Peck) Kuntze

Archangelica atropurpurea Hoffm. = Angelica atropurpurea L.

Archangelica hirsuta Torr. & A. Gray = Angelica venenosa (Greenway) Fern.

 

ARCTIUM L. (Asteraceae)

*A. lappa L., Great Burdock

         = A. major Gaertn.

Arctium lappa var. tomentosa (Mill.) Gray = Arctium tomentosum Mill. excluded (Zander & Pierce 1979).

Arctium major Gaertn. = Arctium lappa L.

*A. minus (Hill.) Bernh., Common Burdock

         = A. nemorosum of authors, not Lej. & Court.

 Arctium nemorosum of authors not Lej. & Court. = Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.

Arctium tomentosum Mill., excluded (Zander & Pierce 1979).

 

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS L. (Ericaceae)

A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng., Bearberry, Sandberry, Hog-Cranberry, Mealberry, Kinnikinnik, Mountain Box

         = A. uva-ursi varieties

 

ARENARIA L. (Caryophyllaceae)

Arenaria angustifolia Regel = Moehringia lateriflora (L.) Fenzl

Arenaria lateriflora L. = Moehringia lateriflora (L.) Fenzl

Arenaria leptoclados Reichenb. ex Guss. = Arenaria serpyllifolia L.

Arenaria marginata DC. ex Lam. & DC. = Spergularia media (L.) C. Presl ex Griseb.

Arenaria maritima Pall. = Spergularia media (L.) C. Presl ex Griseb.

Arenaria media L. = Spergularia media (L.) C. Presl ex Griseb.

Arenaria rubra L. = Spergularia rubra (L.) J. & C. Presl

*A. serpyllifolia L., Thyme-leaved Sandwort

         = A. leptoclados Reichenb. ex Guss.

         = A. serpyllifolia ssp. leptoclados (Reichenb. ex Guss.) Nymer

         = A. serpyllifolia var. tenuior Mert. & Koch

         = A. tenuior (Mert. & Koch) Gürke

Arenaria serpyllifolia ssp. leptoclados (Reichenb. ex Guss.) Nymer and var. tenuior Mert. & Koch = Arenaria serpyllifolia L.

Arenaria tenuior (Mert. & Koch) Gürke = Arenaria serpyllifolia L.

 

ARETHUSA L. (Orchidaceae)

A. bulbosa L., Dragon's Mouth Orchid, Swamp Pink

Argentina anserina (L.) Rydb. = Potentilla anserina L. ssp. anserina

Argentina babcockiana Rydb. = Potentilla anserina L. ssp. anserina

 

ARISAEMA Mart. (Araceae)

A. dracontium (L.) Schott ex Schott & Endl., Green Dragon, Dragon-root

         = Arum dracontium L.

         = Muricauda dracontium (L.) Kunth

A. triphyllum (L.) Schott ex Schott & Endl., Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Indian-Turnip

     ssp. stewardsonii (Britt.) Huttleston Stewardson's Jack-in-the-Pulpit

         = A. stewardsonii Britt.

         = A. triphyllum var. stewardsonii (Britt.) Stevens.

     ssp. triphyllum

         = A. atrorubens (Ait.) Blume

         = Arum triphyllum L.

 

ARISTIDIA L. (Poaceae)

*A. dichotoma L., Poverty Grass; Three-awn

*A. oligantha Michx., Prairie Three-awn

 

ARMORACIA Gaertn., Meyer & Scherb. (Brassicaceae)

Armoracia aquatica (Eaton) Wieg. = Armoracia lacustris (A. Gray) Al-Shehbaz & V. Bates

Armoracia armoracia (L.) Cockerell = Armoracia rusticana (Lam.) Gaertn., Meyer & Scherb.

A. lacustris (A. Gray) Al-Shehbaz & V. Bates, Lake Cress, River-Cress

         = A. aquatica (Eaton) Wieg.

         = Nasturtium lacustre A. Gray

         = Neobeckia aquatica (Eaton) Greene

         = Rorippa aquatica (Eaton) E. J. Palmer & Steyermark

Armoracia lapathifolia Gilib. = Armoracia rusticana (Lam.) Gaertn., Mey. & Scherb.

*A. rusticana (Lam.) Gaertn., Meyer & Scherb., Horse-radish 

         = A. armoracia (L.) Cockerell

         = A. lapathifolia Gilib.

         = Nasturtium armoracia (L.) Fries

Arnoglossum atriplicifolium (L.) H. Robinson = Cacalia atriplicifolia L.

 

ARONIA Medik. (Rosaceae)

A. arbutifolia (L.) Pers., Red Chokeberry

         = Mespilus arbutifolia L.

         = Photinia pyrifolia (Lam.) Robertson & Phipps

         = Pyrus arbutifolia (L.) L.f.

         = P. arbutifolia var. erythrocarpa Michx.

Aronia arbutifolia var. atropurpurea (Britt.) Seym. = [Aronia arbutifolia × melanocarpa = A. × prunifolia (Marsh.) Rehd.]

Aronia arbutifolia var. nigra Willd. = Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell.

A. melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell., Black Chokeberry

         = A. arbutifolia var. melanocarpa (Michx.) Torr.

         = A. arbutifolia var. nigra Willd.

         = A. nigra (Willd.) Köhne

         = Mespilus arbutifolia var. melanocarpa Michx.

         = Photinia melanocarpa (Michx.) Robertson & Phipps

         = Pyrus arbutifolia var. melanocarpa Michx.

         = P. melanocarpa (Michx.) Willd.

Aronia nigra (Willd.) Köhne = Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell.

A. arbutifolia × melanocarpa = A. × prunifolia (Marsh.) Rehd., Purple Chokeberry

         = A. arbutifolia var. atropurpurea (Britt.) Seym.

         = A. atropurpurea Britt.

         = A. prunifolia (Marsh.) Rehd.

         = Mespilus prunifolia Marsh.

         = Photina floribunda (Lindl.) Robertson & Phipps

         = Pyrus arbutifolia var. atropurpurea (Britt.) B. Robinson

         = P. floribunda Lindl.

Aronia atropurpurea Britt. = [Aronia arbutifolia × melanocarpa = A. × prunifolia (Marsh.) Rehd.]

Aronia prunifolia (Marsh.) Rehder = [Aronia arbutifolia × melanocarpa = A. × prunifolia (Marsh.) Rehd.]

 

ARRHENATHERUM Beauv. (Poaceae)

Arrhenatherum avenaceum Beauv., nom. nud. = Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Beauv. ex Presl & Presl

*A. elatius (L.) Beauv. ex Presl & Presl, Tall Oat-grass

         = A. avenaceum Beauv., nom. nud.

         = A. elatius var. bulbosum (Willd.) Spenner

 

ARTEMISIA L. (Asteraceae)

*A. abrotanum L., Southernwood, Old-Man

          = A. procera Willd.

*A. absinthium L., Wormwood, Absinthe, Absinthium

*A. biennis Willd., Biennial Wormwood, Sage-Weed

 A. campestris L., Tall Wormwood, Wild Sage

     ssp. caudata (Michx.) Hall & Clem.

         = A. caudata Michx.

         = A. canadensis of NY reports, not Michx. (and of Day, 1882)

Artemisia canadensis of NY reports, not Michx. (and of Day, 1882) = Artemisia campestris L. ssp. caudata (Michx.) Hall & Clem.

Artemisia caudata Michx. = Artemisia campestris ssp. caudata (Michx.) Hall & Clem.

Artemisia gnaphaloides Nutt. = Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. ssp. ludoviciana

*A. ludoviciana Nutt., Western Mugwort, White Sage, Western Mugwort, Cudweed

     *ssp. ludoviciana

         = A. ludoviciana varieties including A. gnaphaloides Nutt.

Artemisia procera Willd. = Artemisia abrotanum L.

*A. vulgaris L., Common Mugwort, Felon-Herb

         = A. vulgaris varieties

Arum dracontium L. = Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott ex Schott & Endl.

Arum triphyllum L. = Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott ex Schott & Endl.

 

ASARUM L. (Aristolochiaceae)

A. canadense L., Wild ginger

         = A. acuminatum (Ashe) Bickn.

         = A. canadense var. acuminatum Ashe

         = A. canadense var. ambiguum (Bickn.) Farw.

         = A. canadense var. reflexum (Bickn.) B. Robinson

         = A. reflexum Bickn.

 

ASCLEPIAS L. (Asclepiadaceae)

Asclepias bicknellii Vail = Asclepias exaltata L.

A. exaltata L., Poke Milkweed

         = A. bicknellii Vail

         = A. phytolaccoides Pursh

A. incarnata L., Swamp Milkweed

Asclepias intermedia Vail = Asclepias syriaca L.

Asclepias phytolaccoides Pursh = Asclepias exaltata L.

A. quadrifolia Jacq., Four-leaved Milkweed

A. syriaca L., Common Milkweed

         = A. cornuti Dec. in DC.

         = A. intermedia Vail

A. tuberosa L., Butterfly-weed, Pleurisy-Root, Orange Milkweed, Tuber-Root, Chigger-Flower, Indian-Paintbrush

     var. interior (Woodson) Shinners

         = A. tuberosa ssp. interior Woodson

         = A. tuberosa var. tuberosa of NY reports

A. verticillata L., Whorled Milkweed

A. viridiflora L., Green Milkweed

         = Acerates viridiflora (Raf.) Eat.

 

ASIMINA Adams (Annonaceae)

A. triloba (L.) Dunal, Pawpaw

         = Annona triloba L.

 

ASPARAGUS L. (Liliaceae)

*A. officinalis L., Asparagus

Asperula odorata L. = Galium odoratum (L.) Scop.

Aspidium acrostichoides Sw. = Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott.

Aspidium boottii Tuckerm. = [Dryopteris cristata × intermedia = D. × boottii (Tuckerm.) Underw.

Aspidium campyloptera Kunze = Dryopteris campyloptera (Kunze) Clarkson

Aspidium cristatum (L.) Sw. = Dryopteris cristata (L.) A. Gray

Aspidium cristatum var. clintonianum D.C. Eat. = Dryopteris clintoniana (D. Eat. ex A. Gray) Dowell

Aspidium goldianum Hook. ex Goldie = Dryopteris goldiana (Hook. ex Goldie) A. Gray

Aspidium intermedium Muhl. ex Willd. = Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl. ex Willd.) A. Gray

Aspidium marginale (L.) Sw. = Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray

Aspidium noveboracense (L.) Sw. = Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.) Nieuwl.

Aspidium spinulosum (O.F. Muell.) Watt = Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) Fuchs

Aspidium spinulosum var. intermedium (Muhl.) D.C. Eaton = Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl. ex Willd.) A. Gray

Aspidium thelypteris (L.) Sw. = Thelypteris palustris Schott

 

ASPLENIUM L. (Aspleniaceae)

Asplenium acrostichoides Sw. = Deparia acrostichoides (Sw.) Kato

Asplenium angustifolium (of authors) = Diplazium pycnocarpon (Sprengel) M. Broun

Asplenium ebeneum Ait. = Asplenium platyneuron (L.) BSP.

Asplenium filix-femina of Gray's Manual, ed. 7 = Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth ex Mertens var. angustum (Willd.) Lawson

A. platyneuron (L.) BSP., Ebony Spleenwort

         = A. ebeneum Ait.

         = A. platyneuron var. incisum (Howe ex Peck) B. Robinson

Asplenium pycnocarpon (Sprengel) Tidestr. = Diplazium pycnocapon (Sprengel) M. Broun

A. rhizophyllum L., Walking Fern

         = A. rhizophyllum of L. and other authors

         = Camptosorus rhizophyllus (L.) Link.

A. scolopendrium L., Hart's-tongue Fern

     var. americanum (Fern.) Kartesz & Gandhi

         = Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newm.

         = P. scolopendrium var. americanum Fern.

Asplenium thelypteroides Michx. = Deparia acrostichoides (Sw.) Kato

A. trichomanes L., Maidenhair Spleenwort

         = A. trichomanes var. quadrivalens D. Meyer

Asprella hystrix (L.) Humb. = Elymus hystrix L. var. hystrix

Asprella hystrix var. bigelowiana Fern. = Elymus hystrix L. var. bigeloviana (Fern.) Bowden

 

ASTER L. (Asteraceae)

A. acuminatus Michx., Whorled Aster, Mountain Aster, Wood Aster

         = Oclemena acuminata (Michx.) Greene

Aster aestivus Aiton was a synonym of A. longifolius Lam. according to House (1924) = Aster praealtus Poir., q.v.

Aster angustus (Lindl.) Torr. & A. Gray = Brachyactis ciliata (Ledeb.) Ledeb. ssp. angusta (Lindl.) A. Jones

Aster azureus Lindl. ex Hook. = Aster oolentangiensis Ridd.

A. borealis (Torr. & A. Gray) Prov., Rush Aster, Bog Aster

         = A. junciformis Rydb.

         = A. tenuifolius (of Day, 1882), not Mitchell & Tucker (1997).

         = Symphyotrichum boreale (Torr. & A. Gray) Á. & D. Löve

Aster brachyactis Blake = Brachyactis ciliata (Ledeb.) Ledeb. ssp. angusta (Lindl.) A. Jones

Aster carmesinus Burgess ex Britt. & Brown = Aster divaricatus L.

Aster castaneus Burgess ex Small = Aster divaricatus L.

Aster claytonii Burgess = Aster divaricatus L.

Aster concinnus Willd. = Aster laevis L. var. concinnus (Willd.) House

A. cordifolius L., Heart-leaved Aster, Blue Wood Aster

         = A. cordifolius var. polycephalus Porter

         = A. cordifolius var. racemiflorus Fern.

         = Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.) Nesom

Aster cordifolius var. incisus Britt. = Aster lowrieanus Porter

Aster cordifolius var. laevigatus Porter = Aster lowrieanus Porter

Aster cordifolius var. lanceolatus Porter = Aster lowrieanus Porter

Aster cordifolius var. sagittifolius (Wedem. ex Willd.) A. Jones = Aster sagittifolius Wedem. ex Willd.

Aster corymbosus Ait. = Aster divaricatus L.

Aster crenifolius (Fern.) Cronq. = Aster novi-belgii L. var. tardiflorus (L.) A. Jones

A. divaricatus L., White Wood Aster

         = A. carmesinus Burgess ex Britt. & Brown

         = A. castaneus Burgess ex Small

         = A. claytonii Burgess

         = A. corymbosus Ait.

         = A. olivaceus Burgess

         = A. scutiformis Burgess

         = A. tenebrosus Burgess

         = Eurybia divaricata (L.) Nesom

A. dumosus L., Bushy Aster, Rice-button Aster

         = A. dumosus var. coridifolius [sic] (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray

         = A. dumosus var. var. strictior Torr. & A. Gray

Aster eminens Willd. = Aster longifolius Lam.

A. ericoides L., White Heath Aster

         = A. ericoides var. prostratus (Kuntze) Blake

         = A. multiflorus Ait.

         = A. multiflorus Ait. var. exiguus Fern.

         = Lasallea ericoides (L.) Semple & Brouillet

         = Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) Nesom

         = Virgulus ericoides (L.) Reveal

Aster ericoides × novae-angliae = A. × amethystinus Nutt., Amethyst Wreath Aster

Aster ericoides var. pringlei A. Gray = Aster pilosus Willd. var. pringlei (Gray) Blake

Aster faxonii Porter = Aster pilosus Willd. var. pringlei (Gray) Blake

Aster hirsuticaulis Lindl. ex DC. = Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt. var. hirsuticaulis (Lindl. ex DC.) Porter

A. infirmus Michx., Corn-leaved Aster, Cornel-leaved Aster

         = Doellingeria infirma (Michx.) Greene

Aster interior Wieg. = Aster lanceolatus Willd. var. interior (Wieg.) Semple & Chmiel.

Aster junceus Ait. = Aster longifolius Lam.

Aster junciformis Rydb. = Aster borealis (Torr. & A. Gray) Prov.

A. laevis L., Smooth Aster

     var. laevis

         = A. laevis var. amplifolius Porter

         = A. laevis var. cyaneus (Hoffm.) Patterson

         = Symphyotrichum leave (L.) Á. & D. Löve

Aster laevis var. cyaneus (Hoffm.) Patterson = Aster laevis L.

A. lanceolatus Willd., Tall White Aster

      var. interior (Wieg.) Semple & Chmielewski

         = A. interior Wieg.

         = A. lanceolatus × tradescantii of authors

         = A. simplex var. interior (Wieg.) Cronq.

     var. lanceolatus

        = A. paniculatus Lam.

        = Symphiotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) Nesom var. lanceolatum

A. lateriflorus (L.) Britt., Starved Aster, Calico Aster, White Woodland Aster

     var. hirsuticaulis (Lindl. ex DC.) Porter

         = A. hirsuticaulis Lindl. ex DC.

         = A. tradescantii L.

         = A. tradescantii L. var. saxatilis (Fern.) House

         = Symphyotrichum tradescantii (L.) Nesom

     var. lateriflorus

         = A. lateriflorus var. augustifolius Wieg.

         = A. lateriflorus var. horizontalis (Desf.) Farw.

         = A. miser Nutt.

         = A. vimineus Lam.

         = Solidago lateriflora L.

         = Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) Á. & D. Löve

Aster longifolius of some NY reports, not Lam. = Aster praealtus Poir.

A. lowrieanus Porter, Lowrie's Aster

         = A. cordifolius var. incisus Britt.

         = A. cordifolius var. laevigatus Porter

         = A. cordifolius var. lanceolatus Porter

         = A. lowrieanus var. incisus (Britt.) Porter

         = A. lowrieanus var. lanceolatus Porter

         = A. plumarius Burgess ex Britt. & Brown

         = Symphyotrichum lowrieanum (Porter) Nesom

Aster lucidulus (A. Gray) Wieg. = Aster puniceus var. firmus (Nees)  Torr. & A. Gray

A. macrophyllus L., Large-leaved Aster

     var. macrophyllus

         = A. roscidus Burgess ex Britt. & Brown

         = A. violaris Burgess ex Britt. & Brown

         = Eurybia macrophylla (L.) Cass.

Aster miser Nutt. = Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt.

Aster multiflorus Ait. = Aster ericoides L.

Aster multiflorus var. exiguus Fern. = Aster ericoides L.

A. nemoralis Ait., Bog Aster

         =Oclemena nemoralis (Ait.) Greene

A. novae-angliae L., New England Aster

         = A. novae-angliae f. geneseensis House

         = A. novae-angliae var. roseus DC.

         = A. roseus Desf. of Gray's Manual, 5th Ed. p. 235

         = Lasallea novae-angliae (L.) Semple & Brouillet

         =Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) Nesom

         = Virgulus novae-angliae (L.) Reveal & Keener

A. novi-belgii L., New York Aster

     var. tardiflorus (L.) A. Jones, Late-flowering Aster

         = A. crenifolius (Fern.) Cronq.

         = A. tardiflorus L.

         = Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.) Nesom var. crenifolium (Fern.) J. Labrecque & L. Brouillet

Aster olivaceus Burgess = Aster divaricatus L.

A. ontarionis Wieg., Ontario Aster

A. oolentangiensis Ridd., Sky-blue Aster

         = A. azureus Lindl. ex Hook

         = A. shortii of NY reports, not Lindl.

         =Symphyotrichum oolentangiensis (Riddell) Nesom var. oolentangiensis

Aster paniculatus Lam. = Aster lanceolatus Willd. var. lanceolatus

A. patens Ait., Late Purple Aster

         = A. patens var. phlogifolius (Muhl.) Nees

Aster patens var. phlogifolius (Muhl.) Nees = Aster patens Ait.

A. paternus Cronq., White-topped Aster

         = Conyza asteroides L.

         = Sericocarpus asteroides (L.) BSP.

A. pilosus Willd., Hairy Aster, Heath Aster

     var. pilosus

         = A. ericoides of some authors, not L.

         = A. ericoides var. villosus (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray

         = Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willd.) Nesom var. pilosum

     var. pringlei (Gray) Blake

         = A. ericoides var. pringlei A. Gray

         = A. faxonii Porter

         = A. pilosus var. demotus Blake

         = A. pringlei (Gray) Britt. ex Britt. & Brown

Aster plumarius Burgess ex Britt. & Brown = Aster lowrieanus Porter

A. praealtus Poir., Willow-leaved Aster

         = A. aestivus Aiton was a synonym of A. longifolius Lam. according to House (1924)

         = A. longifolius of some NY reports, not Lam.

         = A. salicifolius Ait., not Lam. (of Zenkert, 1934)

         = Symphyotrichum praealtum (Poir.) Nesom var. praealtum

A. prenanthoides Muhl. ex Willd., Crooked-stemmed Aster

         = Aster prenanthoides var. porrectifolius Porter

         = Symphyotrichum prenanthoides (Muhl. ex Willd.) Nesom

Aster pringlei (A. Gray) Britt. ex Britt. & Brown = Aster pilosus Willd. var. pringlei (A. Gray) Blake

Aster ptarmicoides (Nees) Torr. & A. Gray = Solidago ptarmicoides (Nees) Boiv.

A. puniceus L., Purple-stemmed Aster

NOTE: Aster vimineus Willd. = Aster puniceus var. vimineus Gray in Gray's Manual of Botany, 5th edition p. 234, thought to be a shade form of A. puniceus.

     var. firmus (Nees) Torr. & A. Gray, Cornel-leaf Aster

         = A. firmus Nees.

         = A. lucidulus (A. Gray) Wieg.

     var. puniceus

         = A. puniceus var. compactus Fern.

         = A. puniceus var. demissus Lindl.

         = Symphyotrichum puniceum (L.) Á. & D. Löve

Aster roscidus Burgess ex Britt. & Brown = Aster macrophyllus L. var. macrophyllus

Aster roseus Desf. of Gray's Manual, 5th Ed. p. 235 = Aster novae-angliae L.

A. sagittifolius Wedem. ex Willd., Arrow-leaved Aster

         = A. cordifolius var. sagittifolius (Wedem. ex Willd.) A. Jones

         = A. hirtellus Lindl., according to NYFA July 2005

         = A. urophyllus of NY reports, not Lindl., “fide A. Cronquist, who saw the type specimens,” (Mitchell & Tucker 1997)

         = Symphyotrichum urophyllum (Lindl.) Nesom (the accepted name sec. NYFA July 2005)

Aster salicifolius Ait., not Lam. (of Zenkert, 1934) = Aster praealtus Poir.

Aster salicifolius Willd. not Lam. = Aster longifolius Lam.

A. schreberi Nees, Large-leaf Aster, Schreber's Aster

         = A. curvescens Burgess ex Britt. & Brown

         = A. glomeratus (Bernh. ex Nees) Burgess ex Britt. & Brown

Aster scutiformis Burgess = Aster divaricatus L.

Aster shortii Lindl. = Aster oolentangiensis Ridd. (Note in Ontario these are separate (Morton & Venn, 1990)

Aster simplex Willd. = Aster lanceolatus Willd. var. simplex (Willd.) A. Jones

Aster simplex var. interior (Wieg.) Cronq. = Aster lanceolatus var. interior (Wieg.) Semple & Chmiel.

Aster tardiflorus L. = Aster novi-belgii L. var. tardiflorus (L.) A. Jones; there is an Aster × tardiflorus L. = A. cordifolius × A. puniceus reported for Ontario by Morton and Venn (1990) “reject., reports need confirmation.”

Aster tenebrosus Burgess = Aster divaricatus L.

Aster tenuifolius (of Day, 1882) = Aster borealis (Torr. & A. Gray) Prov.

Aster tradescantii L. = Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt. var. hirsuticaulis (Lindl. ex DC.) Porter

Aster tradescantii L. var. saxatilis (Fern.) House = Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt. var. hirsuticaulis (Lindl. ex DC.) Porter

A. umbellatus Mill., Flat-topped White Aster

     var. umbellatus

         = Doellingeria umbellata (Mill.) Nees

         = D. umbellata var. flexicaulis House

         = D. umbellata var. oneidica House

A. undulatus L., Wavy-leaved Aster

         = A. undulatus var. loriformis Burgess ex Britt. & Brown

Aster urophyllus Lindl. = Aster sagittifolius Wedem. ex Willd.

Aster vimineus Lam. = Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt. “Note: The type specimen [of A. vimineus] is apparently a garden hybrid, so this binomial will not stand for our native plants,” (Mitchell 1986).

Aster vimineus Lam. is treated as a synonym of A. lateriflorus by Semple and Heard (1987) and Morton and Venn (1990).

Aster vimineus Willd. = Aster puniceus var. vimineus Gray in Gray's Manual of Botany, 5th edition p. 234.

Aster violaris Burgess ex Britt. & Brown = Aster macrophyllus L. var. macrophyllus

 

ASTRAGALUS L. (Fabaceae)

A. canadensis L., Canadian Milkvetch

         = A. carolinianus of authors, not L.

          = Phaca canadensis (L.) Kuntze

Astragalus cooperi A. Gray = Astragalus neglectus (Torr. & A. Gray) Sheldon

*A. glycyphyllos L., European Milk-vetch, Fitsroot

A. neglectus (Torr. & A. Gray) Sheldon, Cooper's Milk-vetch,

          = A. cooperi A. Gray

         = Phaca neglecta Torr. & A. Gray

 

ATHYRIUM Roth (Dryopteridaceae)

Athyrium acrostichoides (Sw.) Diels = Deparia acrostichoides (Sw.) Kato

Athyrium angustifolium (Michx.) Milde = Diplazium pycnocarpon (Sprengel) M. Broun

Athyrium angustum (Willd.) C. Presl = Athyrium filix-femina var. angustum (Willd.) Lawson

Athyrium asplenioides (Michx.) Desv. of authors in part = Athyrium filix-femina var. angustum (Willd.) Lawson

Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth ex Mertens

     var. angustum (Willd.) Lawson, Northern Lady-fern, Upland Lady-fern

         = Aspidium angustum Willd.

         = Athyrium angustum (Willd.) C. Presl

         = A. asplenioides (Michx.) Desv. of authors in part

         = A. filix-femina (L.) Roth var. asplenioides (Michx.) Farw.

         = A. filix-femina var. michauxii (Sprengel) Farwell

Athyrium filix-femina var. michauxii (Sprengel) Farwell = Athyrium filix-femina var. angustum (Willd.) Lawson

Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth var. asplenioides (Michx.) Farw. = Athyrium filix-femina var. angustum (Willd.) Lawson

Athyrium asplenioides (Michx.) Desv. (not Eat.) = Athyrium filix-femina var. asplenioides (Michx.) Farw (excluded)

Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth. var. michauxii Mett. = Athyrium filia-femina var. angustum (Willd.) Lawson

Athyrium pycnocarpon (Sprengel) Tidestr. = Diplazium pycnocarpon (Sprengel) M. Broun

Athyrium thelypteroides (Michx.) Desv. = Deparia acrostichoides (Sw.) Kato

Atragene americana Sims. = Clematis occidentalis (Hornem.) DC.

 

ATRIPLEX L. (Chenopodiaceae)

Atriplex angustifolia Sm. = Atriplex patula L.

Atriplex deltoides Babington = Atriplex prostrata Boucher ex DC. in Lam. & DC.

Atriplex hastata sensu Aellen, not L. = Atriplex prostrata Boucher ex DC. in Lam. & DC.

Atriplex littoralis L. = Atriplex patula L.

Atriplex oppositifolia DC. = Atriplex prostrata Boucher ex DC. in Lam. & DC.

A. patula L., Spreading Orache, Seaside Orach or Atriplex, Spearscale

         = A. angustifolia Sm.

         = A. littoralis L.

         = A. patula var. hastata A. Gray

         = A. patula var. littoralis (L.) A. Gray

*A. prostrata Boucher ex DC. in Lam. & DC., Orach, Spearscale

         = A. deltoides Babington

         = A. hastata sensu Aellen, not L.

         = A. oppositifolia DC.

         = A. triangulais Willd.

*A. rosea L., Red Orach, Rosy Orach, Tumble-weed, Tumbling Orach

          = A. spatiosa A. Nelson

Atriplex spatiosa A. Nelson = Atriplex rosea L.

Atriplex triangulais Willd. = Atriplex prostrata Boucher ex DC. in Lam. & DC.

Atropa pysalodes L. = Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn.

 

AUREOLARIA Raf. (Scrophulariaceae)

A. flava (L.) Farw., Yellow False Foxglove

     var. flava

         = A. glauca (Eddy) Raf.

         = Gerardia flava L.

         = G. integrifolia A. Gray

         = G. quercifolia Pursh

     var. macrantha Pennell, Large-flowered False Foxglove

         = Gerardia flava var. macrantha (Pennell) Fern.

A. pedicularia (L.) Raf., Lousewort False Foxglove, Cutleaf False-Foxglove

         = A. pedicularia var. intercedens Pennell

         = Gerardia pedicularia L.

Aureolaria pedicularia var. intercedens Pennell = Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf.

A. virginica (L.) Pennell, Downy False Foxglove

         = Gerardia virginica (L.) BSP.

 

AVENA L. (Poaceae)

*A. fatua L., Oats

     *ssp. fatua, Wild Oats

     *ssp. sativa (L.) Thell.

         = A. sativa L.

Avena sativa L. = Avena fatua L. ssp. sativa (L.) Thell.

Avena striata (of authors) = Schizachne purpurascens (Torr.) Swallen

Azalea nudiflora L. = Rhododendron periclymenoides (Michx.) Shinners

Azalea periclymenoides Michx. = Rhododendron periclymenoides (Michx.) Shinners

 

AZOLLA Lam. (Azollaceae)

Azolla filiculoides of NY reports, not Lam. ex Lam. et al. = Azolla caroliniana Willd.

A. caroliniana Willd., Mosquito-fern, Water-fern

         = Azolla filiculoides of NY reports, not Lam. ex Lam. et al.

 

BALSAMITA Mill. (Asteraceae)

*B. major Desf., Costmary, Mint-Geranium 

         = B. vulgaris Willd.

         = Chrysanthemum balsamita (L.) Baill.

         = C. balsamita var. tanacetoides Boiss

         = Tanacetum balsamita L.

Balsamita vulgaris Willd. = Balsamita major Desf.

 

BAPTISIA L. (Fabaceae)

B. lactea (Raf.) Thieret, Prairie False-Indigo

         = B. leucantha Torr. & A. Gray

Baptisia leucantha Torr. & A. Gray = Baptisia lactea (Raf.) Thieret

B. tinctoria (L.) Vent., Wild Indigo, Rattleweed, Horsefly-weed

         = B. tinctoria var. crebra Fern.

         = B. tinctoria var. projecta Fern.

         = Sophora tinctoria L.

 

BARBAREA R.Br. ex Ait. (Brassicaceae)

*B. verna (Mill.) Aschers, Early Wintercress, Winter Belle-Isle, Land-Cress

         = Campe verna (Mill.) Heller

         = Erysimum vernum Mill.

*B. vulgaris R. Br., Winter Cress, Yellow Rocket, Creesy-Greens           

         = B. stricta Andrz. ex Bess.

         = B. taurica DC.

         = B. vulgaris var. arcuata (Opiz & Presl) Fries

         = B. vulgaris var. stricta A. Gray

         = Campe barbarea (L.) Wight

         = C. barbarea (L.) Wight var. hirsuta (Weihe.) House

         = C. stricta (Andrz. ex Bess.) Wight

         = Erysimum barbarea L.

 

BARTONIA Muhl. ex Willd. (Gentianaceae)

B. virginica (L.) BSP., Yellow Bartonia, Screwstem

 

BASSIA All. (Chenopodiaceae)

*B. scoparia (L.) A. Scott, Kochia, Summer Cypress, Mexican Fireweed

          = Kochia scoparia (L.) Roth ex Schrad. 

Batrachium longirostre (Godr.) F. Schultz = Ranunculus longirostris Godr.

Batrachium trichophyllum (Chaix ex Vill.) Bosch. = Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix ex Vill.

 

BECKMANNIA Host (Poaceae)

Beckmannia eruciformis (of American authors) = Beckmannia syzigachne ssp. baicalensis (Kusn.) Koy. & Kaw.

*B. syzigachne (Steud.) Fern. Beckman's Grass, Slough-Grass

     ssp. baicalensis (Kusn.) Koy. & Kaw.

         = B. eruciformis (L.) Host

 

BELLIS L. (Asteraceae)

*B. perennis L., English Daisy, Lawn Daisy

Benzoin aestivale (L.) Nees = Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume

Benzoin odoriferum Nees & ed 2 of Gray's Manual = Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume

 

BERBERIS L. (Berberidaceae)

Berberis aquilifolium Pursh. = Mahonia aquilifolium (Pursh) Nutt.

*B. thunbergii DC., Japanese Barberry

*B. vulgaris L., Common Barberry

 

BERTEROA DC. (Brassicaceae)

*B. incana (L.) DC., Hoary Alyssum

         = Alyssum incanum L.

         = Berteroa obliqua of NY reports, not (Sibth. & Sm.) DC.

         = B. mutabilis of NY reports, not (Vent.) DC.

 

BERULA Koch (Apiaceae)

B. erecta (Huds.) Cov., Wild Parsnip, Water-parsnip

         = B. erecta (Huds.) Cov. var. incisa (Torr.) Cronq.

         = B. pusilla (Nutt.) Fern.

         = B. angustifolia (of American authors)

 

BETULA L. (Betulaceae)

Betula alba of authors in part = Betula pubescens Ehrh.

Betula alba var. populifolia (Marsh.) Spach = Betula populifolia Marsh.

B. alleghaniensis Britt., Yellow Birch

         = B. alleghanensis (“corrected spelling by Britton in Britt. & Brown, 1903”), Mitchell & Tucker 1997.

         = B. alleghaniensis var. macrolepis (Fern.) Brayshaw

         = B. carpinifolia Michx.

         = B. excelsa Poir

         = B. lutea Michx. f.

         = B. lutea var. alleghaniensis (Britt.) Ashe

Betula carpinifolia Michx. = Betula alleghaniensis Britt.

Betula excelsa Poir = Betula alleghaniensis Britt.

Betula glandulosa var. glandulifera (Regel) Gleason = Betula pumila L.

B. lenta L., Black Birch, Sweet Birch, Cherry Birch

Betula lutea Michx.f. = Betula alleghaniensis Britt.

Betula lutea Michx. f. var. alleghaniensis (Britt.) Ashe = Betula alleghaniensis Britt.

B. nigra L., River Birch, Red Birch

Betula odorata Bechst. = Betula pubescens Ehrh.

B. papyrifera Marsh., Paper Birch, Canoe Birch, White Birch  3

         = B. papyrifera var. commutata (Regel) Fern.

         = B. papyrifera var. pensilis Fern.

B. populifolia Marsh., Gray Birch, Gire Birch, Old Field Birch, White Birch

         = B. alba var. populifolia (Marsh.) Spach

*B. pubescens Ehrh.,  Downy Birch

         = B. alba of authors in part

         = B. odorata Bechst.

B. pumila L., Swamp Birch

         = B. glandulosa var. glandulifera (Regel) Gleason

         = B. pumila var. glandulifera Regel

 

BIDENS L. (Asteraceae)

*B. aristosa (Michx.) Britt., Western Tickseed, Beggar-Ticks, Sticktights

         = B. aristosa var. retrorsa (Sherff) Wund.

         = B. polylepis Blake

Bidens beckii Torr. ex Spreng. = Megalodonta beckii (Torr. ex Spreng.) Greene

*B. bipinnata L., Spanish Needles

B. cernua L., Nodding Sticktight, Bur-Marigold

         = B. cernua varieties

Bidens chrysanthemoides Michx. = Bidens laevis (L.) BSP

Bidens comosa (Gray) Wieg. = Bidens tripartita L.

B. connata Muhl. ex Willd., Beggar-ticks, Stick-tights

         = B. connata var. petiolata (Nutt.) Farw.

B. coronata (L.) Britt., Tickseed Sunflower

         = B. coronata varieties

         = B. coronata var. trichosperma (Michx.) Fern.                   

         = B. trichosperma (Michx.) Britt.

         = B. trichosperma var. tenuiloba (A. Gray) Britt.

         = Coreopsis trichosperma Michx.

B. frondosa L., Common Beggar-ticks

         = B. frondosa varieties

B. laevis (L.) BSP., Smooth Beggar-ticks

         = B. chrysanthemoides Michx.

Bidens polylepis Blake = Bidens aristosa (Michx.) Britt.

Bidens trichosperma (Michx.) Britt. = Bidens coronata (L.) Britt.

Bidens trichosperma var. tenuiloba (A. Gray) Britt. = Bidens coronata (L.) Britt.

B. tripartita L., Swamp Beggar-ticks

         = B. comosa (A. Gray) Wieg.

B. vulgata Greene, Tall Beggar-ticks

Bilderdykia cilinode (Michx.) Greene = Polygonum cilinode Michx.

Bilderdykia convolvulus (L.) Dumort. = Polygonum convolvulus L.

Blechnum virginicum L. = Woodwardia virginica (L.) Sm.

Blephariglottis blephariglottis (Willd.) Rydb. ex Britt. = Platanthera blephariglottis (Willd.) Lindl.

Blephariglottis grandiflora (Bigel.) Rydb. ex Britt. = Platanthera grandiflora (Bigel.) Lindl.

Blephariglottis leucophaea (Nutt.) Farw. = Platanthera leucophaea (Nutt.) Lindl.

Blephariglottis psycodes (L.) Rybd. ex Britt. = Platanthera psycodes (L.) Lindl.

 

BLEPHILIA Raf. (Lamiaceae)

B. hirsuta (Pursh) Benth., Wood Mint

Blitum bonus-henricus Reichenb. = Chenopodium bonus-henricus L.

Blitum capitatum L. = Chenopodium capitatum (L.) Aschers.

Blitum maritimum Nutt. = Chenopodium rubrum L.

Boebera papposa (Vent.) Hitchc. = Dyssodia papposa (Vent.) Hitchc.

Boechera canadensis (L.) Al-Shehbaz = Arabis canadensis L.

Boechera drummondii (A. Gray) Á. & D. Löve  = Arabis drummondii A. Gray

Boerchera laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Al-Shehbaz = Arabis laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Poir. ex Lam.

 

BOEHMERIA Jacq. (Urticaceae)

B. cylindrica (L.) Sw., False Nettle

         = B. cylindrica var. drummondiana (Wedd.) Wedd.

Bolboschoenus fluviatilis (Torr.) Soják = Scirpus fluviatilis (Torrey) A. Gray

Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla ssp. paludosus (A. Nelson) T. Koyama = Scirpus maritimus L.

 

BORAGO L. (Boraginaceae)

*B. officinalis L., Borage

 

BOTRYCHIUM Sw. (Ophioglossaceae)

Botrychium ternatum var. lunarioides (Michx.) D.C. Eat. = Botrychium lunarioides (Michx.) Sw. (excluded by Zander & Pierce 1979)

Botrychium angustisegmentum (Pease & Moore) Fern. = Botrychium lanceolatum var. angustisegmentum Pease & Moore

B. dissectum Spreng., Dissected Grape-fern, Cutleaf Grape-fern; see note below under Botrychium lunarioides.

         = B. dissectum var. elongatum Gilb. & Haberer

         = B. dissectum var. obliquum (Muhl. ex Willd.) Clute

         = B. ternatum Sw. var. dissectum (Spreng.) D. Eaton

         = B. obliquum Muhl.

         = B. obliquum var. elongatum Gilbert & Haberer

         = B. obliquum var. dissectum (Spreng.) Prantl

Botrychium dissectum × multifidum = Botrychium oneidense (Gilbert) House

Botrychium dissectum var. obliquum (Muhl. ex Willd.) Clute = Botrychium dissectum Spreng.

Botrychium dissectum var. oneidense (Gilb.) CLute = Botychium oneidense (Gilb.) House

B. lanceolatum (Gmel.) Aongstr., Lance-leaved Grape Fern

     var. angustisegmentum Pease & Moore

         = Botrychium angustisegmentum (Pease & Moore) Fern.

B. lunaria (L.) Sw., Moonwort

         = B. lunaria var. onondagense (Underw.) House

         = B. onondagense Underw.

Botrychium lunaria var. onondagense (Underw.) House = Botrychium lunaria (L.) Sw.

Botrychium matricariae (Schrank) Spreng. = Botrychium multifidum (Gmel.) Rupr.

Botrychium lunarioides Swartz of Gray's 5th edition of the manual has two varieties: var. obliquum (= Botychium obliquum Muhl.) and var. dissectum (= Botrychium dissectum Muhl.) (p.672). George Clinton used these names in his collecting diary. These ferns today are probably Botrychium dissectum Spreng.

B. matricariifolium (A.Br. ex Doell) A. Br. ex Koch, Matricary Grape-fern, Daisy-Leaf Grape-fern, Chamomile Grape-fern

           = B. neglectum Wood

B. multifidum (Gmel.) Rupr., Intermediate Leather Grape Fern, Leather-leaved Grapefern

         = B. matricariae (Schrank) Spreng.

         = B. multifidum var. intermedium (D. Eat.) Farw.

         = B. silaifolium Presl

         = B. ternatum var. intermedium D.C. Eat.

Botrychium multifidum var. oneidense (Gilb.) Farw. = Botrychium oneidense (Gilbert) House

Botrychium neglectum Wood = Botrychium matricariifolium (A.Br. ex Doell) A. Br. ex Koch

Botrychium obliquum Muhl. = Botrychium dissectum Spreng.

Botrychium obliquum var. dissectum (Spreng.) Prantl = Botrychium dissectum Spreng.

Botrychium obliquum var. elongatum Gilbert & Haberer = Botrychium dissectum Spreng.

Botrychium obliquum var. oneidense (Gilbert) Waters = Botrychium oneidense (Gilbert) Waters

B. oneidense (Gilbert) House, Oneida Grape Fern

         = B. dissectum var. oneidense (Gilb.) Clute

         = B. dissectum × multifidum

         = B. multifidum var. oneidense (Gilb.) Farw.

         = B. obliquum var. oneidense (Gilbert) Waters

Botrychium onondagense Underw. = Botrychium lunaria (L.) Sw.

Botrychium silaifolium Presl = Botrychium multifidum (Gmel.) Rupr.

B. simplex E. Hitchc., Little Grape Fern, Least Moonwort, Dwarf Grape-fern

         = B. simplex var. laxifolium Clausen, not (Clausen) Fern.

         = B. simplex var. tenebrosum (A. Eaton) Clausen

         = B. tenebrosum A. Eaton

Botrychium tenebrosum A. Eaton = Botrychium simplex E. Hitchc.

Botrychium ternatum var. dissectum (Spreng) D.C. Eat. = Botrychium dissectum Spreng.

Botrychium ternatum var. intermedium D.C. Eat. = Botrychium multifidum (Gmel.) Rupr.

B. virginianum (L.) Sw., Rattlesnake Fern

 

BRACHYACTIS Ledeb. (Asteraceae)

*B. ciliata (Ledeb.) Ledeb., Rayless Aster

     ssp. angusta (Lindl.) A. Jones

         = Aster brachyactis Blake

         = Brachyactis angusta (Lindl.) Britt.

         = Symphyotrichum ciliatum (Ledeb.) Nesom

 

BRACHYELYTRUM Beauv. (Poaceae)

Brachyelytrum aristatum (Pers.) R.& S. = Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb.) Beauv.

Brachyelytrum aristatum Beauv. of Gray's 5th ed. = Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb.) Beauv.

Brachyelytrum aristosum (Michx.) Trel. = Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb.) Beauv.

B. erectum (Schreb.) Beauv., Bearded Short-husk, Brachyelytrum

         = Dilepyrum erectum (Schreb.) Farw.

         = Muhlenbergia erecta Schreb. in Roth ex Spreng.

         = Brachyelytrum aristatum (Pers.) R.& S.

         = B. aristatum Beauv. of Gray's 5th ed

         = B. aristosum (Michx.) Trel.

Brachyelytrum erectum var. glabratum (Vasey ex Millsp.) T. Koyama & Kawano = Brachyelytrum septentrionale (Babel) G. Tucker

Brachyelytrum erectum var. septentrionale Babel = Brachyelytrum septentrionale (Babel) G. Tucker

B. septentrionale (Babel) G. Tucker, Northern Shorthusk

         = B. erectum var. septentrionale Babel

         = B. erectum var. glabratum (Vasey ex Millsp.) T. Koyama & Kawano

 

BRASENIA Schreb. (Cabombaceae)

Brasenia peltata Pursh = Brasenia schreberi Gmel.

B. schreberi Gmel., Water-shield, Purple Wen-dock

         = B. peltata Pursh

 

BRASSICA L. (Brassicaceae)

Brassica arvensis (L.) Rabenh. = Sinapis arvensis L.

Brassica arvensis var. schkuhriana (Reichenb.) Wheeler = Sinapis arvensis L.

Brassica campestris L. = Brassica rapa L.

Brassica eruca L. = Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. ssp. sativa (Mill.) Thell.

*B. juncea (L.) Czern., Indian Mustard, Brown Mustard, Chinese Mustard, Curly Mustard

         = B. japonica Thunb.

         = B. juncea varieties

Brassica kaber (DC.) L. Wheeler = Sinapis arvensis L.

Brassica kaber var. pinnatifida (Stokes) Wheeler = Sinapis arvensis L.

*B. nigra (L.) Koch, Black Mustard

         = Sinapis nigra L.

*B. oleracea L., Cabbage, Kale, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Kohlrabi, Brussels Sprouts

         = B. sylvestris (L.) Mill.

*B. rapa L., Field Mustard, Turnip, Bok Choy, Chinese Cabbage

         = B. campestris L

         = B. rapa ssp. oleifera DC.

Brassica sinapistrum Boiss. = Sinapis arvensis L.

Brassica sylvestris (L.) Mill. = Brassica oleracea L.

 

BRIZA L. (Poaceae)

*B. media L., Quaking Grass

Bromelica striata (Michx.) Farw. = Schizachne purpurascens (Torr.) Swallen

 

BROMUS L. (Poaceae)

Bromus altissimus Pursh = Bromus latiglumis (Shear) Hitchc.

B. ciliatus L., Fringed Brome-grass

Bromus ciliatus var. purgans (L.) Gray = Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd.

*B. commutatus Schrad., Fringed Brome, Hairy Chess

*B. erectus Huds., Upright Brome-grass, Hungarian Brome

*B. hordeaceus L., Soft Chess

         = B. mollis of authors, not L.

Bromus incanus (Shear) Hitchc. = Bromus latiglumis (Shear) Hitchc.

*B. inermis Leyss., Hungarian Brome-grass, Smooth Brome, Awnless Brome

         = B. inermis var. divaricatus Rohl.

*B. japonicus Thunb. ex Murr., Japanese Brome-grass, Japanese Chess

B. kalmii Gray, Kalm's Brome-grass

B. latiglumis (Shear) Hitchc., Canada Brome, Tall Wood-chess

         = Bromus altissimus Pursh

         = Bromus incanus (Shear) Hitchc.

Bromus mollis of authors, not L. = Bromus hordeaceus L.

Bromus nottowayanus Fern. reported for southern Ontario by Wagnon (1952) “with mapped records from the Niagara Peninsula [Regional Municipality of Niagara] and at the eastern end of Lake Ontario (probably within New York State)” is said to be closely related to B. pubescens, the sheaths densely pubescent at the summit, “but has a 5-nerved upper glume and may be the result of hybridization of that species with B. altissimus or even B. kalmii” (Dore & McNeill 1980). Morton and Venn (1990) indicate that B. nottowayanus is probably B. pubescens as does Voss (1972). Not noted for New York State by Mitchell and Tucker (1997).

*B. pubescens Muhl. ex Willd., Canada Brome Grass 

         = B. ciliatus var. purgans (L.) Gray

          = B. purgans of authors, not L.

Bromus purgans L. = Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd.

*B. racemosus L., Smooth Brome-grass, Soft Chess

*B. secalinus L., Cheat, Chess, Rye-brome

*B. sterilis L., Barren Brome-grass, Poverty-brome

*B. tectorum L., Downy Brome-grass, Cheat-grass

Brunella (orth. var.) = Prunella L.

 

BRUNNERA Stev. (Boraginaceae)

*B. macrophylla (Adams) I. M. Johnston, Siberian Bugloss, Garden Forget-me-not

         = Anchusa myosotidiflora Lehm.

         = Myosotis macrophylla Adams

 

BUCHNERA L. (Scrophulariaceae)

B. americana L., Bluehearts

 

BUDDLEJA L. (Buddlejaceae)

*B. davidii Franch., Summer Lilac, Butterfly-bush, Buddleja

 

BUGLOSSOIDES Moench (Boraginaceae)

*B. arvense (L.) Johnst., Corn Gromwell, Bastard Alkanet

         = Lithospermum arvense L.

 

BULBOSTYLIS Kunth (Cyperaceae)

B. capillaris (L.) Clarke, Sand-rush

         = Fimbristylis capillaris A. Gray

         = Stenophyllus capillaris (L.) Britt.

         = S. capillaris var. cryptostachys Fern.

Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Britt. = Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

 

BUTOMUS L. (Butomaceae)

*B. umbellatus L., Flowering Rush

 

CACALIA L. (Asteraceae)

C. atriplicifolia L., Orache-leaved Indian-plantain, Pale Indian-plantain, Wild Collard

         = Arnoglossum atriplicifolium (L.) H. Robinson

C. suaveolens L., Indian Plantain, Sweet-scented Indian-plantain

 

CAKILE Mill. (Brassicaceae)

Cakile americana Nutt. (of local authors) = Cakile edentula  (Bigel.) Hook. ssp. edentula

C. edentula (Bigel.) Hook., Sea-rocket, Shore-rocket

     ssp. edentula

     ssp. lacustris Fern.

         = C. edentula ssp. lacustris (Fern.) Hultén

 

CALAMAGROSTIS Adans. (Poaceae)

Calamagrostis arenaria Roth. of Gray's Manual ed. 5 = Ammophila  breviligulata Fernald, q.v.

C. canadensis (Michx.) Beauv., Bluejoint Grass, Canada Bluejoint Grass

     var. canadensis

         = C. canadensis var. robusta Vasey

         = C. hyperborea Lange

Calamagrostis hyperborea Lange = Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. var. canadensis

 

CALAMINTHA Mill. (Lamiaceae)

C. arkansana (Nutt.) Shinners, Low Calamint, Calamint

         = C. nuttallii Benth.

         = Clinopodium arkansanum (Nutt.) House

         = Hedeoma arkansana Nutt.

         = Micromeria glabella of Ontario reports, not of Benth.

         = Satureja arkansana (Nutt.) Briq.

         = S. glabella var. angustifolia (Torr.) Svenson

         = S. glabella of Ontario reports, not of (Michaux) Briq.

         = S. glabra (Nutt.) Fern.

         = Calamintha glabella var. nuttallii (Benth.) Gray

Calamintha clinopodium Benth. in DC. = Clinopodium vulgare L.

Calamintha glabella var. nuttallii (Benth.) Gray = Calamintha arkansana (Nutt.) Shinners

Calamintha nuttallii Benth. = Calamintha arkansana (Nutt.) Shinners

 

CALAMOVILFA (A. Gray) Hack. ex Scribn. & Southw. (Poaceae)

*C. longifolia (Hook.) Scribn., Great Lakes Sandreed, Dunegrass

     var. magna Scribn. & Merr.

 

CALLA L. (Araceae)

C. palustris L., Wild Calla, Water-arum

 

CALLITRICHE L. (Callitrichaceae)

Callitriche anceps Fern. = Callitriche heterophylla Pursh

C. heterophylla Pursh, Large Water-starwort

         = C. anceps Fern.

C. palustris L., Water-starwort

         = C. verna L.

Callitriche verna L. = Callitriche palustris L.

 

CALOPOGON R. Br. ex Ait. (Orchidaceae)

Calopogon pulchellus (Salisb.) R. Br. ex Ait. = Calopogon tuberosus (L.) BSP.

C. tuberosus (L.) BSP., Grass Pink Orchid

         = C. pulchellus (Salisb.) R. Br. ex Ait.

         = Calthea pulchella (Salisb.) Salisb., not (Willd.) Salisb.

 

CALTHA L. (Ranunculaceae)

C. palustris L., Marsh Marigold, Cowslip

         = C. flabellifolia Pursh

         = C. palustris var. flabellifolia (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray

         = C. palustris var. radicans (Forst.) Hartm.

         = C. radicans Forst.

Calthea pulchella (Salisb.) Salisb., not (Willd.) Salisb. = Calopogon tuberosus (L.) BSP.

 

CALYPSO Salisb. (Orchidaceae)

Calypso borealis Salisb. = Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes

C. bulbosa (L.) Oakes, Calypso Orchid, Fairyslipper

         = C. borealis Salisb.

         = Cytherea bulbosa (L.) Salisb.

 

CALYSTEGIA R. Br. (Convolvulaceae)

Calystegia pellita (Ledeb.) G. Don = Calystegia hederacea Wallich

*C. hederacea Wallich, Japanese Bindweed

         = Calystegia pellita (Ledeb.) G. Don

         = C. pubescens Lindl.

         = Convolvulus pellitus Ledeb.

         = C. japonicus Thunb.

         = C. wallichianus Spreng.

Calystegia pubescens Lindl. = Calystegia hederacea Wallich

C. sepium (L.) R. Br., Hedge-bindweed, Wild Morning-glory, Trailing Hedge-bindweed

     *ssp. sepium (L.) R. Br.

         = Convolvulus nashii House

         = C. sepium var. communis R. Tryon

         = C. sepium var. sepium

C. spithamea (L.) Pursh, Low Bindweed

         = Convolvulus spithameus L.

 

CAMELINA Crantz (Brassicaceae)

*C. microcarpa Andrz. ex DC., Small-fruited False Flax, Littlepod

*C. sativa (L.) Crantz, False Flax, Dutch Flax, Gold-of-Pleasure

 

CAMPANULA L. (Campanulaceae)

C. americana L., Tall Bellflower

         = Campanulastrum americanum (L.) Small

C. aparinoides Pursh, Marsh Bellflower

         = C. aparinoides var. grandiflora Holz

         = C. aparinoides var. uliginosa (Rydb.) Gleason

         = C. uliginosa Rydb.

*Campanula glomerata L., a rare introduction in New York state is excluded from our flora by Zander and Pierce (1979).

*C. rapunculoides L., Creeping Bellflower

         = C. rapunculoides var. ucranica (Bess.) Koch          

C. rotundifolia L., Harebell, Bluebell

Campanula uliginosa Rydb. = Campanula aparinoides Pursh

Campanulastrum americanum (L.) Small = Campanula americana L.

Campe barbarea (L.) Wight = Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.

Campe barbarea (L.) Wight var. hirsuta (Weihe.) House = Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.

Campe stricta (Andrz. ex Bess.) Wight = Barbarea vulgaris R. Br.

Campe verna (Mill.) Heller = Barbarea verna (Mill.) Aschers

 

[CAMPSIS Lour. (Bignoniaceae)]

[C. radicans (L.) Seem. ex Bureau, Trumpet-creeper, Trumpet-vine, Trumpet-flower, possibly est. in Regl. M. Niag. Oldham 1999]

Camptosorus rhizophyllus (L.) Link = Asplenium rhizophyllum L.

 

CANNABIS L. (Cannabaceae)

Cannabis indica Lam. = Cannabis sativa L.

*C. sativa L., Hemp, Marijuana

         = C. indica Lam.

         = C. sativa ssp. indica (Lam.) Small & Cronq.

Capnoides flavula (Raf. ex Desv.) Kuntze = Corydalis flavula (Raf. ex Desv.) DC.

Capnoides sempervirens (L.) Borck. ex Roemer = Corydalis sempervirens (L.) Pers.

 

CAPSELLA Medik. (Brassicaceae)

*C. bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Shepherd's Purse, Pick-pocket

         = Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Britt.

         = Capsella bursa-pastoris var. bifida Crépin

         = Thlaspi bursa-pastoris L.

Carara didyma (L.) Britt. = Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm.

 

CARDAMINE L. (Brassicaceae)

Cardamine arenicola Britt. = Cardamine parviflora L. var. arenicola (Britt.) Schulz

C. bulbosa (Schreb. ex Muhl.) BSP, Bulbous Spring Cress

         = Arabis bulbosa Schreb. ex Muhl.

         = A. rhomboidea Pers.

         = Cardamine rhomboidea (Pers.) DC.

C. concatenata (Michx.) Schwein., Cut-leaved Toothwort

         = Dentaria concatenata Michx.

         = D. laciniata Muhl. ex Willd.

C. concatenata × diphylla = C. × maxima (Nutt.) Wood, Large Toothwort

         = Cardamine maxima (Nutt.) Wood

         = Dentaria diphylla × laciniata

         = D. diphylla × maxima

         = D. × incisa K. Schum.

         = D. × incisifolia Eames

         = D. laciniata × maxima

         = D. maxima Nutt.

C. diphylla (Michx.) Wood, Two-leaved Toothwort

         = Dentaria diphylla Michx.

C. douglassii Britt. (not Torr.), Purple Spring-cress

         = C. rhomboidea var. purpurea Torr.

*C. flexuosa With., Rock-cress

Cardamine flexuosa of some NY reports, not With. = Cardamine parviflora L. var. arenicola (Britt.) Schulz OR Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd.

*Cardamine hirsuta L. in New York is a rare introduction, excluded by Zander and Pierce (1979).

Cardamine hirsuta sensu Torrey's NY Flora, not L. = Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd.

Cardamine maxima (Nutt.) Wood = [Cardamine concatenata × diphylla = C. × maxima (Nutt.) Wood]

Cardamine parviflora (of American authors) = Cardamine parviflora var. arenicola (Britt.) O. E. Schulz

C. parviflora L., Small-flowered Bitter Cress, Small-flowered Bittercress

     var. arenicola (Britt.) O.E. Schulz

         = C. arenicola Britt.

         = C. flexuosa of some NY reports, not With.

         = C. parviflora var. parviflora (of American authors)

         = C. virginica Michx.

C. pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd., Pennsylvania Bitter Cress

         = C. flexuosa of some NY reports, not With.

         = C. hirsuta sensu Torrey's NY Flora, not L.

         = C. pensylvanica var. brittoniana Farw.

Cardamine pensylvanica var. brittoniana Farw. = Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd.

C. pratensis L., Cuckoo-flower

         = C. palustris Peterm. ex Rabenh.

         = C. pratensis var. palustris Wimm. & Graeb.

         = C. pratensis ssp. palustris (Wimm. & Graebn.) Clausen

Cardamine rhomboidea DC. = Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb. ex Muhl.) BSP

Cardamine rhomboidea var. purpurea Torr. = Cardamine douglassii Britt. (not Torr.)

C. rotundifolia Michx., Round-leaved Cress

Cardamine spathulata Michx. = Arabis lyrata L.

Cardamine virginica Michx. = Cardamine parviflora L. var. arenicola (Britt.) Schulz

Cardaminopsis lyrata (L.) Hiitonen. = Arabis lyrata L.

 

CARDARIA Desv. (Brassicaceae)

*Cardaria draba (L.) Desv., Hoary Cress 

         = Lepidium draba L.

 

CARDUUS L. (Asteraceae)

*C. acanthoides L., Bristle-thistle, Spiny Plumeless-thistle

Carduus mariana L. = Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.

*C. nutans L., Nodding Thistle, Musk-thistle

 

CAREX L. (Cyperaceae)

Carex abacta Bailey = Carex michauxiana Boeckl.

Carex aenea Fern. = Carex argyrantha Tuckerm

C. aestivalis Curtis ex A. Gray, Summer-sedge

C. alata Torr., Broad-winged Sedge

C. albicans Willd. ex Spreng., Sedge

     var. albicans

         = C. artitecta Mackz.

         = C. nigromarginata var. muhlenbergii (A. Gray) Gleason

         = C. varia of old NY reports, not Muhl. ex Willd.

     var. emmonsii (Dewey ex Torrey) Rettig, Emmons' Sedge

          = C. emmonsii Dewey ex Torrey

C. albursina Sheldon, White Bear Sedge

         = C. laxiflora var. latifolia Boott

C. alopecoidea Tuckerm., Fox-sedge

C. amphibola Steud.

     var. turgida Fern., Gray Sedge

         = C. grisea Wahl.

         = C. grisea auct. non Wahlenb.

         = C. corrugata Fern.

Carex anceps Muhl. = Carex laxiflora Lam. var. laxiflora

Carex angustata Boott, according to Gray's Manual, ed. 5, 1867 = Carex stricta Lam.

Carex angustior Mackenzie ex Rydb. = Carex echinata Murr.

C. annectens (Bickn.) Bickn.

     var. annectens 

     var. xanthocarpa (Bickn.) Wieg.

          = C. brachyglossa Mackenzie

C. appalachica Webber & Ball

         = C. radiata (Wahlenberg) Small, “formerly C. radiata sensu Mackenzie”

         = C. rosea var. radiata (Wahlenberg) Dewey

C. aquatilis Wahl., Northern Water-sedge

         = C. aquatilis var. altior (Rydb.) Fern.

         = C. substricta (Kuekenth) Mackenzie ex Rydb.

C. arctata Boott ex Hook., Drooping Wood-sedge

C. argyrantha Tuckerm., Hay-sedge

         = C. aenea Fern. (sec. NYFA July 2005)

         = C. foenea of some old NY reports, not Willd.

         = C. siccata Dewey (sec. NYFA July 2005)

Carex artitecta Mackz. = Carex albicans Willd. ex Spreng. var. albicans

Carex asa-grayi Bailey = Carex grayi Carey

C. atherodes Spreng., Wheat-ear Sedge

C. atlantica Bailey

     ssp. atlantica, Prickly Bog-sedge

         = C. atlantica var. incomperta (Bickn.) Herm.

         = C. incomperta Bickn.

     ssp. capillacea (Bailey) Reznicek, Howe's Sedge

          = C. howei Mackenzie

C. aurea Nutt., Golden-fruited Sedge

Carea aurea Nutt. in part = Carex garberi Fern.

C. backii Boott, Back's Sedge

         = C. durifolia Bailey

C. bebbii (Bailey) Olney ex Fern., Bebb's Sedge

Carex bicolor (of authors) = Carex garberi Fern.

C. blanda Dewey, Charming Sedge, Woodland Sedge

         = C. laxiflora var. blanda (Dewey) Boott

Carex brachyglossa Mackenzie = Carex annectens (Bickn.) Bickn. var. xanthocarpa (Bickn.) Wieg.

C. brevior (Dewey) Mackenzie ex Lunell, Common Fescue-sedge

Carex brevior (Dewey) Mackenzie in part = Carex merritt-fernaldii Mackenzie

C. bromoides Schkuhr ex Willd., Brome-like Sedge

C. brunnescens (Pers.) Poir. ex Lam., Brownish Sedge

     var. brunnescens

C. buxbaumii Wahl., Brown Sedge

         = C. polygama Schk.

C. canescens L., Silvery Sedge

         = C. canescens var. disjuncta Fern.

         = C. canescens var. subloliacea Laest.

         = C. curta Good., according to Gray, 1967, Manual ed 5

C. careyana Torr. ex Dewey, Carey's Sedge

Carex cephalantha (Bailey) Bickn. = Carex echinata Murr.

C. cephaloidea (Dewey) Dewey, Thin-leaved Sedge

         = C. sparganioides var. cephaloidea (Dewey) Carey

C. cephalophora Muhl. ex Willd., Southern Sedge, Ovel-leaved Sedge

Carex chlorophila Mackenzie = Carex viridula Michx.

C. chordorrhiza Ehrh. ex L.f., Creeping Sedge

C. communis Bailey, Fibrous-rooted Sedge

C. comosa Boott, Bristly Sedge

C. complanata Torr. & Hook., Northern Hirsute Sedge

         = C. hirsuta Willd., see Gray's Manual ed 5 p. 588

          = C. triceps (of authors)

C. conoidea Schkuhr ex Willd., Field-sedge

Carex convoluta Mackenzie = Carex rosea Schkuhr ex Willd.

Carex corrugata Fern. = Carex amphibola Steud. var. turgida Fern.

C. crawei Dewey ex Torr., Crawe's Sedge

C. crinita Lam., Sickle-sedge, Fringed Sedge

         = C. crinita var. brevicrinis Fern.

         = C. crinita var. minor Boott

         = C. crinita var. porteri (Olney) Fern.

         = C. crinita var. simulans Fern.

         = C. nigromarginata var. minor (Boott) Gleason

Carex crinita var. gynandra (Schwein.) Schwein. & Torr. = Carex gynandra Schwein.

Carex cristata (of authors) = Carex cristatella Britt. ex Britt. & Brown

C. cristatella Britt. ex Britt. & Brown, Crested Sedge

         = C. cristata (of authors)

C. cryptolepis Mackenzie, Small Yellow Sedge                    

         = C. flava var. fertilis M. Peck

         = C. oederi Michx. according to House, 1924, p. 195

Carex curta Good., according to Gray, 1967, Manual ed 5 = Carex canescens L.

C. debilis Michx., Rudge's Sedge, White-edge Sedge

     var. rudgei Bailey

         = C. flexuosa Muhl. ex Willd.

C. deweyana Schwein., Dewey's Sedge

C. diandra Schrank, Lesser Panicled Sedge

         = C. teretiuscula var. major Koch

C. digitalis Willd., Slender Wood-sedge

Carex dioica L. of authors in part = Carex gynocrates Wormsk. ex Drej.

C. disperma Dewey, Soft-leaved Sedge

         = C. tenella Schk.

Carex disticha (of Day, 1882) = Carex sartwellii Dewey

Carex durifolia Bailey = Carex backii Boott

C. eburnea Boott ex Hook., Bristle-leaved Sedge

C. echinata Murr., Prickly Sedge

         = C. angustior Mackenzie ex Rydb.

         = C. cephalantha (Bailey) Bickn.

         = C. leersii Willd. of Zander & Pierce (1979)

         = C. muricata of American authors, not L.

         = C. muricata L. var. angustata Carey

         = C. muricata L. var. cephalantha (Bailey) Wieg. & Eames

Carex elachycarpa Fern. = Carex sterilis Willd.

Carex emmonsii Dewey ex Torr. = Carex albicans var. emmonsii (Dewey ex Torrey) Rettig.

C. emoryi Dewey ex Torrey, Emory's Sedge

         = C. stricta var. elongata (Bock) Gleason

C. festucacea Schkuhr ex Willd., Fescue-sedge

         = C. straminea of some old NY reports, not Schkuhr ex Willd.

         = C. straminea Willd. var. festucacea Boott

Carex filiformis of authors, not L. = Carex lasiocarpa ssp. americana (Fern.) Hultén

C. flaccosperma Dewey, Sedge

     var. glaucodea (Tuckerman ex Olney) Kuk., Blue-green Sedge

          = C. glaucodea Tuckerman ex Olney

Carex flaccidula Steudel, sec. Macdonald 1990 = C. radiata (Wahl.) Small (not Dewey)

C. flava L., Yellow Sedge

         = C. flava var. laxior (Kuk.) Gleason

         = C. laxior (Kuk.) Mackenzie

Carex flava var. fertilis Peck = Carex cryptolepis Mackenzie

Carex flexuosa Muhl. ex Willd. = Carex debilis Michx. var. rudgei Bailey

Carex foenea (of authors) = Carex argyrantha Tuckerm.

C. folliculata L., Long Sedge

C. formosa Dewey, Handsome Sedge

C. garberi Fern., Garber's Sedge, Elk-sedge

         = C. aurea Nutt. in part.

         = C. bicolor (of authors)

         = C. garberi ssp. bifaria (Fern.) Hultén

         = C. hassei Bailey

Carex glaucodea Tuckerman ex Olney = Carex flaccosperma Dewey var. glaucodea (Tuckerman ex Olney) Kuk.

C. gracilescens Steud.

C. gracillima Schwein., Graceful Sedge

C. granularis Muhl. ex Willd., Meadow-sedge

     var. granularis

     var. haleana (Olney) Porter

         = C. shriveri Britt.

C. grayi Carey, Gray's Sedge

         = C. asa-grayi Bailey

         = C. asa-grayi Bailey var. hispidula (A. Gray) Bailey

         = C. grayi var. hispidula A. Gray

Carex grayi var. hispidula A. Gray = Carex grayi Carey

Carex grisea Wahl. = Carex amphibola Steud. var. turgida Fern.

Carex gymnocrates of authors = Carex gynocrates Wormsk. ex Drej.

C. gynandra Schwein., Nodding Sedge, Mountain Fringed Sedge

         = C. crinita var. gynandra (Schwein.) Schwein. & Torr.

C. gynocrates Wormsk. ex Drej., Northern Bog-sedge

         = C. dioica L. of authors in part

         = C. gymnocrates of authors

Carex hassei Bailey = Carex garberi Fern.

[C. haydenii Dewey, Hayden's Sedge

            Rarity Status: State; E TNC Rank: G5 S1: according to Young, (1998) this species is of possible occurrence in Niagara Co. due to unconfirmed report, oral, published or otherwise.]

Carex  hirsuta Willd., see Gray's Manual ed p. 588 = Carex complanata Torr. & Hook., q.v.

C. hirsutella Mackenzie, Hairy Green Sedge

             (Regl. M. Niag. Oldham 1999)

         = Carex complanata Torr. & Hook. var. hirsuta (Bailey) Gleason

         = C. triceps Mackz.

C. hirtifolia Mackenzie, Pubescent Sedge

         = C. pubescens Muhl.

C. hitchcockiana Dewey, Hitchcock's Sedge

Carex howei Mackenzie = Carex atlantica Bailey ssp. capillacea (Bailey) Reznicek

[C. hyalinolepis Steud., Sedge

There are unconfirmed reports of this species from Cattaraugus Co. (Young 1998).]

C. hystericina Muhl. ex Willd., Porcupine-sedge

         = C. hystricina of authors

Carex hystricina of authors = Carex hystericina Muhl. ex Willd.

Carex incomperta Bickn. = Carex atlantica Bailey ssp. atlantica

C. interior Bailey, Inland Sedge

C. intumescens Rudge, Bladder-sedge

         = C. intumescens var. fernaldii Bailey

Carex irregularis Schwein. = Carex viridula Michx.

C. jamesii Schwein., James' Sedge

         = C. steudelii Kunth

C. lacustris Willd., Lake-bank Sedge

         = C. riparia (of authors)

         = C. riparia var. lacustris (Willd.) Kuekenth

C. laevivaginata (Kuekenth) Mackenzie ex Britt. & Brown, Smooth-sheathed Sedge

C. lanuginosa Michx., Woolly Sedge

         = C. lasiocarpa ssp. lanuginosa (Michx.) Clausen & Wahl.

         = C. lasiocarpa var. latifolia (Boeck.) Gleason

         = C. pellita Muhl.

C. lasiocarpa Ehrh., Slender Sedge

     ssp. americana (Fern.) Hultén

         = C. lasiocarpa var. americana Fern.

         = C. filiformis auct. not of L.

Carex lasiocarpa ssp. lanuginosa (Michx.) Clausen & Wahl. = Carex lanuginosa Michx.

Carex lasiocarpa var. americana Fern. = Carex lasiocarpa ssp. americana (Fern.) Hultén

Carex lasiocarpa var. latifolia (Boeck.) Gleason = Carex lanuginosa Michx.

C. laxiculmis Schwein., Spreading Sedge

         = C. retrocurva Dewey in Wood

C. laxiflora Lam., Loose-flowered Sedge

     var. laxiflora

         = C. anceps Willd.

Carex laxiflora var. blanda (Dewey) Boott = Carex blanda Dewey

Carex laxiflora var. latifolia Boott = Carex albursina Sheldon

Carex laxior (Kuk.) Mackenzie = Carex flava L.

Carex leersii Willd. of Zander & Pierce (1979) = Carex echinata Murr.

C. leptalea Wahl., Bristle-stalked Sedge

         = C. polytrichoides Muhl. ex Willd.

C. leptonervia (Fern.) Fern., Northern Woodland-sedge

C. limosa L., Mud-sedge

C. lupuliformis Sartwell ex Dewey, Hop-like Sedge

C. lupulina Muhl. ex Willd., Hop-sedge

         = C. × macounii Dewey

         = C. lupulina var. pedunculata Gray

Carex lupulina var. pedunculata Gray = Carex lupulina Muhl. ex Willd.

C. lurida Wahl., Sallow Sedge

         = C. lurida var. exundans Bailey ex Britt. & Brown

         = C. lurida var. pedunculata Gray

         = C. tentaculata Muhl. ex Willd.

Carex × macounii Dewey = Carex lupulina Muhl. ex Willd.

C. meadii Dewey, Mead's Sedge

C. merritt-fernaldii Mackz.,  Fernald's Sedge

         = C. brevior (Dewey) Mackz. in part.

C. michauxiana Boeckl., Michaux's Sedge

         = C. abacta Bailey

Carex miliacea Muhl. ex Willd. = Carex prasina Wahl.

Carex mirabilis Dewey = Carex normalis Mackenzie

C. molesta Mackenzie, Troublesome Sedge

C. muhlenbergii Schkuhr ex Willd., Muhlenberg's Sedge

     var. muhlenbergii

Carex muricata of some authors, not L. see Carex spicata Huds.

Carex muricata L. (of Zenkert, 1934) = Carex echinata Murr.

Carex muricata var. angustata Carey = Carex echinata Murr.

Carex muricata L. var. cephalantha (Bailey) Wieg. & Eames = Carex echinata Murr.

Carex muricata var. sterilis (Willd.) Gleason, not Carey = Carex sterilis Willd.

Carex nigromarginata var. muhlenbergii (A. Gray) Gleason = Carex albicans Willd. ex Spreng. var. albicans

Carex nigromarginata var. minor (Boott) Gleason = Carex crinita Lam. var. crinita

C. normalis Mackenzie, Larger Straw-sedge

         = C. mirabilis Dewey

C. novae-angliae Schwein., New England Sedge

Carex oederi Michx. according to House, 1924, p. 195 = Carex cryptolepis Mackenzie

Carex oederi var. pumila (Cos. & Germ.) Fern. = Carex viridula Michx.

C. oligocarpa Schkuhr ex Willd., Few-fruited Sedge

C. oligosperma Michx., Few-seeded Sedge

C. pallescens L., Pale Sedge

         = C. pallescens var. neogea Fern.

Carex pallescens var. neogea Fern. = Carex pallescens L.

C. pauciflora Lightf., Few-flowered Sedge

C. paupercula Michx., Bog-sedge

     var. irrigua (Wahl.) Fern.

          = C. magellanica ssp. irrigua (Wahl.) Hultén

In Zenkert (1934) , C. paupercula is a synonym of C. magellanica of  Macoun's Cat. of Can. Pl. (p. 110).

     var. pallens Fern.

C. pedunculata Muhl. ex Willd., Long-stalked Sedge

Carex pellita Muhl. = Carex lanuginose Michx.

C. pensylvanica Lam., Pennsylvania-sedge

C. plantaginea Lam., Plantain-leaved Sedge

C. platyphylla Carey, Broad-leaved Sedge

Carex polygama Schk. = Carex buxbaumii Wahl.

Carex polytrichoides Muhl. ex Willd. = Carex leptalea Wahl.

C. prairea Dewey ex Wood, Prairie-sedge

C. prasina Wahl., Drooping Sedge

         = C. miliacea Muhl. ex Willd.

C. projecta Mackenzie, Necklace Sedge

C. pseudocyperus L., Cyperus-like Sedge

Carex pubescens Muhl. = Carex hirtifolia Mackenzie

C. radiata (Wahl.) Small (not Dewey), Sedge

         = C. flaccidula Steudel, sec. Macdonald 1990

         = C. rosea of some authors, not Willd.

         = C. rosea auct. Ontario reports in large part (Morton & Venn 1990)

Carex retrocurva Dewey in Wood = Carex laxiculmis Schwein.

C. retroflexa Muhl. ex Willd., Reflexed Sedge

C. retrorsa Schwein., Retrorse Sedge

Carex riparia (of authors) = Carex lacustris Willd.

Carex riparia var. lacustris (Willd.) Kuekenth = Carex lacustris Willd.

C. rosea Schkuhr ex Willd., Rose-sedge

         = C. convoluta Mackenzie, “see note under C. radiata”

C. rostrata Stokes ex With., Beaked Sedge

     var. utriculata (Boott) Bailey

         = Carex utriculata Boott in Hook.

Carex rugosperma Mackenzie = Carex tonsa (Fern.) Bickn. var. rugosperma (Mackenzie) Crins

C. sartwellii Dewey, Sartwell's Sedge

         = C. disticha (of Day, 1882)                    

C. scabrata Schwein., Rough Sedge

C. schweinitzii Dewey ex Schwein., Schweinitz's Sedge

C. scoparia Schkuhr ex Willd., Pointed Broom Sedge

     var. scoparia

C. seorsa Howe ex Gord. & Howe, Sedge

         = C. rosaeoides Howe ex Gord. & Howe

Carex setacea Dewey = Carex vulpinoidea Michx.

Carex siccata Dewey (sec. NYFA July 2005) = Carex argyrantha Tuckerm.

Carex shriveri Britt. = Carex granularis Muhl. ex Willd. var. haleana (Olney) Porter

C. sparganioides Muhl. ex Willd., Bur-reed Sedge

Carex sparganioides var. cephaloidea (Dewey) Carey = Carex cephaloidea (Dewey) Dewey

*C. spicata Huds., Spiked Sedge

         = C. muricata of some authors, not L.

C. sprengelii Dewey ex Sprengel

C. squarrosa L., Squarrose Sedge

Carex stellulata Good. = Carex sterilis Willd.

Carex stellulata var. cephalantha “of Gray's Man., ed 7” cited by Zenkert (1934) = Carex echinata Murr.

C. sterilis Willd., Barren Prickly Sedge

         = C. elachycarpa Fern.

         = C. stellulata Good.

         = C. muricata var. sterilis (Willd.) Gleason, not Carey

Carex steudelii Kunth = Carex jamesii Schw.

C. stipata Muhl. ex Willd., Awl-fruited Sedge

[C. straminea Willd. ex Schkuhr, Straw Sedge. The report of this species by Zenkert and Zander (1975) is based on a published report for Chautauqua Co. by Burgess (1877): Burgess' specimen cannot be located. Specimens of this species, which is rare in New York State, concentrate in the New York City area (House 1924, NYFA 1990). Morton and Venn (1990) state that there are no confirmed reports of this species for Ontario.]

Carex straminea of some old NY reports, not Schkuhr ex Willd. = Carex festucacea Schkuhr ex Willd.

Carex straminea Willd. var. festucacea Boott = Carex festucacea Schkuhr ex Willd.

C. stricta Lam., Tussock-sedge

         = C. angustata Boott, according to Gray's Manual, ed 5, 1867

         = C. stricta var. strictior (Dewey) Carey

         = C. strictior Dewey ex Wood

         = C. strictior Dewey ex Wood var. angustata (Boott) Bailey

Carex stricta var. elongata (Bock) Gleason = Carex emoryi Dewey ex Torrey

Carex substricta (Kuekenth) Mackenzie ex Rydb. = Carex aquatilis Wahl.

C. swanii (Fern.) Mackenzie, Swan's Sedge

Carex tenella Schk. = Carex disperma Dewey

C. tenera Dewey, Slender Straw-sedge

         = C. tenera var. echioides (Fern.) Wieg.

Carex tentaculata Muhl. ex Willd. = Carex lurida Wahl.

C. tenuiflora Wahl., Sparse-flowered Sedge

Carex teretiuscula var. major Koch = Carex diandra Schrank

C. tetanica Schkuhr ex Willd., Rigid Sedge              

Carex tetanica var. woodii (Dewey) Wood = Carex woodii Dewey

C. tonsa (Fern.) Bickn. var. rugosperma (Mackenzie) Crins, Umbelliform Sedge

         = C. rugosa Mackenzie

         = C. umbellata Schkuhr ex Willd. in part.

C. torta Boott ex Tuckerm., Twisted Sedge

C. tribuloides Wahl., Blunt Broom-sedge

Carex triceps (of authors) = Carex hirsutella Mackz.

C. trichocarpa Schkuhr ex Willd. (not Muhl.), Hairy-fruited Sedge

         = C. trichocarpa var. turbinata Dewey

C. trisperma Dewey, Three-seeded Sedge

     var. billingsii Knight, Billing's Sedge

     var. trisperma

C. tuckermanii Dewey, Tuckerman Sedge

         = C. tuckermanii var. niagarensis C.P. Smith

Carex umbellata Schkuhr ex Willd. in part = Carex tonsa (Fern.) Bickn. var. rugosperma (Mackenzie) Crins

Carex utriculata Boott in Hook. = Carex rostrata Stokes ex With. var. utriculata (Boott) Bailey

C. vaginata Tausch, Sheathed Sedge

Carex varia of old NY reports, not Muhl. ex Willd. = Carex albicans Willd. ex Spreng. var. albicans

C. vesicaria L., Bladdery Sedge

C. virescens Muhl. ex Willd., Ribbed Sedge

C. viridula Michx., Little Green Sedge

         = C. chlorophila Mackenzie

         = C. irregularis Schwein.

         = C. oederi var. pumila (Cos. & Germ.) Fern.

C. vulpinoidea Michx., Foxtail Sedge, Fox-sedge

         = C. setacea Dewey

C. willdenovii Schkuhr ex Willd., Willdenow's Sedge

C. woodii Dewey, Wood's Sedge

         = C. tetanica var. woodii (Dewey) Wood

 

CARPINUS L. (Betulaceae)

Carpinus americana Michx. = Carpinus caroliniana Walt.

C. caroliniana Walt., American Hornbeam, Blue Beech, Ironwood, Musclewood

     ssp. virginiana (Marsh.) Furlow

         = C. americana Michx.

         = C. betulus virginiana Marsh.

         = C. caroliniana var. virginiana (Marsh.) Fern.

Carpinus virginiana Mill. = Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch

 

CARUM L. (Apiaceae)

*C. carvi L., Caraway, Anise

 

CARYA Nutt. (Juglandaceae)

Carya alba (L.) K. Koch = Carya tomentosa (Lam. ex Poir.) Nutt.

Carya alba Nutt. = Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch

Carya amara (Michx. f.) Nutt. = Carya cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch

C. cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch, Bitternut Hickory, Swamp-hickory

         = C. amara (Michx. f.) Nutt.

         = Hicoria cordiformis (Wang.) Britt. ex Britt. & Schafer

         = C. × laneyi of NY report, not Sarg.

C. glabra (Mill.) Sweet, Pignut Hickory

         = C. glabra var. megacarpa (Sarg.) Sarg.

         = C. porcina (Michx. f.) Nutt.

         = Hicoria glabra (Mill.) Britt.

C. laciniosa (Michx.f.) G. Don, Big Shell-bark, Kingnut

         = C. sulcata Nutt. (sec. House 1924)

Carya × laneyi of NY report, not Sarg. = Carya cordiformis (Wang.) Koch

Carya microcarpa Nutt. = Carya ovalis (Wang.) Sarg. according to Fernald: Gray's Manual  1950 p. 530

C. ovalis (Wang.) Sarg., Small-fruited Hickory

         = Carya microcarpa Nutt. according to Fernald: Gray's Manual  1950 p. 530

         = Hicoria ovalis (Wang.) Ashe

C. ovata (Mill.) K. Koch, Shag-bark Hickory

         = Carya alba Nutt. (sec. House 1924)

         = Hicoria alba of some American authors, not (L.) Nutt. ex Ell.

         = H. ovata (Mill.) Britt.

         = H. ovata (Mill.) Britt. var. fraxinifolia (Sarg.) Ashe

         = H. ovata (Mill.) Britt. var. nuttallii (Sarg.) Ashe

Carya porcina (Michx. f.) Nutt. = Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet

Carya sulcata Nutt. = Carya laciniosa (Michx.f.) G. Don

C. tomentosa (Poir. ex Lam.) Nutt., Mockernut Hickory, White-Heart Hickory

         = C. alba (L.) Nutt. ex Ell. in part

         = Hicoria tomentosa (Poir. ex Lam.) Raf.

Cassandra calyculata (L.) D. Don = Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench

Cassia chamaecrista L. = Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene

Cassia diffusa of NY reports, not DC. = Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene

Cassia fasciculata Michx. = Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Greene

Cassia hebecarpa Fern. = Senna hebecarpa (Fern.) Irwin & Barneby

Cassia marylandica of NY reports, not L. = Senna hebecarpa (Fern.) Irwin & Barneby

Castalia odorata (Dryand ex Ait.) Woodr. & Wood. = Nymphaea odorata Dryand. ex Ait. ssp. odorata

Castalia lekophylla Small = Nymphaea odorata Dryand. ex Ait. ssp. odorata

Castalia tuberosa (Paine) Greene = Nymphaea odorata Dryand. ex Ait. ssp. tuberosa (Paine) Wiersma & Hellquist

 

CASTANEA Hill (Fagaceae)

Castanea americana Raf. = Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.

C. dentata (Marsh.) Borkh., American Chestnut

         = C. americana Raf.

         = C. vesca var. americana Michx.

Castanea vesca var. americana Michx. = Castanea dendata (Marsh.) Borkh.

 

CASTILLEJA Mutis ex L.f. (Scrophulariaceae)

C. coccinea (L.) Spreng., Painted Cup, Indian-paintbrush, Scarlet Paintbrush

 

CATALPA Scop. (Bignoniaceae)

C. speciosa (Warder ex Barney) Engelm.: Catalpa, Indian-bean, Catawba, Cigar-tree

 

CAULOPHYLLUM Michx. (Berberidaceae)

C. thalictroides (L.) Michx., Blue Cohosh, Papoose-root

 

CEANOTHUS L. (Rhamnaceae)

C. americanus L., New Jersey Tea, Redroot

 

CELASTRUS L. (Celastraceae)

C. orbiculata Thunb., Oriental Bittersweet

         = C. orbiculatus of authors

C. scandens L., Climbing Bittersweet, Wax-work, Staffvine, Climbing or False Bittersweet

 

CELTIS L. (Ulmaceae)

C. occidentalis L., Hackberry

         = C. canina Raf.

         = C. crassifolia Lam.

         = C. occidentalis var. canina (Raf.) Sarg.

         = C. occidentalis var. pumila (Pursh) Gray

         = C. pumila Pursh

         = C. tenuifolia of authors, not Nutt.

 

CENCHRUS L. (Poaceae)

C. longispinus (Hack.) Fern., Sandbur

         = C. pauciflorus Benth.

 

CENTAUREA L. (Asteraceae)

Centaurea biebersteinii DC. = Centaurea maculosa Lam.

*C. cyanus L., Bachelor's Button, Bluebottle, Corn-flower Bluet

Centaurea dubia of local authors, not Suter = Centaurea nigrescens Willd.

Centaurea dubia ssp. vochinensis (Bernh. ex Reichenb.) Hayek = Centaurea nigrescens Willd.

*C. jacea L., Brown Knapweed

*C. maculosa Lam., Spotted Knapweed 

         = C. biebersteinii DC.

*C. nigra L., Black Knapweed, Spanish-buttons, Hardheads

         = C. nigra var. radiata DC.

         = C. jacea var. nigra (L.) Briq.

Centaurea nigra var. radiata DC. = Centaurea nigra L.

*C. nigrescens Willd., Knapweed

         = C. dubia Suter [Voss 1996, p. 513.]

         = C. dubia ssp. vochinensis (Bernh. ex Reichenb.) Hayek

         = C. vochinensis Bernh. ex Reichenb.

*C. solstitialis L., Barnaby's Thistle, Yellow Star-thistle, Barnaby's Thistle

Centaurea vochinensis Bernh. ex Reichenb. = Centaurea nigrescens Willd.

 

CENTAURIUM Hill (Gentianaceae)

*C. erythraea Rafn. (not Raf.), European Centaury

         = C. centaurium (L.) Wight

         = C. umbellatum Gilib.

         = Erythraea centaurium Pers.

 

CEPHALANTHUS L. (Rubiaceae)

C. occidentalis L., Buttonbush

 

CERASTIUM L. (Caryophyllaceae)

Cerastium aquaticum L. = Myosoton aquaticum (L.) Moench

Cerastium apetalum Dumort. = Cerastium glomeratum Thuill.

*C. arvense L., Field-chickweed, Meadow-chickweed

         = C. arvense ssp. strictum (L.) Ugbor.

         = C. arvense var. oblongifolium (Torr.) Hollick & Britt.

         = C. arvense var. villosum (Muhl.) Hollick & Britt.

         = C. campestre Greene

         = C. oblongifolium Torr.

         = C. occidentale Greene

         = C. pennsylvanicum Hornem. ex DC.

         = C. pubescens Goldie

         = C. tenuifolium Pursh

         = C. velutinum Raf.

         = C. villosum Muhl. ex Darl.

Cerastium campestre Greene = Cerastium arvense L.

Cerastium caespitosum Gilib. = Cerastium fontanum Baumg. emend. Jalas

*C. fontanum Baumg. emend. Jalas, Common Mouse-ear Chickweed

         = C. caespitosum Gilib.

         = C. fontanum ssp. triviale of NY authors, not (Link) Jalas

         = C. holostoides Fries

         = C. glomeratum of some NY reports not Thuill.

         = C. vulgatum of NY authors, not L.

*C. glomeratum Thuill., Mouse-ear Chickweed

         = C. apetalum Dumort.

         = C. glomeratum var. apetalum (Dumort.) Fenzl.

         = C. viscosum of authors, not L.

Cerastium glomeratum of some NY reports not Thuill. = Cerastium fontanum Baumg. emend. Jalas

Cerastium glutinosum Nutt. = Cerastium nutans Raf.

Cerastium holostoides Fries = Cerastium fontanum Baumg. emend. Jalas

Cerastium longipedunculatum Muhl., a nomen nudum = Cerastium nutans Raf.

C. nutans Raf., Nodding Chickweed

         = C. glutinosum Nutt.

         = C. longipedunculatum Muhl., a nomen nudum

         = C. tenellum Fenzl

Cerastium oblongifolium Torr. = Cerastium arvense L.

Cerastium occidentale Greene = Cerastium arvense L.

Cerastium pennsylvanicum Hornem. ex DC. = Cerastium arvense L.

Cerastium pubescens Goldie = Cerastium arvense L.

*C. semidecandrum L., Small Mouse-ear Chickweed, Spring Mouse-ear

         = C. vulgatum var. semidecandrum (L.) Gray

Cerastium tenellum Fenzl = Cerastium nutans Raf.

Cerastium tenuifolium Pursh = Cerastium arvense L.

Cerastium velutinum Raf. = Cerastium arvense L.

Cerastium villosum Muhl. ex Darl. = Cerastium arvense L.

Cerastium viscosum of authors, not L. = Cerastium glomeratum Thuill.

Cerastium vulgatum of NY authors, not L. = Cerastium fontanum Baumg. emend. Jalas

Cerastium vulgatum var. semidecandrum (L.) Gray = Cerastium semidecandrum L.

Cerasus pennsylvanica (L.f.) Loisel. = Prunus pensylvanica L.f.

Cerasus vulgaris Mill. = Prunus cerasus L.

 

CERATOPHYLLUM L. (Ceratophyllaceae)

C. demersum L., Hornwort, Coontail

C. echinatum Gray, Spiny Hornwort, Coontail, Hornwort

         = C. muricatum of some authors, not Cham.

Ceratophyllum muricatum of some authors, not Cham. = Ceratophyllum echinatum Gray

Cercis canadensis L., Redbud (excluded by Zander & Pierce 1979).

 

CHAENOMELES Lindl. (Rosaceae)

Chaenomeles lagenaria (Loisel.) Koidzumi = Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai

*C. speciosa (Sweet) Nakai, Japanese Quince

         = Cydonia japonica of some authors, not (Thunb.) Pers.

         = Cydonia lagenaria (Loisel.) Koidzumi

         = Chaenomeles lagenaria (Loisel.) Koidzumi

 

CHAENORRHINUM (DC.) Reichenb. (Scrophulariaceae)

*C. minus (L.) Lange, Dwarf Snapdragon 

         = Linaria minor (L.) Desf.

 

CHAEROPHYLLUM L. (Apiaceae)

C. procumbens (L.) Crantz., Spreading Chervil

Chaerophyllum sylvestre L. = Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm.

 

CHAMAECRISTA (L.) Moench (Fabaceae)

C. fasciculata (Michx.) Greene, Partridge-pea, Locust-weed

         = Cassia chamaecrista L.

         = C. fasciculata Michx.

         = C. diffusa of NY reports, not DC.

         = Chamaecrista fascicularis Greene

 

CHAMAEDAPHNE Moench (Ericaceae)

C. calyculata (L.) Moench, Leather-leaf, Cassandra

         = Andromeda calyculata L.

         = Cassandra calyculata (L.) D. Don

         = Chamaedaphne calyculata var. angustifolia (Ait.) Rehd.

 

CHAMAELIRIUM Willd. (Liliaceae)

C. luteum (L.) Gray, Blazing-star, Fairy-wand, Devil's-bit

 

CHAMAESYCE S. Gray (Euphorbiaceae)

Chamaesyce humistrata of NY reports, not (Engelm.) Small = Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small

C. maculata (L.) Small, Spotted Spurge

         = C. humistrata of NY reports, not (Engelm.) Small

         = Euphorbia maculata L.

         = E. humistrata of NY reports, not Engelm.

         = E. supina Raf.

C. nutans (Lag.) Small, Upright Spotted Spurge, Eyebane

         = Euphorbia maculata of authors in part not (L.) Small

         = E. nutans Lag.

         = E. preslii Guss.

         = E. hypericifolia of authors and Ontario reports

C. polygonifolia (L.) Small, Seaside Spurge

         = Euphorbia polygonifolia L.

C. vermiculata (Raf.) House, Hairy Spurge, Worm-seeded Spurge

         = Euphorbia hirsuta (Torr.) Weig.

         = E. vermiculata Raf.

Chamemelum arvense (L.) Schreb. = Anthemis arvensis L.

Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Scop. ssp.circumvagum (Mosquin) Moldenke = Epilobium angustifolium L.

Chamomilla maritima of NY reports, not (L.) Rydb. = Matricaria perforata Merat

Chamomila inodora (L.) Rydb. = Matricaria perforata Merat

Chamomila suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb. = Matricaria discoidea DC.

Cheirinia cheiranthoides (L.) Link = Erysimum cheiranthoides L.

 

CHELIDONIUM L. (Papaveraceae)

*C. majus L., Celandine, Greater Celandine  

 

CHELONE L. (Scrophulariaceae)

C. glabra L., Turtlehead

         = C. glabra var. dilatata Fern. & Wieg.

         = C. glabra var. elatior Raf.

 

CHENOPODIUM L. (Chenopodiaceae)

*C. album L., Lamb's Quarters, Goose-foot, Pigweed

     *var. album

         = C. album var. lanceolatum (Muhl.) Coss. & Germ.

         = C. lanceolatum Muhl.

         = C. viride L. in part

     var. missouriense (Aellen) Bassett & Crompton, Missouri Goose-foot

          = C. missouriense Aellen

         = C. paganum of authors, not Reich.

*C. ambrosioides L., Mexican Tea, Wormseed

         = C. ambrosioides var. anthelminticum (L.) Gray

         = C. ambrosioides var. chilense (Schrad.) Speg.

         = C. anthelminicum L.

Chenopodium anthelminicum L. = Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

*C. bonus-henricus L., Good-King-Henry

         = Blitum bonus-henricus Reichenb.

*C. botrys L., Jerusalem Oak, Feather-geranium

C. capitatum (L.) Aschers., Strawberry Blite, Indian Paint

         = Blitum capitatum L.

Chenopodium chenopodioides (L.) Aellen = Chenopodium rubrum L.

Chenopodium dessicatum of authors, not A. Nels. = Chenopodium pratericola Rydb.

Chenopodium dessicatum var. leptophylloides (Murr) Wahl. = Chenopodium pratericola Rydb.

Chenopodium foggii Wahl. = Chenopodium pratericola Rydb.

Chenopodium gigantospermum Aellen = Chenopodium simplex (Torr.) Raf.

*C. glaucum L., Oak-leaved Goosefoot

         = C. glaucum ssp. salinum (Standl.) Aellen

         = C. salinum Standl.

Chenopodium humile Hook. = Chenopodium rubrum L.

Chenopodium hybridum of some authors, not L. = Chenopodium simplex (Torr.) Raf.

Chenopodium hybridum var. gigantospermum (Aellen) Rouleau = Chenopodium simplex (Torr.) Raf.

Chenopodium hybridum var. simplex Torr. = Chenopodium simplex (Torr.) Raf.

Chenopodium leptophyllum Nutt. ex Moq. in DC., not Wats. = Chenopodium pratericola Rydb.

*C. murale L., Sowbane, Nettle-leaf Goosefoot

*C. polyspermum L., Many-seeded Goosefoot

*C. pratericola Rydb., Narrow-leaved Goosefoot

         = C. dessicatum of authors, not A. Nels.

         = C. dessicatum var. leptophylloides (Murr) Wahl.

         = C. foggii Wahl.

         = C. leptophyllum Nutt. ex Moq. in DC.

         = C. pratericola var. leptophylloides (Murr) Aellen & Just

*C. rubrum L., Red Pigweed, Red Goosefoot, Coat-blite

         = Blitum maritimum Nutt.

         = Chenopodium chenopodioides (L.) Aellen

         = C. humile Hook.

         = C. rubrum var. humile (Hook.) S. Wats.

Chenopodium salinum Standl. = Chenopodium glaucum L.

C. simplex (Torr.) Raf., Maple-leaved Goosefoot

         = C. gigantospermum Aellen

         = C. hybridum of some authors, not L.

         = C. hybridum var. gigantospermum (Aellen) Rouleau

         = C. hybridum var. simplex Torr.

C. strictum Roth

     var. glaucophyllum (Aellen) Wahl, Goosefoot

*C. urbicum L., City-goosefoot

 

CHIMAPHILA Pursh (Ericaceae)

C. maculata (L.) Pursh, Spotted Wintergreen

C. umbellata (L.) Bart.,  Wintergreen, Prince's Pine, Pipsissewa

     ssp. cisatlantica (Blake) Hultén

         = C. umbellata var. cisatlantica Blake

Chiogenes hispidula (L.) Torr. & A. Gray = Gaultheria hispidula (L.) Muhl. ex Bigel.

Chrysanthemum balsamita (L.) Baill. = Balsamita major Desf.

Chrysanthemum balsamita var. tanacetoides Boiss = Balsamita major Desf.

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. = Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum var. pinnatifidum Lecoq.& Lamotte = Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.

Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh. = Tanacetum vulgare L.

 

CHIONANTHUS (Oleaceae)

*C. virginicus L. Old-man's Beard, Fringe tree

 

CHRYSOSPLENIUM L. (Saxifragaceae)

C. americanum Schwein. ex Hook., Golden Saxifrage, Water-mat, Water-carpet

         = C. oppositifolium Walt.

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium Walt. = Chrysosplenium americanum Schwein. ex Hook.

 

CICHORIUM L. (Asteraceae)

*C. intybus L., Chicory, Blue Sailors, Tattered Sailors, Cornflower, Succory, Witloof

 

CICUTA L. (Apiaceae)

C. bulbifera L., Bulb-bearing Water-hemlock

C. maculata L., Water-hemlock, Spotted Cowbane, Musquash-root, Beaver-poison, Poison Hemlock

 

CIMICIFUGA L. (Ranunculaceae)

C. racemosa (L.) Nutt., Black Snakeroot, Black Cohosh

         = C. americana of NY report, not Michx.

 

CINNA L. (Poaceae)

C. arundinacea L., Woodreed, Stout Woodreed, Wood Reedgrass

C. latifolia (Trev. ex Goepp.) Griseb., Drooping Woodreed

 

CIRCAEA L. (Onagraceae)

C. alpina L., Smaller Enchanter's-Nightshade

Circaea alpina × lutetiana = C. intermedia Ehrh., Enchanter's Nightshade

         = C. canadensis Hill, not L.

         = C. intermedia of Gray's Manual, ed. 7, according to Zenkert, 1934.

Circaea canadensis Hill, not L. = Circaea alpina × lutetiana = C. intermedia Ehrh.

Circaea canadensis L. = Circaea lutetiana L. ssp. canadensis (L.) Aschers. & Magnus

Circaea latifolia Hill = Circaea lutetiana L. ssp. canadensis (L.) Aschers. & Magnus

C. lutetiana L., Canadian Enchanter's-nightshade

     ssp. canadensis (L.) Aschers. & Magnus

         = C. canadensis L.

         = C. quadrisulcata (Maxim.) Franch. & Sav.

         = C. quadrisulcata var. canadensis (L.) Hara

         = C. latifolia of authors, not Hill

Circaea quadrisulcata (Maxim.) Franch. & Sav. = Circaea lutetiana L. ssp. canadensis (L.) Aschers. & Magnus

Circaea quadrisulcata var. canadensis (L.) Hara = Circaea lutetiana L. ssp. canadensis (L.) Aschers. & Magnus

 

CIRSIUM Mill. (Asteraceae)

C. altissimum (L.) Spreng., Tall Thistle

*C. arvense (L.) Scop., Canada Thistle

         = C. arvense var. integrifolium Wimm. & Graebn.

         = C. arvense var. vestitum Wimm. & Graebn.

C. discolor (Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng., Field-thistle

Cirsium lanceolatum of NY reports, not (L.) Hill = Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore

C. muticum Michx., Swamp-thistle

         = C. muticum var. subpinnatifidum (Britt.) Fern.

Cirsium odoratum (Muhl. ex Bart.) Petrak, not Britt. ex Britt. & Brown = Cirsium pumilum (Nutt.) Spreng.

C. pumilum (Nutt.) Spreng., Pasture-thistle, Small Bull-Thistle

         = C. odoratum (Muhl. ex Bart.) Petrak, not Britt. ex Britt. & Brown

*C. vulgare (Savi) Tenore, Bull-thistle

         = C. lanceolatum of NY reports, not (L.) Hill Cistus canadensis L.

         = Helianthemum canadensis (L.) Michx.

 

CITRULLUS Schrad. ex Eckl. & Zeyh.

C. colocynthis (L.) Shrad. ex Eckl. & Zeyh. Watermelon

         = Anguria citrullus (L.) Mill

         = C. vulgaris Schrad.

 

CLADIUM R. Br. (Cyperaceae)

C. mariscoides (Muhl.) Torr., Twig-rush, Bog-rush

         = Mariscus mariscoides (Muhl.) Kuntze

 

CLAYTONIA L. (Portulacaceae)

C. caroliniana Michx., Broad-leaved Spring Beauty

         = C. latifolia Sheldon

Claytonia latifolia Sheldon = Claytonia caroliniana Michx.

Claytonia multicaulis var. robusta Somes = Claytonia virginica L.

Claytonia robusta Rydb. = Claytonia virginica L.

Claytonia simsii Sweet = Claytonia virginica L.

C. virginica L., Narrow-leaved Spring Beauty, Mayflower

         = C. media (DC.) Link

         = C. multicaulis var. robusta Somes

         = C. robusta Rydb.

         = C. simsii Sweet

         = C. virginica var. acutiflora DC.

         = C. virginica var. simsii (Sweet) R. Davis

 

CLEMATIS L. (Ranunculaceae)

Clematis canadensis Mill. = Clematis virginiana L.

Clematis dioscoreifolia Levl. & Van. = Clematis terniflora DC.

Clematis fragrans Salisb. = Clematis virginiana L.

Clematis maximowicziana Franch. & Sav. = Clematis terniflora DC.

C. occidentalis (Hornem.) DC., Purple Clematis, Purple Virgin's Bower, Mountain-clematis

         = Atragene americana Sims.

         = Clematis verticillaris DC.

Clematis paniculata Thunb. = Clematis terniflora DC.

*C. terniflora DC., Yam-leaf Clematis, Yam-leaf Virgin's-bower

         = C. dioscoreifolia Levl. & Van.

         = C. maximowicziana Franch. & Sav.

         = C. paniculata Thunb.

Clematis verticillaris DC. = Clematis occidentalis (Hornem.) DC.

C. virginiana L., Virgin's Bower, Traveller's Joy

         = C. canadensis Mill.

         = C. fragrans Salisb.

Clepeola maritima L. = Lobularia maritima

 

CLINOPODIUM L. (Lamiaceae)

Clinopodium acinos (L.) Kuntze = Acinos arvensis (Lam.) Dandy

Clinopodium arkansanum (Nutt.) House = Calamintha arkansana (Nutt.) Shinners

*C. vulgare L. Wild Basil, , Field-basil, Basil-weed, Dog-mint

         = Satureja vulgaris (L.) Fritsch

         = S. vulgaris var. neogaea Fern.

         = Calamintha clinopodium Benth.

 

CLINTONIA Raf. (Liliaceae)

C. borealis (Ait.) Raf. Yellow Clintonia, Woodlily, Bluebeads, Cornlily

Clintonia multiflora Beck according to Gray's Manual ed 1867 p. 529 = Clintonia umbellulata (Michx.) Morong

C. umbellulata (Michx.) Morong, White Clintonia, Speckled or White Woodlily

         = C. multiflora Beck according to Gray's Manual ed 1867 p. 529

         = C. umbellata Torr. of Gray's Manual ed 1867 p. 529

         = Convallaria umbellulata Michx. according to Gray's Manual ed 1867 p. 529

Clypeola allyssoides L. = Alyssum alyssoides (L.) L.

[Cnicus benedictus L., Blessed Thistle. Specimens examined from western New York State were short-stemmed (from mowing) Sonchus arvensis L.  The involucre of Cnicus benedictus is relatively high (3-4 cm) and nearly hidden within ovate leaves immediately below it; the involucre has several series of broad, firm, spine-tipped bracts. The lower leaves have petioles.]

 

COELOGLOSSUM Hartm. (Orchidaceae)

Coeloglossum bracteatum (Muhl. ex Willd.) Hartm. = Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartm.

C. viride (L.) Hartm., Long-bracted Orchid

         = C. bracteatum (Muhl. ex Willd.) Hartm.

         = C. viride var. virescens (Muhl. ex Willd.) Luer

         = Habenaria bracteata (Willd.) R. Br.

         = H. viridis (L.) R. Br. ex Ait.

         = H. viridis var. bracteata (Muhl. ex Willd.) A. Gray

         = Platanthera bracteata  of George Clinton's collecting journal

 

COLEOGETON (Reichenb.) D. Les & R. Haynes (Potamogetonaceae)

C. filiformis (Pers.) D. Les & R. Haynes, Filiform Pondweed

     ssp. alpinus (Blytt) D. Les & R. Haynes

         = Potamogeton filiformis var. alpinus (Blytt) Aschers.

         = P. filiformis var. borealis (Raf.) St. John

         = P. filiformis var. macounii Morong

         = Stuckenia filiformis (Pers.) Börner ssp. alpinus (Blytt) Haynes, Les & Kral

     ssp. occidentalis (Robbins) D. Les & R. Haynes

         = Potamogeton filiformis var. occidentalis (Robbins.) Morong

         = P. interior Rydb.

         = P. vaginatus of NY reports, not Turcz.

         = Stuckenia filiformis (Pers.) Börner ssp. occidentalis (Robbins) Kaynes, Les & Kral

C. pectinatum (L.) D. Les & R. Haynes Fennel-leaved Pondweed, Sago Pondweed

         = Potamogeton pectinatus L.

         = Stuckenia pectinata (L.) Börner

 

COLLINSIA Nutt. (Scrophulariaceae)

C. verna Nutt., Blue-eyed Mary, Innocence

 

COLLINSONIA L. (Lamiaceae)

C. canadensis L., Horse-balm, Richweed, Stoneroot

 

COLLOMIA Nutt. (Polemoniaceae)

*C. linearis Nutt., Narrow-leaved Collomia

         = Gilia linearis (Nutt.) A. Gray

 

COMANDRA Nutt. (Santalaceae)

Comandra livida Richards (excluded by Zander & Pierce 1979).

Comandra richardsiana Fern. = Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt.

C. umbellata (L.) Nutt., Bastard Toad Flax

         = C. richardsiana Fern.

         = C. umbellata var. decumbens E. Hill

         = Thesium umbellatum L.

Comarum palustre L. = Potentilla palustris (L.) Scop.

Comarum palustre var. villosum Pers. = Potentilla palustris (L.) Scop.

 

COMMELINA L. (Commelinaceae)

*C. communis L., Asiatic Day-flower, Wandering Jew

     var. communis

    *var. ludens (Miq.) Pennell

 

COMPTONIA L'Hér. (Myricaceae)

C. peregrina (L.) Coult., Sweet-fern

         = Comptonia asplenifolia (L.) L'Hér.

         = C. peregrina var. aspleniifolia (L.) Fern.

         = Liquidambar peregrina L.

         = Myrica aspleniifolia L.

         = M. peregrina (L.) Kuntze

 

CONIOSELINUM Hoffm. (Apiaceae)

Conioselenum pumilum Rose = Conioselenum chinense (L.) BSP.

Conioselinum canadense Torr. & A. Gray = Conioselinum chinense (L.) BSP

C. chinense (L.) BSP, Hemlock-parsley

         = C. canadense Torr. & Gray

         = C. pumilum Rose

         = Selinum canadense Michx.

 

CONIUM L. (Apiaceae)

*C. maculatum L., Poison Hemlock

 

CONOPHOLIS Wallr. (Orobanchaceae)

C. americana (L.) Wallr., Squaw-root, Cancer-root

         = Orobanche americana L.

 

CONRINGIA Heist. ex Adans. (Brassicaceae)

*C. orientalis (L.) Dumort., Hare's-ear Mustard, Treacle-mustard

 

CONSOLIDA (DC.) S. Gray (Ranunculaceae)

*C. ajacis (L.) Schur, Rocket Larkspur

         = C. ambigua (L.) Ball & Heyw.

         = Delphinium ajacis L.

         = D. ambiguum L.

         = D. consolida of Torrey's NY Flora, not L.

Consolida ambigua (L.) Ball & Heyw. = Consolida ajacis (L.) Schur

*C. regalis S. Gray, Forking Larkspur, Royal Larkspur

         = Delphinium consolida L.

 

CONVALLARIA L. (Liliaceae)

*C. majalis L., Lily-of-the-Valley

Convallaria umbellulata Michx. according to Gray's Manual ed 1867 p. 529 =  Clintonia umbellulata (Michx.) Morong

 

CONVOLVULUS L. (Convolvulaceae)

*C. arvensis L., Field-bindweed

         = Strophocaulos arvensis (L.) Small

Convolvulus japonicus Thunb. = Calystegia hederacea Wallich

Convolvulus nashii House = Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. ssp. sepium

Convolvulus pellitus Ledeb. = Calystegia hederacea Wallich

Convolvulus sepium L. = Calystegia sepium ssp. sepium (L.) R. Br.

Convolvulus spithameus L. = Calystegia spithamea (L.) Pursh

Convolvulus wallichianus Spreng. = Calystegia hederacea Wallich

 

CONYZA Less. (Asteraceae)

Conyza asteroides L. = Aster paternus Cronq.

C. canadensis (L.) Cronq., Horseweed, Hogweed, Butterweed

     var. canadensis

         = Erigeron canadensis L.

         = Leptilon canadense (L.) Britt. ex Britt. & Brown

 

COPTIS Salisb. (Ranunculaceae)

Coptis groenlandica (Oeder) Fern. = Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb.

C. trifolia (L.) Salisb., Goldthread

         = Anemone groenlandica Oed.

         = Coptis groenlandica (Oeder) Fern.

         = C. trifolia ssp. groenlandica (Oeder) Hultén

         = C. trifolia var. groenlandica (Oeder) Fassett

         = Heleborus trifolius L.

Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb. var. groenlandica (Oeder) Fassett = Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb.

 

CORALLORHIZA Gagn. (Orchidaceae)

Corallorhiza corallorhiza (L.) Karst. = Corallorhiza trifida Chat.

Corallorhiza innata R. Br. in Ait. = Corallorhiza trifida Chat. (not (L.) Chat.)

Corallorhiza macraei A. Gray = Corallorhiza striata Lindl. (excluded by Zander & Pierce 1979).)

C. maculata (Raf.) Raf., Spotted Coral-root

         = C. multiflora Nutt.

Corallorhiza multiflora Nutt. = Corllorhiza maculata (Raf.) Raf.

C. odontorhiza (Willd.) Nutt., Autumn Coral-root

[Corallorhiza striata Lindl.: excluded for the flora by Zander and Pierce (1979): probable, documented by a specimen over 20 years old for Orleans Co. (Young 1998).]

C. trifida Chat., Early Coral-root

         = C. corallorhiza (L.) Karst.

         = C. trifida var. verna (Nutt.) Fern.

         = C. innata R. Br. in Ait.

Corallorrhiza (orth. var.) = Corallorhiza Chat.

 

COREOPSIS L. (Asteraceae)

Coreopsis alternifolius L. = Verbesina alternifolia (L.) Britt.

Coreopsis heterogyna Fern. = Coreopsis lanceolata L.

*C. lanceolata L., Lance-leaved Tickseed

         = C. heterogyna Fern.

         = C. lanceolata var. villosa Michx.

*C. tinctoria Nutt., Garden Tickseed

Coreopsis trichosperm Michx. = Bidens coronata (L.) Britt.

 

CORIANDRUM L. (Apiaceae)

*C. sativum L., Coriander

 

CORISPERMUM L. (Chenopodiaceae)

Corispermum americanum (Nutt.) Nutt. = Corispermum hyssopifolium L.

*C. hyssopifolium L., Bugseed

         = C. americanum (Nutt.) Nutt. var. americanum

         = C. pallasii Steven

         = C. villosum Rydberg sec. Macdonald 1990

*C. nitidum Kitaibel ex Schultes

*C. orientale Lamarck

Corispermum pallasii Steven = Corispermum hyssopifolium L. (see Mosyakin 1995).

Corispermum villosum Rydberg sec. Macdonald 1990 = Corispermum hyssopifolium L.

 

CORNUS L. (Cornaceae)

Cornus alba ssp. stolonifera (Michx.) Wang. = Cornus sericea L.               

C. alternifolia L.f., Alternate-leaved Dogwood, Green Osier, Pagoda Dogwood

         = Svida alternifolia (L.f.) Small

C. amomum Mill., Silky Cornel, Kinnikinnik

     ssp. amomum

     ssp. obliqua (Raf.) Wilson Narrow-Leaf Dogwood

         = C. amomum var. schuetziana (Meyer) Rickett

         = C. obliqua Raf.

         = C. purpusi Koehne

Cornus asperifolia (of authors) = Cornus drummondii Meyer

Cornus baileyi Coult. & Evans = Cornus drummondii C.A. Meyer

C. canadensis L., Bunchberry, Dwarf Cornel, Dwarf Dogwood, Crackerberry, Pudding-berry

         = C. canadensis var. alpestris House

Cornus candidissima Marsh. = Cornus foemina ssp. racemosa (Lam.) J. Wilson.

Cornus circinata L'Hér. = Cornus rugosa Lam.

C. drummondii C.A. Meyer, Drummond's Dogwood, Rough-Leaf Dogwood

         = C. asperifolia of NY reports, not Michx.

         = C. baileyi Coult. & Evans

         = C. priceae Small

C. florida L., Flowering Dogwood

C. foemina Mill., Panicled Dogwood, Stiff Dogwood, Gray Dogwood

     ssp. racemosa (Lam.) J. Wilson, Gray Dogwood

         = C. femina of authors

         = C. racemosa Lam.

         = C. candidissima Marsh.

         = C. paniculata L'Hér.

     *ssp. microcarpa (Nash) J. S. Wilson

          = C. microcarpa Nash

Cornus microcarpa Nash = Cornus foemina ssp. microcarpa (Nash) J. S. Wilson

Cornus obliqua Raf. = Cornus amomum ssp. obliqua (Raf.) Wilson

Cornus paniculata L'Hér. = Cornus foemina ssp. racemosa (Lam.) J. Wilson

Cornus priceae Small = Cornus drummondii Meyer

Cornus purpusii Koehne = Cornus amomum ssp. obliqua (Raf.) Wilson

Cornus racemosa Lam. = Cornus foemina ssp. racemosa (Lam.) J. Wilson

C. rugosa Lam., Round-leaved Dogwood

         = C. circinata L'Hér.

C. sericea L., Red-osier Dogwood

         = C. alba ssp. stolonifera (Michx.) Wang

         = C. sericea var. interior (Rydb.) St. John

         = C. stolonifera Michx.

         = C. stolonifera var. baileyi (Coult. & Evans) Drescher

Cornus stolonifera Michx. = Cornus sericea L.

Cornus stolonifera var. baileyi (Coult. & Evans) Drescher = Cornus sericea L.

 

CORONILLA L. (Fabaceae)

*C. varia L., Crown Vetch

 

CORONOPUS Zinn (Brassicaceae)

*C. didymus (L.) Sm., Wart-cress, Wart-grass, Lesser Swinecress

         = Carara didyma(L.) Britt.

 

CORYDALIS Vent. (Fumariaceae)

C. flavula (Raf. ex Desv.) DC., Yellow Corydalis, Yellow Harlequin

         = Capnoides flavula (Raf. ex Desv.) Kuntze

Corydalis glauca Pursh = Corydalis sempervirens (L.) Pers.

C. sempervirens (L.) Pers., Pink Corydalis, Rock Harlequin

         = Capnoides sempervirens (L.) Borck. ex Roemer

         = Corydalis glauca Pursh

Corylaceae = Betulaceae

 

CORYLUS L. (Betulaceae)

C. americana Walt., American Hazelnut, American Filbert, Hazel

*C. avellana L., European Filbert, European Hazel

C. cornuta Marsh., Beaked Hazelnut

         = C. rostrata Ait.

Corylus rostrata Ait. = Corylus cornuta Marsh.

 

COSMOS Cav. (Asteraceae)

*C. bipinnatus Cav., Cosmos

 

COTINUS Mill. (Anacardiaceae)

*C. coggygria Scop., Smoke-tree

         = Rhus cotinus L.

  Not recorded for the Ontario flora by Morton & Venn (1990), it has escaped and flourishes at Artpark, Lewiston, New York, just across the river from Queenston, Ontario. Recorded for New York State by Mitchell and Tucker (1997).

 

CRATAEGUS L. (Rosaceae)

Crataegus acclivis Sarg. = Crataegus pedicellata Sarg.

Crataegus albicans Ashe = Crataegus pedicellata Sarg.

Crataegus arcana Beadle = Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl. f.) K. Koch

Crataegus aulica Sarg. = Crataegus coccinioides Ashe

Crataegus basilica Beadle = Crataegus schuettii Ashe

Crataegus baxteri Sarg. = Crataegus intricata Lange

C. beata Sarg., Opulent Hawthorn

         = C. macrocalyx Sarg.

Crataegus beata var. compta (Sarg.) Eggl. = Crataegus compta Sarg.

Crataegus boyntonii Beadle = Crataegus intricata Lange

Crataegus brachyloba Sarg. = Crataegus brainerdii Sarg.

C. brainerdii Sarg., Brainerd's Thorn

         = C. brachyloba Sarg.

Crataegus brainerdii var. asperifolia (Sarg.) Eggl. = Crataegus scabrida Rehd.

Crataegus brainerdii var. egglestonii (Sarg.) Robins. = Crataegus scabrida Rehd.

Crataegus brainerdii var. scabrida (Sarg.) Eggl. = Crataegus scabrida Rehd.

Crataegus bushii auct. non Sarg. = Crataegus crus-galli L.

C. calpodendron (Ehrh.) Medik., Pear Thorn

         = C. calpodendron × punctata Eggl. according to Zenkert, following Sargent 1913 as a synonym of C. celsa Sarg.

         = C. celsa Sarg.

         = C. tomentosa Sarg. in part

Crataegus celsa Sarg. = Crataegus calpodendron (Ehrh.) Medik.

C. chrysocarpa Ashe, Round-leaved Hawthorn

         = C. chrysocarpa var. faxonii (Sarg.) Eggl.

         = C. dodgei Sarg.

         = C. rotundifolia (Ehrh.) Moench in part

Crataegus chrysocarpa var. faxonii (Sarg.) Eggl. = Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe

Crataegus clintoniana Sarg. = Crataegus suborbiculata Sarg.

Crataegus coccinea of American authors in large part, not L., and of Zenkert 1934 = Crataegus pedicellata Sarg.

Crataegus coccinea var. ellwangeriana (Sarg.) Eggl. = Crataegus pedicellata Sarg.

C. coccinioides Ashe, Kansas Hawthorn

         = C. aulica Sarg.

         = C. coccinioides var. dilatata (Sarg.) Eggl. (of Zenkert 1934).

         = C. conspecta Sarg.

         = C. dilatata Sarg.

         = C. durobrivensis Sarg.

         = C. eggertii Britt.

Crataegus coccinioides var. dilatata (Sarg.) Eggl. = Crataegus coccinioides Ashe

Crataegus cognata Sarg. (after Zenkert 1934 p. 177) = Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl. f.) K. Koch

C. compta Sarg., Hawthorn

         = C. beata var. compta (Sarg.) Eggl.

         = C. formosa Sarg. (also a synonym of C. pruinosa (Wendl.f.) Koch)

         = C. levis Sarg.

         = C. pulchra Sarg.

         = C. strigosa Sarg.

Crataegus conspecta Sarg. = Crataegus coccinioides Ashe

[Crataegus corusca, Hawthorn (taxonomic question, Regl. M. Niag. Oldham 1999]

C. crus-galli L. Cockspur Thorn

         = C. crus-galli var. prunifolia (Poir.) Torrey & A. Gray

         = C. crus-galli var. pyracanthifolia Ait. (of Zenkert 1934)

         = C. persimilis Sarg. (see Phipps 1988 sec. Morton & Venn 1990)

         = C. prunifolia (Poir.) Pers.

[C. crus-galli × succulenta Eggl. “This hybrid is known from Buffalo and Niagara Falls” (Zenkert 1934 citing House 1924 p. 416)

Crataegus dayana Sarg. = Crataegus pedicellata Sarg.

Crataegus dilatata Sarg. = Crataegus coccinioides Ashe

Crataegus dissona Sarg. = Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl f.) K. Koch s.l.

Crataegus dodgei Sarg. = Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe

Crataegus durobrivensis Sarg. = Crataegus coccinioides Ashe

Crataegus eggertii Britt. = Crataegus coccinioides Ashe

Crataegus exclusa Sarg. = Crataegus pringlei Sarg.

Crataegus ferentaria Sarg. = Crataegus succulenta Link

Crataegus filipes Ashe = Crataegus jesupii Sarg. (of NYFA 1990)

Crataegus filipes Ashe (sensu Zenkert 1934 and Sargent 1913) = Crataegus opulens Sarg.

Crataegus finitima Sarg. = Crataegus succulenta Link

C. flabellata (Bosc) Koch [not (Spach) Kirchner], Variable Thorn

Crataegus foetida Ashe = Crataegus intricata Lange

Crataegus formosa Sarg. = Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl. f.) K. Koch (also synonymized under C. compta Sarg. by Mitchell & Tucker 1997).

Crataegus genialis Sarg. = Crataegus macrosperma Ashe

Crataegus gracilis Sarg. = C. pruinosa (Wendl. f.) K. Koch s.l.

C. holmesiana Ashe, Holmes' Hawthorn

         = C. tardipes (Sarg.) Sarg.

Crataegus implicata Sarg. = Crataegus menandiana Sarg.

Crataegus incisa Sarg. = Crataegus jesupii Sarg.

C. intricata Lange, Biltmore Thorn

         = C. baxterii Sarg.

         = C. boyntonii Beadle (of Zenkert 1934)

         = C. foetida Ashe

C. jesupii Sarg., Hawthorn

         = C. filipes Ashe

         = C. numerosa Sarg.

         = C incisa Sarg.

Crataegus leiophylla Sarg. = Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl f.) K. Koch s.l.

Crataegus leiophylla var. maineana (Sarg.) Eggl. = Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl f.) K. Koch s.l.

Crataegus letchworthiana Sarg. = Crataegus pedicellata Sarg.

Crataegus levis Sarg. = Crataegus compta Sarg.

Crataegus lobulata Sarg. = Crataegus pringlei Sarg.

Crataegus luminosa Sarg. = Crataegus schuettii Ashe

Crataegus macrantha Lodd. = Crataegus succulenta Link

Crataegus macrocalyx Sarg. = Crataegus beata Sarg.

C. macrosperma Ashe, s.l., Large-fruited Hawthorn

         = C. genialis Sarg.

         = C. macrosperma var. acutiloba (Sarg.) Eggl. (of Zenkert 1934).

         = C. macrosperma var. pastorum (Sarg.) Eggl.

         = C. macrosperma var. roanensis (Ashe) Palmer

         = C. roanensis Ashe (of Zenkert 1934)

Crataegus macrosperma × pruinosa = Crataegus menandiana Sarg.

Crataegus macrosperma var. roanensis (Ashe) Palmer = Crataegus macrosperma Ashe

C. menandiana Sarg., Hawthorn

         = C. implicata Sarg.

         = C. macrosperma × pruinosa (of Zenkert 1934)

Crataegus mollis (Torr. & A. Gray) Scheele sensu Soper & Heimberger in our region = Crataegus submollis Sarg.

*C. monogyna Jacq., English Hawthorn

         = C. oxyacantha (of authors)

Crataegus neofluvialis Ashe = Crataegus succulenta Link

Crataegus notabilis Sarg. = Crataegus suborbiculata Sarg.

Crataegus numerosa Sarg. = Crataegus jesupii Sarg.

Crataegus oxyacantha (of authors) = Crataegus monogyna Jacq.

C. opulens Sarg., Opulent Hawthorn

         = C. filipes Ashe

C. pedicellata Sarg., Scarlet Thorn, Red Haw, Red Hawthorn

         = C. acclivis Sarg.

         = C. albicans Ashe (of Zenkert 1934)

         = C. coccinea L. American authors in large part, not L.; of Zenkert 1934

         = C. coccinea L. var. ellwangeriana (Sarg.) Eggl. (of Zenkert 1934)

         = C. dayana Sarg.

         = C. letchworthiana Sarg.

         = C. pedicellata var. albicans (Ashe) Palmer

         = C. pedicellata var. ellwangeriana (Sarg.) Eggl.

C. persimilis Sarg. = C. crus-galli L.

C. pringlei Sarg., Pringle's Hawthorn

         = C. exclusa Sarg.

         = C. lobulata Sarg.

         = C. pringlei var. exclusa (Sarg.) Eggl.

         = C. pringlei var. lobulata (Sarg.) Eggl.

C. pruinosa (Wendl. f.) K. Koch s.l., Waxy-fruited Thorn

         = C. arcana Beadle

         = C. dissona Sarg.

         = C. cognata Sarg. (of Zenkert 1934 p. 177)

         = C. formosa Sarg.

         = C. gracilis Sarg.

         = C. leiophylla Sarg. (of Zenkert 1934)

         = C. leiophylla var. maineana (Sarg.) Eggl. (of Zenkert 1934)

         = C. pruinosa var. conjucta (Sarg.) Eggl.

         = C. pruinosa var. dissona (Sarg.) Eggl.

         = C. pruinosa var. latisepala (Ashe) Eggl.

         = C. rugosa Ashe

Crataegus prunifolia (Poir.) Pers. = Crataegus crus-galli L.

Crataegus pulchra Sarg. = Crataegus compta Sarg.

C. punctata Jacq., Dotted Hawthorn

         = C. punctata var. aurea Ait.

Crataegus roanensis Ashe = Crataegus macrosperma Ashe

Crataegus rotundifolia (Ehrh.) Moench in part = Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe sensu lato

Crataegus rugosa Ashe = Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl f.) K. Koch s.l.

C. scabrida Rehd., Hawthorn

         = C. brainerdii var. asperifolia (Sarg.) Eggl. (of Zenkert 1934)

         = C. brainerdii var. egglestonii (Sarg.) Robins. (of Zenkert 1934)

         = C. brainerdii var. scabrida (Sarg.) Eggl. (of Zenkert 1934)

C. schuettii Ashe, Hawthorn

         = C. basilica Beadle (of House 1924 p. 421)

         = C. luminosa Sarg.

Crataegus strigosa Sarg. = Crataegus compta Sarg.

C. submollis Sarg., Downy Thorn

         = C. mollis (Torr. & A. Gray) Scheele sensu Soper & Heimberger 1982 for our region

C. suborbiculata Sarg., Hawthorn

         = C. clintoniana Sarg.

         = C. notabilis Sarg.

Crataegus venustula Sarg. = Crataegus succulenta Link

C. succulenta Link, Long-spined Thorn

         = C. ferentaria Sarg.

         = C. finitima Sarg.

         = C. macrantha Lodd.

         = C. neofluvialis Ashe

         = C. succulenta var. macracantha (Lodd.) Eggl.

         = C. succulenta var. neofluvialis (Ashe) Palm.

         = C. succulenta var. rhombifolia (Sarg.) Eggl.

         = C. venustula Sarg.

Crataegus succulenta var. neofluvialis (Ashe) Palm. = Crataegus succulenta Link

Crataegus succulenta var. rhombifolia (Sarg.) Eggl. = Crataegus succulenta Link

Crataegus tardipes (Sarg.) Sarg. = Crataegus holmesiana Ashe

Crataegus tomentosa Sarg. in part = Crataegus calpodendron (Ehrh.) Medik.

Crataegus venustula Sarg. = Crataegus succulenta Link

 

CREPIS L. (Asteraceae)

*C. biennis L., Rough Hawk's-beard

*C. capillaris (L.) Wallr., Smooth Hawk's-beard

*C. tectorum L., Hawk's-beard

Crocanthemum canadense (L.) Britt. ex Britt. & Brown = Melianthemum canadense (L.) Michx.

Cruciferae = Brassicaceae

 

CRYPSIS Ait. (Poaceae)

*C. schoenoides (L.) Lam., Crypsis, Heleochloa, Swamp Timothy

         = Heleochloa schoenoides (L.) Host

 

CRYPTOGRAMMA R. Br. (Pteridaceae)

C. stelleri (S. Gmel.) Prantl ex Engl., Slender Cliff-brake

 

CRYPTOTAENIA DC. (Apiaceae)

C. canadensis (L.) DC., Honewort, Wild Chervil

         = Deringa canadensis (L.) Kuntze

Cubelium concolor (Forst.) Raf. = Hybanthus concolor (Forst.) Spreng.

 

CUCUMIS L. (Cucurbitaceae)

*C. sativus L., Garden Cucumber

 

CUCURBITA L. (Cucurbitaceae)

*C. pepo L., Pumpkin, Acorn Squash, Summer Squash

         = C. moschata (Dcne. ex Lam.) Dcne. ex Poir.

         = Pepo moschatus (Dcne. ex Lam.) Britt.

         = P. pepo (L.) Britt. ex Small

         = P. vulgaris (L.) Moench

 

CUPHEA P. Browne (Lythraceae)

Cuphea petiolata (L.) Koehne = Cuphea viscosissima Jacq.

C. viscosissima Jacq., Clammy Cuphea, Tarweed, Blue Waxweed

         = C. petiolata (L.) Koehne

         = Lythrum petiolatum L.

         = Parsonsia petiolata (L.) Rusby

 

CUSCUTA L. (Cuscutaceae)

Cuscuta campestris Uncker = Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.

C. coryli Engelm., Hazel-dodder, Strangleweed

         = C. inflexa Engelm.

*C. epilinum Weihe, Flax-dodder

*C. epithymum (L.) L., Clover-dodder

C. gronovii Willd. ex Schultz, Common Dodder, Love-vine, Stangleweed, Goldthread-vine

         = C. gronovii var. latiflora Engelm.

         = C. gronovii var. vulgivaga Engelm.

Cuscuta inflexa Engelm. = Cuscuta coryli Engelm.

C. pentagona Engelm., Field-dodder

         = C. campestris Uncker

C. polygonorum Engelm., Polygonum-dodder

 

CYCLOLOMA Moq. (Chenopodiaceae)

*C. atriplicifolium (Spreng.) Coult., Winged Pigweed, Tumbleweed

         = Salsola atriplicifolia Spreng.

Cydonia japonica of some authors, not (Thunb.) Pers. = Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai

Cydonia lagenaria (Loisel.) Koidzumi = Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai

 

CYMBALARIA Hill (Scrophulariaceae)

*C. muralis Gaertn., Mey. & Sherb., Kenilworth Ivy, Coliseum-ivy

         = Linaria cymbalaria (L.) Mill.

 

CYNANCHUM L. (Asclepiadaceae)

*C. laeve (Michx.) Pers., Sand-vine, Honey-vine

         = Ampelamus albidus (Nutt.) Britt.

         = Gonolobus laevis Michx.

*C. louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi, Black Swallow-wort.

         = C. nigrum (L.) Pers.

         = Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench

Cynanchum medium of authors, not R. Br. = Cynanchum rossicum (Kleop.) Borh.

Cynanchum nigrum (L.) Pers. = Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi

Cynanchum nigrum in part = Cynanchum rossicum (Kleop.) Borh.

*C. rossicum (Kleop.) Borh. Swallow-wort

         = C. medium of authors, not R. Br.

         = C. nigrum in part

         = Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopov) Barb.

*C. vincetoxicum (L.) Pers., White Swallow-wort

         = Vincetoxicum album (Mill.) Aschers.

         = V. hirundinaria Medik.

         = V. vincetoxicum (L.) Pers.

 

CYNODON L. Rich. (Poaceae)

*C. dactylon (L.) Pers., Bermuda-grass

         = Capriola dactylon (L.) Kuntze

 

CYNOGLOSSUM L. (Boraginaceae)

Cynoglossum morisonii A.DC. = Hackelia virginiana (L.) Johnst.

*C. officinale L., Hound's-tongue          

C. virginianum L., Northern Wild Comfrey

         = C. virginicum L. of Gray's Manual, ed 5, 1867, p. 366

     var. boreale (Fern.) Cooperrider

         = C. boreale Fern.

Cynoglossum virginicum (of Day, 1882) = Cynoglossum virginianum L. var. boreale (Fern.) Cooperrider

 

CYNOSURUS L. (Poaceae)

*C. cristatus L., Dog's-tail Grass, Crested Dog's Tail

 

CYPERUS L. (Cyperaceae)

C. bipartitus Torr., Shining Cyperus, Rivershore Galingale, Flatsedge

         = C. rivularis Kunth

         = C. diandrus var. castaneus Torr.

C. diandrus Torr., Galingale, Umbrella Flatsedge

         = C. diandrus var. elongatus Britt.

         = C. fuscus of NY reports, not L.

Cyperus diandrus var. castaneus Torr. = Cyperus bipartitus Torr.

Cyperus engelmannii Steud. = Cyperus odoratus L.

C. erythrorhizos Muhl., Red-rooted Cyperus, Flatsedge

*C. esculentus L., Yellow Nut Grass

         = “C. phymatodes Muhl.of Day's Pl. of Buf.” according to Zenkert, 1934 (p. 102) and House 1924 p.133.

         = C. esculentus L. var. leptostachyus Boeck.

Cyperus ferax Rich. = Cyperus odoratus L.

Cyperus ferruginescens Boeckl. = Cyperus odoratus L.

Cyperus filiculmis of authors, not Vahl = Cyperus lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks ssp. lupulinus

Cyperus filiculmis var. macilentus Fern. = Cyperus lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks ssp. macilentus (Fern.) Marcks

C. flavescens L. Galingale, Yellow Cyperus

         = C. flavescens var. poaeformis (Pursh) Fern.

*C. fuscus L., Dark Galingale, Flatsedge

C. lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks, Slender Galingale

     ssp. macilentus (Fern.) Marcks

         = C. filiculmis var. macilentus Fern.

Cyperus michauxianus Schultes of Gray's Manual ed 5, 1867 = Cyperus speciosus Vahl. of House 1924 = Cyperus odoratus L.

C. odoratus L., Fragrant Cyperus, Fragrant Umbrella-sedge

         = C. engelmannii Steud.

         = C. ferruginascens Boeckl.

         = C. ferax Rich

         = C. michauxianus Schultes of Gray's Manual ed 5, according to House 1924.

         = C. speciosus Vahl

         = C. odoratus L. var. squarrosus (Britton) Gill. sensu McIntosh & Catling 1979

“C[yperus]. phymatodes Muhl. of Day's Pl. of Buf.” according to Zenkert, 1934 (p. 102) and House 1924 = Cyperus esculentus L.

Cyperus rivularis Kunth = Cyperus bipartitus Torr.

C. schweinitzii Torr., Schweinitz's Cyperus

Cyperus speciosus Vahl = Cyperus odoratus L.

C. strigosus L., Straw-colored Cyperus, Flatsedge

         = C. strigosus var. robustior Britt.

 

CYPRIPEDIUM L. (Orchidaceae)

C. acaule Ait., Moccasin-flower, Pink Lady's Slipper

Cypripedium calceolus var. parviflorum (Salisb.) Fern. = Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. parviflorum

Cypripedium calceolus var. planipetalum (Fern.) Vict. & Rouss. = Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. pubescens (Willd.) Knight

Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens (Willd.) Correll = Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. pubescens (Willd.) Knight

C. candidum Muhl. ex Willd., White Lady-slipper

Cypripedium flavescens DC. = Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. pubescens (Willd.) Knight

C. parviflorum Salisb., Yellow Lady-slipper

         = C. calceolus of American authors, not L.

     var. parviflorum Small Yellow Lady-slipper

         = C. calceolus var. parviflorum (Salisb.) Fern.

     var. pubescens (Willd.) Knight, Large Yellow Lady-slipper

         = C. calceolus var. planipetalum (Fern.) Vict. & Rouss.

         = C. calceolus var. pubescens (Willd.) Correll

         = C. flavescens DC.

         = C. parviflorum var. planipetalum Fern.

         = C. pubescens Willd.

Cypripedium pubescens Willd. = Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. var. pubescens (Willd.) Knight

C. reginae Walt., Showy Lady-slipper

         = C. spectabile Salisb.

Cypripedium spectabile Salisb. = Cypripedium regina Walt.

 

CYSTOPTERIS Bernh. (Dryopteridaceae)

C. bulbifera (L.) Bernh., Bulblet Bladder-fern

         = Filix bulbifera (L.) Underw.

         = Polypodium bulbiferum L.

C. fragilis (L.) Bernh., Brittle Bladder-fern

         = Filix fragilis (L.) Gilib.

         = Polypodium fragile L.

Cystopteris fragilis var. mackayi Laws. = Cystopteris tenuis (Michx.) Desv.

Cystopteris fragilis var. protrusa Weath. = Cystopteris protrusa (Weath.) Blasd.

C. protrusa (Weath.) Blasd., Lowland Fragile Fern

         = C. fragilis var. protrusa Weath.

C. tenuis (Michx.) Desv., Fragile Fern

         = C. fragilis var. mackayi Laws.

Cytherea bulbosa (L.) Salisb. = Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes

 

CYTISUS L. (Fabaceae)

*C. scoparius (L.) Link, Scotch Broom

         = Genista scoparia (L.) Lam.

         = Sarothamnus scoparius (L.) Wimmer

         = Spartium scoparium L.

 

DACTYLIS L. (Poaceae)

*D. glomerata L., Orchard-grass

         = D. glomerata varieties

 

DALIBARDA L. (Rosaceae)

Dalibarda fragarioides Michx. = Waldsteinia fragarioides (Michx.) Tratt.

D. repens L., Dewdrop, False Violet, Robin-runaway, Dewdrop

         = D. violaeoides Michx.

         = Rubus dalibarda L.

Dalibarda violaeoides Michx. = Dalibarda repens L.

 

DANTHONIA Lam. & DC. (Poaceae)

D. compressa Austin, Austin's Oatgrass, Northern Oatgrass

D. spicata (L.) Beauv. ex R. & S., Poverty-grass, Junegrass, White Oatgrass

         = D. × allenii Austin

         = D. spicata var. longipila Scribn. & Merr.

 

DAPHNE L. (Thymelaeaceae)

*D. mezereum L., Mezereum, Daphne

Dasiphora fruticosa auct. non (L.) Rydb. = Potentilla fruticosa ssp. floribunda (Pursh) Elkington

Dasiphora floribunda (Pursh) Kartesz = Potentilla fruticosa L. ssp. floribunda (Pursh) Elkington

Dasystephana grayi of NY reports, not (Kusn.) Britt. = Gentiana puberulenta Pringle

Datisca hirta L. = Rhus hirta (L.) Sudworth

 

DATURA L. (Solanaceae)

*D. stramonium L., Jimsonweed, Stramonium, Common Thorn-apple, Jamestown Weed, Purple Thorn-apple

         = D. tatula L.

         = D. stramonium var. tatula (L.) Torr.

Datura tatula L. = Datura stramonium L.

 

DAUCUS L. (Apiaceae)

*D. carota L., Queen Anne's Lace, Wild Carrot

 

DECODON J. Gmel. (Lythraceae)

D. verticillatus (L.) Ell., Swamp Loosestrife, Water-willow, Water-oleander

         = D. verticillatus var. laevigatus Torr. & A. Gray

         = Lythrum verticllatum L.

         = Nesaea verticillata (L.) HBK

Delphinium ajacis L. of ON reports = Consolida ajacis (L.) Schur

Delphinium ambiguum L. = Consolida ajacis (L.) Schur

Delphinium consolida of Torrey's NY Flora, not L. = Consolida ajacis (L.) Schur

Delphinium consolida L. = Consolida regalis S. Gray

Dendrolycopodium dendroideum (Michx.) A. Haines = Lycopodium dendroideum Michx.

Dendrolycopodium obscurum (L.) A. Haines = Lycopodium obscurum L.

 

DENNSTAEDTIA Bernh. (Dennstaedtiaceae)

D. punctilobula (Michx.) Moore, Hay-scented Fern

         = Dicksonia pilosiuscula Willd.

         = Nephrodium punctilobulum Michx.

Dentaria concatenata Michx. = Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) Schwein.

Dentaria diphylla Michx. = Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) Wood

Dentaria diphylla × laciniata = [Cardamine concatenata × diphylla = C. × maxima (Nutt.) Wood]

Dentaria diphylla × maxima = [Cardamine concatenata × diphylla = C. × maxima (Nutt.) Wood]

Dentaria × incisa K. Schum. = [Cardamine concatenata × diphylla = C. × maxima (Nutt.) Wood]

Dentaria × incisifolia Eames = [Cardamine concatenata × diphylla = C. × maxima (Nutt.) Wood]

Dentaria laciniata Muhl. ex Willd. = Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) Schwein.

Dentaria laciniata × maxima Nutt. = [Cardamine concatenata × diphylla = C. × maxima (Nutt.) Wood]

Dentaria maxima Nutt. = [Cardamine concatenata × diphylla = C. × maxima (Nutt.) Wood]

 

DEPARIA Hooker & Grev. (Dryopteridaceae)

D. acrostichoides (Sw.) Kato, Silvery Spleenwort, Silvery Gladefern

         = Asplenium acrostichoides Sw.

         = A. thelypteroides Michx.

         = Athyrium acrosticoides (Sw.) Diels

         = A. thelypteroides (Michx.) Desv.

         = Diplazium acrostichoides (Sw.) Butters

Deringa canadensis (L.) Kuntze = Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC.

 

DESCHAMPSIA Beauv. (Poaceae)

D. cespitosa (L.) Beauv., Tufted Hair-grass

         = Aira caespitosa L.

D. flexuosa (L.) Trin., Wavy Hair-grass, Common Hair-grass

         = Aira flexuosa L.

 

DESCURAINIA Webb & Berth. (Brassicaceae)

D. pinnata (Walt.) Britt., Tansy Mustard

     ssp. brachycarpa (Richardson ex Frankl.) Detl., Northern Tansy-mustard

         = D. pinnata var. brachycarpa (Rich.) Fern.

         = Sisymbrium brachycarpon Richardson (Morton & Venn 1990)

            = S. brachycarpon Rich. ex Frankl. (Mitchell & Tucker 1997)

         = S. canescens as to ON reports, not of Nutt. (Morton & Venn 1990)

[*ssp. pinnata, Southern Tansy-mustard (= Sisymbrium canescens), excluded by Zander and Pierce (1979).]

Descurainia pinnata var. brachycarpa (Richards.) Fern. = Descurainia pinnata ssp. brachycarpa (Richards. ex Frankl.) Detl.

*D. sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl, Herb Sophia

         = Sisymbrium sophia L.

 

DESMODIUM Desv. (Fabaceae)

Desmodium acuminatum DC. = Desmodium glutinosum (Muhl. ex Willd.) Wood

Desmodium bracteosum (Michx.) DC. = Desmodium cuspidatum (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC. ex Loud.

D. canadense (L.) DC., Canadian Tick Trefoil, Giant Tick-clover or -trefoil, Showy Tick-trefoil, Beggar-ticks

Desmodium canescens (L.) DC. (excluded by Zander & Pierce 1979).

D. ciliare (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC, Hairy Small-flowered Tick-trefoil

         = D. obtusum of authors

D. cuspidatum (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC. ex Loud., Pointed-leaved Tick-trefoil

         = D. bracteosum (Michx.) DC.

         = D. grandiflorum (Walt) DC.

Desmodium dillenii of some authors, not Darl. = Desmodium glabellum (Michx.) DC.

Desmodium dillenii Darl. in part = Desmodium perplexum Schub.

Desmodium dillenii Darl. = Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC.

D. glabellum (Michx.) DC., Dillen's Tick-trefoil, Tall Tick-clover or Tick-trefoil

         = D. dillenii of some authors, not Darl.

         = D. humifusum of some NY reports, not (Muhl.) Beck

D. glutinosum (Muhl. ex Willd.) Wood, Sticky Tick-trefoil

         = D. acuminatum DC.

Desmodium grandiflorum (Walt) DC. = Desmodium cuspidatum (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC. ex Loud.

Desmodium humifusum of some NY reports, not (Muhl.) Beck = Desmodium glabellum (Michx.) DC.

D. marilandicum (L.) DC., Smooth Small-leaved Tick-trefoil, Maryland Tick-clover

D. nudiflorum (L.) DC., Naked-flowered Tick-trefoil, Bare-stemmed Tick-trefoil

Desmodium obtusum (of authors) = Desmodium ciliare (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC.

[D. obtusum (Muh. ex Willd.) DC. ( = D. rigidum (Ell.) DC.) Erie Co. report not corroborated by specimen (Young 1998).]

D. paniculatum (L.) DC., Panicled Tick-trefoil

         = D. dillenii Darl.

D. pauciflorum (Nutt.) DC., Few-or Small-flowered Tick-trefoil

D. perplexum Schub., Tick-clover, Tick-trefoil

         = D. dillenii Darl. in part

         = Meibomia dillenii (Darl.) Kuntze in part

Desmodium rigidum (Ell.) DC. = Desmodium obtusum (Muh. ex Willd. DC. (excluded by Zander & Pierce 1979).

D. rotundifolium DC., Round-leaved Tick-trefoil

Dianthera americana L. = Justicia americana (L.) Vahl

 

DIANTHUS L. (Caryophyllaceae)

*D. armeria L., Deptford Pink

*D. barbatus L., Sweet William

Dianthus blandus (Reichenb.) Hayek = Dianthus deltoides L.

*D. deltoides L., Maiden-pink, Meadow-pink

Dianthus hoppei Portenschl. = Dianthus deltoides L.

Dianthus luminitzeri Weisb. = Dianthus deltoides L.

Dianthus praecox Kit. ex Willd. = Dianthus deltoides L.

 

DICENTRA Bernh. (Fumariaceae)

D. canadensis (Goldie) Walp., Squirrel-corn, Turkey-corn

         = Diclytra canadensis (Goldie) DC.

D. cucullaria (L.) Bernh., Dutchman's Breeches

         = Diclytra cucullaria (L.) DC.

Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark = Panicum acuminatum Sw.

Dichanthelium boreale (Nash) Freckmann = Panicum boreale Nash

Dichanthelium clandestinum (L.) Gould = Panicum clandestinum L.

Dichanthelium commutatum (Schultes) Gould = Panicum commutatum Schultes

Dichanthelium depauperatum (Muhl.) Gould = Panicum depauperatum Muhl.

Dichanthelium dichotomum (L.) Gould = Panicum dichotomum L.

Dichanthelium latifolium (L.) Gould & C. Clark = Panicum latifolium L.

Dichanthelium linearifolium (Scribn. ex Nash) Gould = Panicum linearifolium Scribn. ex Nash in Britt. & Brown

Dichanthelium oligosanthes (J. A. Schultes) Gould var. scribnerianum (Nash) Gould = Panicum oligosanthes  J. A. Schultes var. scribnerianum (Nash) Fern.

Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon (Ell.) Gould var. sphaerocarpon = Panicum sphaerocarpon Ell. var. sphaerocarpon

Dichanthelium villosissimum (Nash) Freckman var. praecocius (Hitchc. & Chase) Freckmann = Panicum villosissimum Nash

Dichanthelium xanthophysum (A. Gray) Freckman = Panicum xanthophysum A. Gray

Diclytra canadensis (Goldie) DC. = Dicentra canadensis (Goldie) Walp.

Diclytra cucullaria (L.) DC. = Dicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernh.

 

DIERVILLA Mill. (Caprifoliaceae)

D. lonicera Mill., Bush Honeysuckle

         = D. trifida Moench

Diervilla trifida Moench = Diervilla lonicera Mill.

 

DIGITARIA Heist. ex Fabr. (Poaceae)

D. cognata (Schultes) Pilger, Diffuse Crab-grass, Fall Witchgrass

         = Leptoloma cognatum (Schultes) Chase

*D. ischaemum (Schreb. ex Schweig.) Schreb. ex Muhl., Small or Smooth Crab-grass

         = D. ischaemum var. mississippiensis (Gatt.) Fern.

         = Panicum glabrum (Schrad.) Gaud.

         = Syntherisma ishaemum (Schreb. ex Schweig.) Nash

*D. sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Large Crab-grass, Tall or Hairy Crab-grass

         = Digitaria adscendens (Kunth) Henr.

         = Panicum sanguinale L.

         = Syntherisma sanguinalis (L.) Dulac

Dilepyrum erectum (Schreb) Farw. = Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb.) Beauv.

 

DIOSCOREA L. (Dioscoreaceae)

*D. batatas Dcne., Yam, Chinese Yam, Cinammon-vine

         = D. oppositifolia L.

Dioscorea oppositifolia L. = Dioscorea batatas Dcne.

Dioscorea quaternata of old NY reports in part = Dioscorea villosa L.

D. villosa L., Wild Yam, Yellow Yam

         = D. quaternata of old NY reports in part

Diphasiastrum digitatum (A. Br.) Holub = Lycopodium digitatum Dill. ex A. Br.

Diphasiastrum digitatum × D. tristachyum = Diphasiastrum × habereri (House) Holub = Lycopodium digitatum × L. tristachyum = Lycopodium × habereri House

Diphasiastrum tristachyum (Pursh) Holub = Lycopodium tristachyum Pursh

Diphasium tristachyum (Pursh) Rothm. = Lycopodium tristachyum Pursh

 

DIPLACHNE Beauv. (Poaceae)

*D. fascicularis (Lam.) Beauv., Clustered Saltmeadow-grass, Sprangletop

         = Leptochloa fascicularis (Lam.) A. Gray

         = L. fusca (L.) Kunth. ssp. fascicularis (Lam.) N. Snow

 

DIPLAZIUM Sw. (Dryopteridaceae)

Diplazium acrostichoides (Sw.) Butters = Deparia acrostichoides (Sw.) Kato

D. pycnocarpon (Sprengel) M. Broun, Narrow-leaved Spleenwort, Silvery Spleenwort, Silvery Glade-fern

          = Asplenium angustifolium (of authors)

          = A. pycnocarpon Sprengel

          = Athyrium angustifolium (Michx.) Milde

          = A. pycnocarpon (Sprengel) Tidestr.

Diplopappus umbellatus (Mill.) Hook. = Aster umbellatus Mill.

 

DIPLOTAXIS DC. (Brassicaceae)

*D. muralis (L.) DC., Sand Rocket, Wall-rocket

         = Sisymbrium murale L.

*D. tenuifolia (L.) DC., Wall Rocket

         = Sisymbrium tenuifolia (L.) DC.

 

DIPSACUS L. (Dipsacaceae)

*D. fullonum L., Common Teasel, Fuller's Teasel  

         = D. sylvestris Huds.

*D. laciniatus L., Cut-leaf Teasel

Dipsacus sylvestris Huds. = Dipsacus fullonum L.