Mrs. Zander’s Libelli Latini,

Sample Files, The Letter Y
P. M. Eckel
Res Botanica
Missouri Botanical Garden
November 19, 2008
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Mrs. Zander’s Libelli Latini

Sample Files, The Letter “Y”





The letter 'y' is used in Botanical Latin to transliterate the Greek upsilon and was not originally part of the Roman alphabet. For this reason, most classical Latin dictionaries have no entry for Latin words beginning in 'y'.

            Note: the short (Roman) 'u' sometimes represented the Greek upsilon, 'fuga' deriving from (Greek script) phuge, cuminum from (Greek script) kuminon (Lewis & Short).


All Greek words beginning with 'u' (upsilon) are transcribed as 'y.'


The Latin 'u' is not the same as the Greek 'u' (upsilon). At various periods the Romans used the symbol 'v' for both the Latin 'u' vowel and the 'v' consonant, as can be seen on Roman inscriptions. In most classical dictionaries the vowel and the consonant have their own respective symbols, the 'u' and the 'v.' For either of these letters see the introductions to the 'u' and 'v' sections.


The shape of the capital letter 'Y' in English script is also the shape of the capital letter for 'upsilon' in Greek script: 'Y.'


The letter 'y' of the English alphabet represents a consonant at the beginning of a word ('yes'), but when ‘y’is a prefix or occurring medially or terminally in an English word, it is a vowel. The letter comes to English through the Latin, but it represents mix of sounds, a conflation of Anglo-Saxonisms and Latin, and the influence of orthographic patterns throughout the history of the English language are too complex to present here.


In the ICBN (2006), 60.4, the letters w and y are stated to be permissible in Latin plant names, but letters in ligatures otherwise foreign to those of Latin or Greek 'are to be transcribed.'


The upsilon is the only Greek vowel that always has the spiritus asper at the beginning of a word. It is always aspirated, so one may say that the upsilon as the first letter of a word is always transliterated as 'hy-.'


The rho or 'r' of the Greek alphabet at the beginning of a word also almost universally is written in Greek with the spiritus asper, and is transliterated 'rh-.' See introduction to the 'r' section.


See below 'ypsil-, ypsili-, ypsilo-: in Gk. comp. Y-shaped;' for discussion of the spiritus asper and lenis, see 'spirit;' [see 'R'].

            Note: if all Greek words beginning with upsilon have the spiritus asper then the word 'upsilon' should itself be pronounced hypsilon [(h)u psilon], I have never seen a recommendation for this pronunciation or a transliteration with the 'h'; it is always spoken as if it had a spiritus lenis mark.


When seeking the derivation of a Greek word beginning with 'hy-,' one should go straight to 'u' in a Greek dictionary, toward the end, as upsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet, every entry of which has the spiritus asper (see spirit).


NOTE: Hypoxis L. from an old name hypoxys, somewhat acid, the 'y' (in Gk. upsilon) in -ys is transliterated a ‘i’, thus -is, so that it conforms to similar ending Latin nouns of the Third Declension, perhaps with genitive "Hypoxidis."


NOTE: the Greek diphthong 'ou' is tranliterated 'u' in the Roman script.



    Hyptis Jacq. from Greek (h)yptios, resupinate 'in reference to the deflexed lower lip of the corolla" (Fernald 1950; Labiatae).

    Hyssopus L. ancient Greek name [(h)yssopos, (first 'o'= omega)].

    Hystrix Moench: from Greek hysterix, hysterichos (sg. m. & f. III) a hedgehog, porcupine.

    Hybanthus Jacq. Greek hybos, hump-backed, and anthos, flower.

    Lathyrus L. cf. Greek lathyris, a kind of plant (wolf's-milk) and Greek Lathyros, a plant, also called by the Romans leontopodion (Lewis & Short), also a plant of Theophrastus "the name often said to be composed of the prefix, la, very, and thyros, passionate, the original plant reputed to be an aphrodisiac' Fernald 1950.

    Lychnis L.  "ancient greek name for a scarlet or flame-colored species, from lychnos, a flame' (Fernald 1950) 

    Lycopodium L. Greek lykos, wolf + pous, foot.

    Lygodesmia D. Don Greek lygos, a pliant twig + desme, a bundle.

     'from the fascicled twiggy or rush-like stems' (Fernald 1950).

    Lygodium Sw. from Greek lygodes, flexible.

    Myosurus, L. 'Mousetail' Greek myos, of a mouse ( and oura, a tail.

    Myosoton Moench, from Greek mys, mouse, and ous, ear 'from the soft leaves'

      Fernald 1950.       

    Myagrum L. Greek mys, mouse and agra trap.

    Oxydendrum DC. Greek oxys, sour, and dendron, tree.  

    Thymus L. Greek thymos.


EPITHETS: -y,-ey: -yae (; -yi (; -yanus,-a,-um (adj.A);


     - Carex hystricina forma Dudleyi (William R. Dudley); Crataegus Laneyi (C. C. Laney); Cyperus Torreyi (John Torrey); Dasystephana Grayi (Asa Gray); Doliocarpus pipolyi; Solidago Buckleyi (S. B. Buckley); Microsphaeria Dubyi; Arthrostylidium berryi (Paul E. Berry);


    - Agaricus Grayanus (Asa Gray); Carex Deweyana (Chester Dewey); Vitis Baileyana (L.H.Bailey); Pediastrum Boryanum; Sabatia Kennedyana Fern. (G. G. Kennedy).                  

                BUT: see Gentiana catesbaei Walt. (Mark Catesby)

    - Darbya Gray

      NOTE: connecting -i- is elided

      NOTE: ending in -ye: Pseudolepicolea fryei (T. C. Frye)

           NOTE: the masculine genitive plural:  Baileyorum, of the Baileys (Liberty Hyde  and Ethel Zoe Bailey.)


-y (English noun suffix): in L. & Gk. comp. -ia,-ae (s.f.I): indicating state, condition, such as -carpy, -phagy, -tomy; as in -ology indicating a branch of knowledge or specialty, a science: -ologia,-ae (s.f.I);

     - anatomia,-ae (s.f.I), anatomy.

- see compounds in -geny, generation, production, science of origin [> Gk. geneia, the act of being born, > -genes; genos: lineage]:

       -genia,-ae (s.f.I): ontogenia,-ae (s.f.I), phylogenia,-ae (s.f.I).

     -carpy  > -carpia,-ae (s.f.I): xenocarpia,-ae (s.f.I), xenocarpy.

     -chory  > (cf. -chore}, zoochoria,-ae (s.f.I), distribution or dissemination by animals.

     -logy   > -logia,-ae (s.f.I): agrostologia,-ae (s.f.I),- bryologia,-ae (s.f.I), morphologia,-ae (s.f.I), mycologia,-ae (s.f.I), oecologia,-ae (s.f.I), ecology; phenologia,-ae (s.f.I) = > phenomenologia,-ae (s.f.I), phycologia,-ae (s.f.I) [> Gk. logos, a discourse]

     -gamy   > -gamia,-ae (s.f.I): autogamia,-ae (s.f.I), autogamy; cleistogamia,-ae (s.f.I), cleistogamy; monogamia,-ae (s.f.I), monogamy; polygamia,-ae (s.f.I), polygamy; zenogamia,-ae (s.f.I), zenogamy; zoogamia,-ae (s.f.I), zoogamy.

     -oecy,-oicy > -oecia,-ae (s.f.I),-oicia,-ae (s.f.I): dioecia,-ae (s.f.I), dioicia,-ae (s.f.I), dioecy, dioicy.

     -phagy  > -phagia,-ae (s.f.I): autophagy, sexuality in primitive forms

      of Algae; the gametes acting mutually (Jackson).

     -phily  > -philia,-ae (s.f.I): hydrophilia,-ae (s.f.I), hydrophily;       necrophilia,-ae (s.f.I), necrophily; zoidiophilia,-ae (s.f.I), zoidiophily. 

     -phagy  > -phagia,-ae (s.f.I): autophagia,-ae (s.f.I) autophagy [> Gk. phazo, I eat]: expressing the complete fusion of gametes (Jackson); heterophagia,-ae (s.f.I), heterophagy: sexual (protoplasmic) unions which leave a residue the complete fusion of gametes (Jackson).

     -phylly > -phyllia,-ae (s.f.I): heterophyllia,-ae (s.f.I), heterophylly.

     -tely > -telia,-ae (s.f.I): bradytelia,-ae (s.f.I), bradytely.

     -tomy > -tomia,-ae (s.f.I), cutting, incision, section [> Gk. -tomos, a cutting, incision], anatomia,-ae (s.f.I): dissection.

     -trophy > -trophia,-ae (s.f.I): heterotrophia,-ae (s.f.I) heterotrophy.

     -xeny   > -xenia,-ae (s.f.I): lipoxenia,-ae (s.f.I), lipoxeny, analogous with (Jackson): xenia (xenios, belonging to a guest), "Focke's term for the direct influence of foreign pollen on the parts of the mother-plant." 

NOTE: -ism (English suffix): in L. comp. -ismus,-i (s.m.II), in Gk. comp. -ismos: a suffix implying condition, quality, doctrine, theory, principle, system or practice of; abstract idea of that signified by the word to which it is subjoined.  Note that, rather than '-ism,' '-y' may be used, as in Brachycephalism or brachycephaly: brachycephalia,-ae (s.f.I); see -ism: in L. comp. -ismus,-i (s.m.II), in Gk. comp. -ismos.


-y (English adjective suffix): see -ary.


Yam: various species in the genus Dioscorea: Dioscorea villosa L. Atlantic Yam; Bioscorea Batatas Decne., Chinese Yam; Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burk., Fancy Yam; Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burk., Potato Yam.;

    - in discis agaro ex Dioscorea villosa L. "Atlantic Yam" impletis, on discs full of Dioscorea villosa L. "Atlantic Yam" agar.

    - in agaro Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burk. "Chinese Yam" dicto, on agar of Dioscorea esculenta (Lour.) Burk. called "Chinese Yam."


Year: annus,-i (s.m.II), anno;

    - die 5 Maii anni 1856 lectum, collected on day 5 of May of the year

      1856; cf. age. 

    - rosulae anni praeteriti, rosettes of the past year; cf. annotinus,


    - anno vertente, in the course of a year.

NOTE: hornotinus,-a,-um (adj.A) refers to growth of the 'current   season', that is belonging to the present year, or season, not a   year old; annotinus,-a,-um (adj.A) indicates "a year old."


perennial, lasting throughout the year: perennis,-e (adj.B).


pertaining to one year: annalis,-e (adj.B).


pertaining to last year: annotinus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.


pertaining to the present year: hornotinus,-a,-um (adj.A).


lasting or continuing:

  two years: biennis,-e (adj.B), also 'two years old.'

  three years: triennis,-e (adj.B), also 'three years old.'

  four years: quadriennis,-e (adj.B), also 'four years old.'



  a space or period of two years, two years: biennium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. biennio.

  a space of three years, three years: triennium,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. triennio.

  a period of four years, four years: quadriennium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. quadriennio.


yearly, that lasts a year or continues through a year, of a year's duration;  that returns, occurs, or happens every year, annual: annuus,-a,-um (adj.A).


yearly, annually, every year quotannis (adv.).


Yeast: fermentum,-i (s.n.II), fermento; see -zyma,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. -zyma; saccharomyces,-itis (s.m.III), abl. sg. saccharomycete.


yedoensis,-e (adj.B): of Yedo (now Tokyo or Tokyo Metropolis), Japan. The original name of Tokyo 'eastern capital,' was Edo, 'estuary,' and  changed to Tokyo in 1868 when it became the official imperial capital. Yedo, also Yeddo, is an alternative English transliteration of Edo.

Anaphalis yedoensis Maxim.




1. luteus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.'of or belonging to the yellow-weed; of the color of lutum, q.v.1; golden-yellow, saffron-yellow, orange-yellow; the yolk of an egg; flame-colored;' deep yellow, golden-yellow, buttercup-yellow (H.C.C.5). in general deeper than flavus and not verging to red as croceus; the name from lutum, weld, q.v., dyer's rocket (Reseda luteola).

Lutum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. luto: a yellow color, yellow.

lutescens,-entis (part.B), becoming yellow, yellowish; luteolus,-a,-um (adj.A), subluteus,-a,-um (adj.A): somewhat yellow, yellowish.

luteo-:in L. comp. yellow-.

- luteobaccatus, with yellow berries; luteovenius, yellow-veined; luteostamineus, yellow-stamened.

Luteidiscus St.John; Aster luteus (N.E.Br.) Hutch.; Distephanus subluteus

NOTE: luteus,-a,-um (adj.A): of mud or clay; bemired, muddy may also indicate the color of mud, such as buff or fulvous; from lutum,-i (s.n.II), mud, clay.


2. flavus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'golden yellow, reddish yellow, flaxen-colored, blonde; syn xanthos;' yellow, 'pure' yellow.

flavescens,-entis (part.B), yellowish, becoming yellow; flavicans,-antis (part.B): becoming yellow.

flavellus,-a,-um (adj.A), flaveolus,-a,-um (adj.A), flavidus,-a,-um (adj.A), flavidulus,-a,-um (adj.A): yellowish.

Achyrocline flavescens Griseb; Eupatorium flavidulum Urb. & Ekman, Achyrocline flavida S.F.Blake; Chrysanthemum flaveolum Cout.

   flav-, flavi-, flavo-: in L. comp. yellow-;

     - flavantherus, yellow-anthered; Sphyrospermum flaviflorum, with yellow flowers; note the -i- connecting vowel; flavibaccatus, yellow-berried; flavinervius, yellow-nerved; flavisetus, with yellow setae; flavisquamatus, with yellow scales; flavistamineus, yellow-stamened; Gnaphalium flavocephalum G.L.Nesom, with yellow heads; Hymenopappus flavomarginatus I.M.Johnst. with yellow margin; Thelesperma flavodiscum (Shinners) B.L.Turner, with yellow disc.


3. aureus,-a,-um (adj.A), auricolor,-oris (adj.B): 'golden-yellow,'  aurescens,-entis (part.B), becoming golden-yellow; auratus,-a,-um (adj.A), flecked with gold, gilt; dim. aureolus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - aureobaccatis, with golden-yellow berries.

Solidago virgaurea L. "rod of gold" or goldenrod, from L. virga,-ae (s.f.I), twig, rod switch and aureus.


4. chrys-, chryso-,-chryseus,-a,-um (adj.A): in Gk. comp., golden, 'not only the tint but the lustre of gold' (Stearn 1983);

    - chrysanthus, golden-flowered; chrysocarpus, golden-fruited; chrysocephalus, with golden head; chrysocladus, with golden twigs; chrysographes, with golden markings; chrysospermus, with golden seeds.

    - hypochryseus, golden beneath, somewhat golden; chrysellus,-a,-um (adj.A): somewhat golden.



5. chlor-, chloro-, -chlorus,-a,-um (adj.A): in Gk. comp., a hue between yellow and green, greenish-yellow;

     - hypochlorus, yellowish-green beneath, somewhat yellowish-green.


6. xanth-, xantho-,-xanthus,-a,-um (adj.A): in Gk. comp., yellow; syn. flavus; 

    - chloroxanthus, greenish-wellow; xanthacanthus, with yellow spines or thorns; xanthocarpus, with yellow fruits; xanthocephalus, yellow-headed; xanthochymus, with yellow sap or latex; xanthophlebius or xanthoneurus,with yellow veins; xanthophyllus, with yellow leaves; xanthorrhizus, with yellow roots; xanthosphaerus, with yellow spheres or globes; xanthostylus, with yellow styles; xanthotrichus, with yellow hairs.

    - xanthochlorus, yellowish-green; xanthochrous, yellow-colored; xanthophoeniceus, yellowish-red (scarlet); xanthoporphyreus, xanthoprorphyrus, yellowish-purple.

      Xanthocephalum Willd.; Xanthochrysum Turcz.; Xanthocoma Kunth; Xantholepis Willd. ex Less.; Xanthopappus C.Winkl.; Xanthophthalmum Sch.Bip.

    - xanthellus,-a,-um (adj.A), xanthinus,-a,-um (adj.A): yellowish.


7. xuth-, xutho-: in Gk. comp. golden yellow (Stearn 1983)[> Gk. xouthos, golden yellow, akin to xanthos - a color between xanthos and pyrrhus, yellowish tawny, dusky].



  - juventute (young state), aetate (in time), maturitate (at maturity): (abl. of time within which): pileus juventute luteus, pileus in youth yellow.

  - bruised: contusus,-a,-um (part.A): pileus ubi contusus lutescens, pileus when bruised becoming yellow.

  - cut: scissus,-a,-um (part.A), sectus,-a,-um (part.A): pileus postquam sectus flavescens, pileus after having been cut turning yellow.

  - exudatum colore flavo Martis (Ridgway), exudate with the color yellow of Mars (Ridgway).

  - jodo flavescens, in iodine turning yellow (yellowish).


Adjectives are modified by adverbs: 

 - dilute (adv.)luteus, pallide (adv.) luteus, dilute or pale yellow; pallide vel mediocriter (adv.) luteus, paley to moderately yellow.

 - medie (adv.), mediocriter (adv.): moderately, medium-: medie luteus, medium yellow.

 - "deep shades of colour are usually indicated by adding the prefix atro- to the colour-name;" (Stearn 1983) who also indicated that the prefix implies "blackish or very dark."  atro-luteus, deep (dark) yellow.

 - saturate (adv.), vivide (adv.) luteus, saturated, vivid yellow (bright yellow).

 - obscure (adv.): indistinctly, obscurely; 'dull' of colors: obscure luteus, dull yellow.

 - sordide (adv.) luteus: dingy, dirty yellow.

 - fusci-, fusco-: in L. comp., darkened or dark brown-: fusco-luteus, dark-brownish yellow.

 - sordide (adv.) luteus: dingy, dirty yellow.

 - intense yellow: flavissimus; Chrysocephalum flavissimum Steetz;


alutaceus,-a,-um (adj.A): leather-yellow, a whitish yellow.

amber-colored: electrinus,-a,-um (adj.), sucinacius, succineus (sucineus),-a, -um (adj.A), q.v.

argillaceus,-a,-um (adj.A): clay-colored, pale yellow, drab or dirty yellow.

aureolin yellow (H.C.C. 3): aureolinus,-a,-um (adj.A).

becoming yellow: flavescens,-entis (part.B), lutescens,-entis (part.B).

blackish yellow: luteofuscus,-a,-um (adj.A).

brassy, more yellowy and shining than coppery yellow (+ red); aeneus,-a,-um (adj.A).

browns: fawn-colored, light brown tinged with yellow: hinnuleus,-a,-um (adj.A); in Gk. comp., elapho-.  golden-brown: aureo-fuscus.

light brown mixed with yellow and red (Lindley): cinnamomeus,-a,-um (adj.A).

brownish yellow, the brown very light: ochraceus,-a,-um (adj.A); brunneolo-flavus, infuscato-luteus.

buff, q.v.: fulvus,-a,-um (adj.A).

buttercup yellow: ranunculinus,-a,-um (adj.A), yellow with some red.

byssinus,-a,-um (adj.A): the yellow of raw silk.

canary yellow: canarinus,-a,-um (adj.A).

Chinese yellow: sinico-flavus,-a,-um (adj.A).

chlorine, yellow-green: chlorinus,-a,-um (adj.A).

chrome yellow: luteus chromaticus,-a,-um (adj.A)

citrine, a pale greenish-yellow (citron-green, H.C.C.1.63): olivaceo-citrinus,-a,-um (adj.A), citrino-viridis,-e (adj.B); see lemon-yellow.

clay-colored: see drab.

coppery yellow (+ reddish) cupreus, cyprinus, cuprescens; more yellowy and shining, brassy: aeneus.

drab, dirty, or sordid yellow: luridus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'pale yellow, sallow, wan, ghastly, lurid,' see lurid below; argillaceus,-a,-um (adj.A): clay-colored. 

Dresden-yellow, a pale greenish-yellow: flavus dresdanus

egg yellow: luteus,-a,-um (adj.A), vitellinus,-a,-um (adj.A), xanthus,-a,-um (adj.A); vitellinus,-a,-um (adj.A): egg-yolk yellow, 'dull yellow just turning to red' (Lindley, in Stearn 1983).

fulvus,-a,-um (adj.A): fulvous, tawny, 'dull yellow with a mixture of gray and brown' (Lindley), yellowish-brown (Stearn 1983), lion-colored (leochromus,-a,-um (adj.A).

gilvus,-a,-um (adj.A): dull yellow, yellowish tan, but also applied to reddish or grayish colors found on horses (Stearn 1983).

golden yellow: aureus,-a,-um (adj.A).

grayish-yellow, yellowish-gray, tawny: ravus,-a,-um (adj.A); ravido-flavus,-a,-um (adj.A); grayed-yellows include bubalinus, buff, chamois. isabellinus, q.v., ochraceus, ochre-yellow (Stearn, 1983); ravus,-a,-um (adj.A), grayish-yellow, yellowish-gray, tawny; helvus is a 'light bay, pale red, 'the dingy color of oxen.'

grayish-yellow + brown: helvolus,-a,-um (adj.A), although this word classically referred to a pale yellow or yellowish wine.

greenish yellow: galbanus,-a,-um (adj.A), galbinus,-a,-um (adj.A), viridi-flavus, flavo-virens,-entis (part.B); pale greenish-yellows: primulinus,-a,-um (adj.A) (primrose-yellow).

helveolus,,-a,-um (adj.A), helvolus,-a,-um (adj.A): pale yellow, yellowish.

honey-colored: melleus,-a,-um (adj.A), mellinus,-a,-um (adj.A).

Indian-yellow: indico-flavus, with the addition of some red.

leather-yellow (whitish-yellow): alutaceus,-a,-um (adj.A).

lemon-yellow: citrellus,-a,-um (adj.A), citreus,-a,-um (adj.A), citrinellus,-a,-um (adj.A), citrinus,-a,-um (adj.A), limoneus,-a,-um (adj.A); see citrine.

lurid: luridus,-a,-um (adj.A): dirty brown, smoky yellow, drab yellow; sometimes confused in application with lividus, q.v. (Stearn 1983); wan or ghastly pale.

maize yellow, corn yellow: maydi-flavus,-a,-um (adj.A).

Mars yellow:  color flavus Martis, the yellow color of Mars (Ridgway); see Mars, Martis: exudatum colore flavo Martis (Ridgway), exudate with the color yellow of Mars (Ridgway).

mimosa-yellow: mimosinus,-a,-um (adj.A).

ochre yellow, yellow with brownish tinge, yellowish-brown: ochraceus,-a,-um (adj.A);  ochroleucus,-a,-um (adj.A): ochre-: whitened or pale yellowish-brown.

orange: aurantiacus,-a,-um (adj.A), aurantius,-a,-um (adj.A), redder than apricot-colored (armeniacus,-a,-um (adj.A), which is yellow with a sense of red.

pale yellow: -leucus: in Gk. comp., white-; when associated with color terms 'paleness' is indicated.

primrose yellow, pale greenish yellow: primulinus,-a,-um (adj.A)

saffron yellow: crocatus,-a,-um (adj.A), croceoflavus,-a,-um (adj.A), croceus,-a,-um (adj.A), with some red.

straw yellow: paleus,-a,-um (adj.A), stramineus,-a,-um (adj.A), straminellus,-a,-um (adj.A).

sulphur yellow: sulphureus,-a,-um (adj.A), sulphurellus,-a,-um (adj.A), sulphurinus,-a,-um (adj.A).

testaceus,-a,-um (adj.A): brownish yellow, like that of unglazed earthenware; also 'brick-red.'

waxy-yellow, 'dull yellow with a soft mixture of reddish brown (Lindley); wax-gold: cerinus,-a,-um (adj.A)(Stearn 1983).

whitish yellow: albolutescens,-entis (part.B), alboluteus,-a,-um (adj.A), alutaceus,-a,-um (adj.A; see above); ochroleucus,-a,-um (adj.A).

Yellow, the color: lutum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. luto, q.v.; luror,-oris (s.m.III), abl. sg. lurore: a yellowish color, sallowness, paleness.

yellowing: flavens,-entis (part.B).

yellowish: flavidus,-a,-um (adj.A), luteolus,-a,-um (adj.A), lutescens,-entis (part.B), subalutaceus,-a,-um (adj.A), subflavus,-a,-um (adj.A); flavescens, sublutescens, lutescens, subluteus.

yellowish-brown: ochraceus,-a,-um (adj.A).

yellowish-green: flavo-virens,-entis (part.B); Aster flavovirens Kuntze; see citrine.above.

yellowish-gray: flavicinereus,-a,-um (adj.A); Psiadia flavocinerea Humbert

whitish-yellow: albogilvus,-a,-um, albiceratus,-a,-um (adj.A), albiceris,-e (adj. B), albicerus,-a,-um (adj.A).

yellowish-white: eburneus (white with yellowish tinge); -leucus: in L. & Gk. comp., white-. When associated with color terms 'paleness' is indicated; ochro-leucus, whitish yellow-brown.


Yellow Dock: Rumex,-icis (s.f.III), abl. sg. rumice.


Yerba Santa: eriodictyon,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. eriodictyo.


Yermutha,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. Yermutha: Great Yarmouth, eastern England.


yet: tamen (conj.) 'notwithstanding, yet, however;' attamen (at tamen) (adv.) 'but yet'; quanquam (conj.) 'although, and yet'; saltem (adv.) 'at least'; etiam (conj.) 'and also, even yet';

    - species nova caulibus inarmatis Rosae blandae similis, sed tamen foliis glandulosis differt, the new species is similar by the unarmed stems to Rosa blanda, but nevertheless it differs by the glandulose leaves.

as yet: ad huc (adv.);

    - genus etsi habitu Asperugini affine, ad huc id in Rosaceis continuens, although the genus is related to Asperugo by its habit, as yet it is continuing to be in the Rosaceae.

not yet: nondum (adv.);

    - sporophyta nondum visa, sporophytes not yet seen.


Yew tree: taxus,-i (s.f.II), abl. sg. taxo.

Taxus brevifolia, T. Canadensis, T. cuspidate.


pertaining to yew: taxeus,-a,-um (adj.A), taxicus,-a,-um (adj.A).


yl-: in Gk. comp. wood, pertaining to the woods; pertaining to matter, substance, see hyl-, hyle-, hylo-: in Gk. comp. The Greek word is written with the spiritus asper so any compound of this word beginning with yl- (unaspirated) should really be hyl- (aspirated); see spirit.


ymen-, ymeno-: in Gk. comp. a skin or a membrane: see hymen-, hymeno-: in Gk. comp.


yoked, joined: jugatus,-a,-um (adj.A), jugalis,-e (adj.A); in L. comp., -jugus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.; in Gk. comp., -zygus,-zyga,-zygon, q.v.; zyg-, zygo-, q.v.


Yolk of an egg: vitellum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. vitello; vitellus, -i (s.m.II), abl. sg. vitello.


York: Eboracum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. eboraco, the adj. of which is eboracensis,-e (adj.B): Frullania eboracensis Gottsche;

    - New York U.S.A.): Noveboracum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. noveboraco; also Novum Belgium, New Belgium, i.e. New Netherlands, i.e. New York.

    - of New York (U.S.A.): noveboracensis,-e (adj.B), novanglicus,-a,-um (adj.A), noveboracus,-a,-um (adj.A).

Aconitum noveboracense Gray. (nov-eboracense); Alnus noveboracensis Britton, Vernonia noveboracensis (L.) Michx. Aster novi-belgii L. (of New Belgium or New Netherland, early name of New York.


young, when young: juvenis,-e (adj.B), novellus,-a,-um (adj.A), immaturus,-a,-um (adj.A); younger: junior, junius (comp. adj. B); cf. age;


           singular                     plural

      m.& f.       n.               m.& f.      n.

Nom. junior      junius            juniores   juniora

Gen.     junioris                     juniorum

Acc. juniorem    junius            juniores    juniora

Dat.     juniori                    junioribus

Abl.     juniore                    junioribus


    - caules juniores asperati, vetustiores laeves, younger stems roughened, older ones smooth.

    - folia juniora dentata, vetustiora integra, younger leaves dentate, older ones entire.

    - inflorescentia junior squamis imbricatis caducissimis obtecta, the younger inflorescence protected by scales imbricate, very caducous.

    - rami juniores aculeis recurvatis armati, vetustiores fere semper inermes, younger branches armed with recurved prickles, the older ones almost always unarmed (without prickles).

    - caules teretes, novelli dense furfuracei, stems terete, the young ones densely furfuraceous.

    - fructificatio resupinata, juvenilis tenuis citrino-viridis, maturitate subgelatinosa lutea, fructification resupinate, when young thin citron-green, at maturity almost gelatinous (Stearn 1983).


Youth, season of: juventus,-utis (s.f.III), abl. sg. juventute; juventas,-atis  (s.f.III), abl. sg. juventate;

   - juventute, in the time of youth, in the youthful state.


youthful: juvenalis,-e (adj.B), juvenilis,-e (adj.B), juvenis,-e (adj.B), primaevus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. age.


yper-: in Gk. comp.: 'over, above;' see hyper-: in Gk. comp.


ypn-, ypno-: in Gk. comp. pertaining to sleep; also, pertaining to mosses (Hypnum): see hypn-, hypno-: in Gk. comp.


ypo-: in Gk. comp., 'under, below;' see hyp-, hypo-: in Gk. comp.


ypsi-, ypso-: in Gk. comp., signifying 'height, high:' see hypsi-.


ypsil-, ypsili-, ypsilo-: in Gk. comp. Y-shaped [ > Gk. upsilon (ypsilon), the Greek letter 'u' transliterated into Latin as 'y'; the Gk. initial 'u' is unaspirated (spiritus lenis.]; see 'Y-shaped.' Actually the Greek word means 'upsilon-shaped,' and refers, not to the 'u' or 'lower case' Greek letter, but its capital, which resembles the capital letter 'Y' in both Greek and Latin.

NOTE: since the initial upsilon is always aspirated one might have expected this prefix to be spelled 'hypsil-.'

The fungi Ypsilonia Lev. and Ypsilospora Cummins.

Ypsilactyle; Ypsilandra Franch.; Ypsilopus Summerh.;

Melanthiaceae Ypsilandra Franch. 


-ys: nouns ending in -ys (sg. generally f. III)


1. The Greek word for mouse and also rat is mys, gen. sg. myos (s.m.III), a noun of the third Greek declension (related to Latin 'mouse:' mus, gen. sg. muris, q.v.) is sometimes rendered into Latin words ending in -mys.

The following is a paradigm made by adding the Latin Third Declension endings to the stem my-:


mys, myis (s.m.III), q.v., mouse, q.v. and rat.


     singular   plural               singular    plural

Nom.  mys       myes                 Calomys       -

Gen.  myis      [myum] [myium]       Calomyis      -

Dat.  myi       myibus               Calomyi       -

Acc.  myem      myes                 Calomyem      -

Abl.  mye       myibus               Calomye       -


myidion,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. myidio, the diminutive of mys: little mouse (my-idion).

Calomys americanus, the deer-mouse; Oryzomys palustris, the rice-rat; Peromyscus californicus, a deer-mouse; Megamys patagonensis, a fossil rodent; Antechinomys laniger, the little jerboa.

NOTE: Steyskal (1969) used this noun  to display "examples of irregularity in genitive endings [which] pertain to parasites whose specific names are formed from names of host-genera ending in the word 'mys.'"

The host genera were Apomys; Cynomys; Dipodomys; Dremomys; Heteromys; Hesperomys; Otomys; Phascolomys; Pitymys; Rhabdomys; Scotinomys; Thallomys; Thomomys; Zelotomys.



      epithets: ending in -myis endings (correct) endings (other)

          phascolomyis   -mydis: dremomydis hesperomydis, otomydis,

          thallomyis           pitymydis [declined like -chlamys]

                          -mysi   cynomysi, thomomysi (mys + i)

                          -myia   otomyia   (my + ia)

                          -mius   dipodomius (m + ius)

                          -muris  thomomuris (the of the Latin)


      The Greek spelling is gen. myos; acc. myn; myes, acc. pl. myas, dat. pl. mysi and mysi(n), etc. indicating this noun is not of the sort with the genitive in -mydis. The majority of epithets were (incorrectly) composed in -mydis, however, and other variants.


2. Greek nouns ending in -us (upsilon), -udos, rendered into Latin as -ys, -ydis (s.f.III), -yde;


  -chlamys,-ydis (s.f.III), mantle [> Gk. chlamys,-ydos, s.f.III a short cloak or mantle (Lat. paludamentum); see '-chlamys,-ydis: in Gk. comp.'; 


         singular            plural

Nom.   Coleochlamys            -

Gen.   Coleochlamydis          -

Dat.   Coleochlamydi           -

Acc.   Coleochlamydem          -   

Abl.   Coleochlamyde           -


Aulacochlamys (alga); Basichlamys (alga); Coleochlamys (alga);

Ecdysichlamys (alga);  Gloeochlamys (alga); Keriochlamys (alga);

Leptochlamys (alga); Lobochlamys (Chlorophyceae, Protist);

Nephrochlamys (alga); Oogamochlamys (Chlorophyceae, Protist);

Phaeoschizochlamys (alga); Pyramichlamys (alga); Schizochlamys (alga); Sklerochlamys (alga); Tetrachlamys (alga); Vitreochlamys (alga).

Chlamydia,-ae (s.f.I) (Chlamydiaceae, order Chlamydiales, class and phylum Chlamydiae). A genus of three species: Chlamydia trachomatis (of trachoma), C. suis (of pigs) and C. muridarum (of mice).

NOTE: -stachys,-ydis (s.f.III), spike, is an exception in that in Greek

the genitive is '-yos' (see next entry). 


3. Greek nouns ending in -us (upsilon), gen. sg. -uos, rendered into Latin as -ys,-yis;

  -pitys,-yis (s.f.III), pine-tree [> Gk. pitys,-yos, s.f.III, a pine-tree (Lat. pinus)]. 


       singular             plural    

Nom.  Hypopitys (s.f.III)     -

Gen.  Hypopityis              -

Dat.  Hypopityi               -

Acc.  Hypopitym               -

Abl.  Hypopitye               -


    -botrys,-yis (s.m.III), cluster or bunch of grapes (Lat. racemus).

Gliobotrys; Heterobotrys; Hyalostachybotrys; Stachybotrys; see -botrys.

    -drys,-yis (s.f.III), oak; Halidrys (genus of marine plants, alga); Phycodrys (alga); Pseudophycodrys (alga).

    -pitys,-yis (s.f.III), pine.


EXCEPTION: botanical usage for Stachys L. (s.f.III) Horse-nettle, which would be Stachyis in the gen. sg., is rather Stachydis [> Gk. stachys,-yos (s.m.III), spike, an ear of corn [Lat. spica; note the Gk. noun is considered feminine in botanical usage];


        singular         plural            singular     plural

Nom.    -stachys      -stachydes      Nom.  Stachys       -

Gen.    -stachydis    -stachydum      Gen. Stachydis       -

Dat.    -stachydi     -stachydibus    Dat.  Stachydi      -

Acc.    -stachydem    -stachydes      Acc. Stachydem       -

Abl.    -stachyde     -stachydibus    Abl.  Stachyde      -

    Subfamily: Stachydoideae (Stachys,-ydis).


NOTE: Gk. compounds using stachys as a prefix or suffix may use stachy-, stachyo-; -stachys,-ydis; -stachyus,-a,-um; see stachy-.


4. Greek nouns rendered in Latin Third Delcension as -yx, gen. sg. -ychis: bostryx,-ychis (s.m.III) [Gk. bostryx, gen. sg. bostrychos (s.m.II), (note Gk. xi of nominative becomes chi in the other cases)];


        singular         plural            singular     plural

Nom.    bostryx        bostryches     Nom.  Bostryx       -

Gen.    bostrychis     bostrychum     Gen. Bostrychis     -

Dat.    bostrychi      bostrychibus   Dat.  Bostrychi     -

Acc.    bostrychem     bostryches     Acc. Bostrychem     -

Abl.    bostryche      bostrychibus   Abl.  Bostryche     -


Bostryx,-ychis G. Targione-Tozzetti, a genus of algae.


5. Latin nouns of the Third Declension ending in -yx, gen. sg. -ycis;


       singular     plural

Nom.    calyx       calyces             calyx (s.m.III)

Gen.    calycis     calycum

Dat.    calyci      calycibus

Acc.    calycem     calyces

Abl.    calyce      calycibus


Y-shaped: see ypsil-, ypsili-, ypsilo-: in Gk. comp.;

    - sinus in forma litterae "Y", the sinus in the form of the letter "Y"; in figura litterae "Y"; in aspectu litterae "Y" (litterae is genitive singular).

    - aspectu similis litterae "Y", with an appearance similar to the letter "Y" (litterae is dative singular).

    - glandula alba, in forma litterae Y inversae, glandule white, in the shape of the inverse letter Y.


yu-: in Gk. comp. perhaps represents some Greek words beginning in iota + upsilon. Note that classically, the Roman script 'i' alternated in spelling with the Roman script 'u' (optimus and optumus (Lewis & Short): see yun-,yung-, -yunx.


yun-, yung-, -yunx (s.f.III); in Gk. comp. the wryneck, a bird of the genus Iynx, allied to the woodpeckers, having a peculiar manner of writhing its head and neck: Iynx torquilla (Europe, Asia); a condition in medicine: Torticollis; wry-necked (turned to one side, lop-sided); having a distorted or crooked neck; having the deformity called wryneck. [> Gk. iunks, gen. sg. iuggos s.f.III): the wryneck, so called from its cry > iuzo, to shout, holla; howl shriek; L. iynx, gen. sg. iyngis s.f.III, "a bird made use of in conjurations and charms, with which it was thought that slighted lovers could procure a return of affection' Lewis & Short].


NOTE: it appears that some Greek words beginning in iota + upsilon may be transliterated as; 'yu-.'  Also 'iu-' may represent iota + upsilon in certain cases.