Mrs. Zander’s Libelli Latini,

Sample files, the Letter V
P. M. Eckel
Res Botanica
Missouri Botanical Garden
May 15, 2009
Return to home


Mrs. Zander’s Libelli Latini

Sample Files, The Letter “V: Vel.”






V is a consonant, originally written with the same character as the letter u, representing a vowel, and in some Latin dictionaries all the entries begin with that character, none with the sign 'v.' But as the ancients themselves considered the consonant was different from the vowel 'u,' for convenience most student and other Latin dictionaries have a separate section for words beginning with the consonant, expressed with the character 'v.'


Although it might be thought that the 'v' is only used as the initial letter of a word, it is used medially as well, most noteably in the verb vivo, vixi, victum, to have life, and associated words such as vividus,-a,-um (adj.A), living, having life.


The 'w' character is made up of two letters 'v' joined together, the double 'u' (see introduction to the W section).


It may startle some to realize the Romans pronounced their initial 'v' as though it were a 'w', so that Julius Caesar's famous phrase (according to Plutarch) 'veni, vidi, vici' (I came, I saw, I conquered) may lose some of its aggressive force, at least to an English speaker, when one realizes it is pronounced 'weni, weedi, weeki.' One can see here that the consonant 'v' is very close to the vowel 'u' in the Latin language.


NOTE: Euonymus L. is also spelled Evonymus (Fernald 1950).


In the ICBN, 2006 (Vienna Code), Article 60.7, under example 13, it is implied that the 'u' in the terminal 'ou' and 'eau,' and 'w' of people's names are rendered with a 'v' when the author seeks to intentionally Latinize such names. Such intentional Latinizations are not to be 'corrected' by later authors.


Name        Latinized epithet (genitive singular)    Latinized epithet (nominative singular)

A. F. M. Glaziou     Abutilon glaziovii                    Glaziov -ius

                     Porotrichodendron glaziovii

J. Bigelow           Desmodium bigelovii                   Bigelov -ius

                Gaylussacia dumosa var. bigeloviana

                Cereus bigelovii; Senecio bigelovii

L. E. Bureau         Rhododendron bureavii                 Bureav -ius


The -ou- at the end of Glaziou's name in the genitive singular may also be 'glazioui' (Stearn 1983 p. 295).


Note also (to repeat from the introduction to the W section, q.v.) Gallo-Latin v "of the fifth century A.D. (P. 291 Stearn, 1983), "which was rendered sometimes by v, more often by gu." Wilhelm >  Villaume, Vuillerme, Guilhem, Guillaume > Italian Guglielmo > Latinized to Gulielmus.


v. (abbr.): vel, 'or', q.v.;

    - limbus brevissime v. longe productus, the limb very shortly or far extended.


v.: vide, a command 'see;' in some Latin grammars, the exclamation mark '!' is added, drawing attention to the fact that this is the imperative mood form of the verb 'video', q.v.! (L. Adams, pers. comm. 2009). For a note on the botanical significance of the exclamation mark itself, see 'exclamation mark.'

  q.v., quod vide: 'which see.'


V: the Roman numeral for 5 (five); (chem.) the symbol for Vanadium,-ii (s.n.II).


V.C., VC.: vir clarissimus, a man most illustrious; see clarus,-a,-um (adj.A).


V-8: a brand name (registered trade mark) of a marketed vegetable juice (primarily tomato) used with agar, see agar.


V-shaped: variously rendered, e.g.:

    - sinus in forma litterae "V", the sinus in the form of the  letter "V"; in figura litterae "V"; in aspectu litterae "V" (litterae is genitive singular).

    - lobus aspectu similis litterae "V", lobe with an appearance  similar to the letter "V" (litterae is dative singular).


vacanus,-a,-um (adj.A), vicaneus,-a,-um (adj.A): of or dwelling in a village.


Vacca,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vacca: a cow, q.v.

  Aconitum vaccarum, of cows.


Vaccination: vaccinatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. vaccinatione.


Vaccine (med.): vaccinum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. vaccino; from the virus extracted from cowpox, used in the vaccination for smallpox.


Vaccinia,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vaccinia: cowpox.


vaccinus,-a,-um (adj.A): dun-color; pertaining or in reference to cows, of or from cows [> L. vacca,-ae (s.f.I) cow].

  Vaccinium L., presumably from vaccinus, of cows (Fernald 1950); the Latin word for the blueberry, whortleberry: Vaccinium myrtillus L. (Lewis & Short). 


Vaccula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vaccula: a little cow, a heifer.


vacillans,-antis (part.B): swinging to and fro: cf. aestuans,-antis (moving  to and fro), oscillans,-antis (swinging, oscillating), erraticus,-a,-um  (wandering to and fro), versatilis,-e (turning freely on its support).

  Vaccinium vacillans 'vacillating.' 


Vacuole: vacuola,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sing. vacuola, nom pl. vacuolae, dat.& abl. pl. vacuolis;

    - vacuola gaseosa (adj.A), gas vacuole.

    - protoplasma roseum in centro vacuolam gaseosam praebens, protoplasm  rose in the center a gas vacuole displaying.

    - sine vacuola gaseosa centrali, without a central gas vacuole.

    - sine vacuolis gaseosis, with gas vacuoles.

    - cytoplasma hyalinum, interdum vacuolis digestivis instructum, cytoplasm hyaline, sometimes with digestive vacuoles provided.

    - vacuolis contractilibus numerosis per totam cellulae peripheriam sparsis, with contractile vacuoles numerous over the whole circumference of the cell dispersed (Stearn 1983).


Vacuum,-i (s.n.II), vacuum, vacuo: an empty space;

    - seriebus cellularum vacuum internum cingentibus, with rows of cells  surrounding the inner empty space (Stearn 1983). 


vacuus,-a,-um (adj.A): empty; cf. cassus.


vadosus,-a,-um (adj.A): (of water only) shallow, full of shallows.

  Vadum,-i (s.m.II): shallow place in water.

    NOTE: for shallowly cordate.


vagans,-antis (part.B): wandering, ranging;

    - mundivagans, mundivagant, wandering over the world, cosmopolitan.

    - species 5, unica in Asiam maxime boreali-orientalem vagans, species 5, a single one ranging into Asia, mostly north-eastern.

  Erica vagans L.


vage (adv.): here and there, far and wide, dispersedly; vaguely, uncertainly;

    - regiones temperatas vage habitat; temperate regions far and wide it inhabits.

    - frons plana integra vage laciniata aut subregulariter dichotoma, frond flat, entire, here and there laciniate or nearly regularly dichotomous.

Vagina,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vagina: sheath, q.v.;

    - vagina gelatinosa, gelatinous sheath.

    - vaginae caducae cicatrices circulares relinquentes, the sheaths caducous leaving behind circular scars.


vaginalis,-e (adj.B): relating to a sheath.

  extravaginalis,-e (adj.B): outside of or distal to the sheath.

  vaginans,-antis (part.B): sheathing; see clasping.

vaginant lamina, in mosses of the genus Fissidens, the expanded lamina at the base of the leaf, with the true lamina clasping the stem and the base of the leaf above: lamina,-ae (s.f.I) vaginans (part.B).

vaginatus,-a,-um (adj.A): vaginate, sheathed.

  Amanita vaginata (Fr.) Vitt., perhaps referring to the persistent sac-like volva unattached to the stalk.   


vaginervis,-e (adj.B), vaginervius,-a,-um (adj.A): having the veins arranged without any apparent order.


Vaginule, in mosses, the ring or sheath enveloping the base of the seta, derived from the base of the archegonium and remaining after separation of the calyptra (Crum & Anderson 1981): vaginula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vaginula, nom. pl. vaginulae, acc. pl. vaginulas, dat.& abl. pl. vaginulis;

  see ochrea; see colesule.


vague, uncertain, dubious: ambiguus,-a,-um (adj.A), dubius,-a,-um (adj.A), incertus,-a,-um (adj.A); see ambiguous.                   


vaguely, uncertainly: vage (adv.)


vagus,-a,-um (adj.A): uncertain, having no particular direction, in several directions, rambling, wandering, unfixed, unsettled; inconstant, doubtful, vague, indefinite;

    - caulis pinnatus, raro vagus, stem pinnate, rarely irregular.


-vagus,-a,-um (adj.A): in L. comp. wandering;

    - montivagus, wandering over the mountains; mundivagus,-a,-um (adj.A): spreading around the world, that which wanders about the world, wide-spread; noctivagus,-a,-um (adj.A): night-wandering, that wanders about by night, as the moon; paludivagus, wandering over the bog. 

  Viola sororia X V. montivaga


valde (adv.) strongly, very, intensely, exceedingly, decidedly; see strongly, weakly; cf. moderately;

    - inter species antillanas valde peculiaris, among West Indian species very extraordinary.

    - folia insertione modice vel valde succuda, leaves with insertion moderately or strongly succubous.

    - genus Tussilagini valde affine, a genus strongly related to Tussilago.

    - venis secundariis in facie abaxiali valde prominentibus, with the secondary veins on the abaxial face strongly prominent. 


valens,-entis (part.B), compar. valentior,-ius, superl. valentissimus,-a,-um (adj.A): strong, stout, vigorous, powerful; strong in health, healthy;

  see vigorous;

    - ex leguminibus valentior faba quam pisum, among the legumes the faba is more nutritive (i.e. powerful) than the pea.


Valerate (chem.): valeras,-atis (s.m.III), abl. sg. valerate.


valid, having legal force, effective, cogent, legitimate: authenticus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'authoritative, trustworthy; genuine, real;' justus,-a,-um (adj.A), legitimus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'legitimate, allowed by the law'; validus,-a,-um (adj.A); see authentic, true; opp. illegitimus, invalidus, falsus


valide: (adv.): strongly, powerfully; compar. validius (adv.), superl. validissime (adv.).


validly, rightly, correctly: rite (adv.), q.v; juste (adv.) justly, rightly, properly, correctly;

    - nomen non rite publicatum, name not validly published (Stearn 1983).


validus,-a,-um (adj.A): strong, stout, robust-growing, powerful; of the body, sound, healthy, well; of medicines, strong, powerful, active; compar. validior,-ius (adj.B); superl. validissimus,-a,-um (adj.A); also used as 'legitimate' in the sense of valid, q.v.; see stout; see vigorous;

    - nervo valido flavido stricto in mucronem brevissimum attenuato, with a strong nerve yellowish straight abbreviated into a very short mucro.

    - thallus rhizinis validis, thallus with stout rhizines.

    - rhizomatibus validis, with stout rhizomes.


validiusculus,-a,-um (adj.A): somewhat stout.


Vallecula,-ae (s.f.I), vallecula, valleculae, acc. pl. valleculas, dat. & valleculis: furrow between ridges (juga) on fruits of Umbelliferae;

    - valleculae in quoque carpello 4, furrows on each carpel 4.

    - vittae ad valleculas angustas solitariae, vittae solitary in the narrow furrows.

    - valleculis univittatis, with furrows having one vitta (Stearn 1983).

vallecularis,-e (adj.B): pertaining to or like valleculae.

valleculatus,-a,-um (adj.A): provided with furrows; see grooved.

  NOTE: Latin compounds may be made by adding the number or numerical prefix: 2- or bivalleculatus, with two furrows.


Valley: vallis,-is (s.f.III), abl. sg. valle, gen. pl. vallium (i-stem); convallis,-is (s.f.III), abl. sg. convalle, gen. pl. convallium (i-stem), 'valley

  enclosed on all sides'; fauces (pl. f. III of faux, faucis), gen. pl. faucium (i-stem) 'gorge'; see fauces;

    - in valle virgulta nemorosaque, in a valley full of brush and woodlands.

   Convallaria L. Lily-of-the-Valley.


valsoideus,-a,-um (adj.A): valsoid, with groups of perithecia, their beaks pointing inward or parallel to the surface, as in the genus Valsa Fr. (fungi). (Ainsworth & Bisby 5 ed); cf. eutypoideus,-a,-um (adj.A).


valvaceus,-a,-um (adj.A): valvate, provided with valves.

    subvalvaceus,-a,-um (adj.A): incompletely or partially valvate.

valvaris,-e (adj.B), valvatus,-a,-um (adj.A): valvate;

    - dehiscentia valvaris, dehiscence by valves.

    - aestivatio valvata, aestivation with parts touching at edges but not overlapping (Stearn 1983). 


valvar, pertaining to the valve: valvaris,-e, (adj.B):

    - frustulum in facie valvari visum, frustule in valve-view seen.


Valvar plane: (diatoms) planities,-ei (s.f.V) valvaris. 


valvately, by valves (adv.): valvatim;

    - calyx per anthesin spathaceus v. rarius valvatim divisus, calyx during anthesis spathaceus or more rarely divided by  valves. 

    - calycis limbo supra discum integro v valvatim diviso, with the limb of the calyx above the disc entire or valvately divided. 


Valve, one of the segments into which a capsule, or fruit, separates on dehiscence; used in mosses in particular reference to capsules of the Andreaeopsida and some liverworts: valva,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. valva, nom. pl.  valvae, acc. pl. valvas, gen. pl. valvarum, abl. pl. valvis, 'leaf of a folding  door;' epistomium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg.

  epistomio (in mycology); see suture 


Raphe-valve: (diatoms) raphovalva,-ae (f.I).  Rapheless valve: (diatoms),

  areovalva,-ae (s.f.I). 

Valve face: (diatoms), frons, frontis (s.f.III).

    Note: this noun is with a -t in the stem and means 'front', as opposed to frons, frondis, (s.f.III) which means frond.

Valvocopula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. valvocopula: see copula,-ae (s.f.I).


-valved: -valvis,-e (adj.B); 

    - capsula 6-valvis, capsule 6-valved.

    - capsula in coccos 2-valves dissiliens, capsule springing apart into 2-valved berries (mericarpia).

    - capsula ante maturitatem carnosula fere globosa vel obscure didyma, matura tamen in coccos 2-valves solvitur, capsule before maturity somewhat fleshy almost globose or obscurely two-lobed, mature [sc. capsule] for all that  (nevertheless, however, yet) into 2-valved mericarps broken up.

  Nothoscordum bivalve (L.) Britt., two-valved.


Valve-view: facies (-ei, s.f.V) valvaris (adj.B); facies frontalis (adj.B);

  cf. view.


Valvule: valvula,-ae (s.f.I), valvulae, dat. sg. valvulae, abl. sg.

  valvula, nom. pl. valvae, gen. pl. valvularum, dat.& abl. pl. valvulis;

    - valvula inferior trinervis acuta mutica, lower valvule (lemma) 3-nerved acute but without an appendage.

    - valvula superiora aut nulla aut minima aut ovario major, upper valvule (palea) lacking or very small or than the ovary larger.

    - antherae a basi ad apicem valvula revoluta decidua dehiscentes, anthers from base to tip by a revolute deciduous valvule dehiscing. 

    - antherae valvulis sursum dehiscentes, anthers by valvules from below upwards dehiscing.


vanishing: evanescens,-entis (part.B), evanidus,-a,-um (adj.A); see disappearing;

    - nervo centrali sub apice evanido, midrib vanishing before reaching the apex.

    - costa valida apicem versus evanida, costa strong disappearing toward the apex.

  NOTE: evanidinervius,-a,-um (adj.A), evanidinervis,-e (adj.B): with nerves becoming faint and disappearing before reaching the margin. 


Vapor, steam: vapor,-oris (s.m.III), abl. sg. vapore; also an exhalation, steaming, implying warmth and heat, i.e. steam; syn. exhalatio; caligo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. caligine: a thick atmosphere, a mist, vapor, fog; vaporatio,

  -onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. vaporatione; nebula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. nebula 'exhalation, fog, mist, smoke, cloud;' see fume, gas, smoke.


vaporalis,-e (adj.B): of or belonging to steam or vapor, vapory.


vaporaliter (adv.): like a vapor.


vaporans,-antis (part.B): emitting steam or vapor, steaming, fuming, reeking [> L. vaporo,-avi,-atum 1. to emit steam or vapor, to steam, reek; to fill with steam or vapor, smoke; fumigate]. 


Vaporarium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. vaporario: a steam pipe, as in baths.


Vaporatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. vaporatione: a steaming, reeking, steam, vapor; a steam-or vapor-bath. 

vaporatus,-a,-um (part.A): steamed, made full of vapor [> L. vaporo,-avi,-atum 1. to emit steam or vapor, to steam, reek; to fill with steam or vapor, smoke.


vaporifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.B): emitting steam, full of vapors or exhalations, vaporous.


vaporus,-a,-um (adj.A): steaming, reeking, smoking; caporosus,-a,-um (adj.A):

  full of steam or vapor, steaming, vaporous; see capn-, capno-.


-var (noun ending): -var,-varis (s.n.III), abl. sg. -vari; -varietas,-tatis (s.f.III), abl. sg. -varietate;

    - cultivar,-varis (s.n.III), cultivari, nom.  & acc. pl. cultivaria, gen. pl. cultivarium.

    - cultivar: cultivarietas,-atis (s.f.III), nom.& cultivarietates.

  NOTE: the -i in the abl. sg. and -ium in gen. pl. of cultivar, an i-stem noun (a neuter ending in -ar).


vari-, varii-: in L. comp. various, different (in Gk. hetero-); see mixti-; parti-; diversi-: 'diverse, various;'

    -varicolor, of various colors; variifolius, with different sorts of leaves, heterophyllous; varilobus, with assorted lobes.


variable, changeable: variabilis,-e (adj.B), varius,-a,-um (adj.A), mutabilis,-e (adj.B, used of color); polymorphus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'variable in form, of many forms, variable;' cf. versiformis.

variably: varie (adv.), diverse (adv.); see also irregulariter (adv.) irregularly.


Variance: discordia,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. discordia, 'disunion, disagreement, variance, discord.' 


varians,-antis (part.B): varying, varied, manifold [> L. vario, 1. see variatus).

    - maxime variat structura statura magnitudine latidudine et forma, most  greatly it varies in structure stature size width and form (Stearn 1983). 


Variantia,-ae (s.f.I), a difference, diversity, variety.


varianus,-a,-um (adj.A): divers-colored, variegated.

variatim adv. in various ways, variously, q.v.


Variation, a difference: variatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. variatione.


variatus,-a,-um (part.A): diverse manifold, varied

  [> L. vario,-avi,-atum, 1., to diversify, variegate, change, metamorphose, to make different, vary; to alter, to cause change, to be or make different;

  to change, as in colors, turning colored].


varicosus,-a,-um (adj.A): abnormally enlarged in places.


varie (adv.): variously, q.v., diversely; with diverse colors,

  in a variegated manner; variously, changeably, diversely, differently, in various ways; 

    - foliis varie coloratis, with leaves variously colored.


variegated, having two or more (a diversity) of colors: variegatus,-a,-um (part.A); discolor,-oris (adj.B): of another color, not of the same color (as when two faces of a leaf are unlike in color), variegated (Stearn); versicolor,-oris (adj.B), versicolorus,-a,-um (adj.A): variously colored or   changing color; see decolor,-oris (adj.B); see -colored; cf. blotched,

  colubrinus, maculatus, marked, spotted.

  Argyrocome variegatum; Asclepias variegata; Eupatorium variegatum; Hieracium variegatisquamum; Madaria variegata; Senecio variegatus

Varietas,-atis s.f.III: see variety.


Variety, difference, diversity: varietas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. varietate, nom &  varietates, gen. pl. varietatum, dat.&abl. pl. varietatibus. Stace (1989) defined a variety as 'a population of one or several biotypes, forming more or less distinct local facies of a species.'


Variole: dim. of fovea (a small pit), 'a minute pit': variola,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. variola. Note that variolite is 'a basic rock embedded with whitish spherules' (WIII), the varioles in the sense of 'nodules' (as in various pox diseases) rather than pits. In Medieval Latin the word became associated with 'pustule, pox', from the Late Latin for pustule (WIII); see varus,-i (s.m.II).


Variola,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. variola: viral diseases characterized by eruptions, such as nodules or pustules on the skin; the poxes (cowpox, fowlpox, horsepox, smallpox; see vaccinia.

    - variola equina: horsepox.


variolaris,-e (adj.B): variolous, having pustules, pimples; poxy.

varioliformis,-e (adj.B): variole-shaped, varioliform, resembling (small)pox; resembling a pimple or pustule.

variolosus,-a,-um (adj.A): covered with pimples, pustules, nodules; poxy.


various, varied: varius,-a,-um (adj.A); diversus,-a,-um (part.A) 'turned different ways, different, diverse;' multiformis,-e (adj.B) 'many-shaped;'

  multiplex,-icis  (adj.B) 'various, multiplex;'

    - semina forma situ et directione varia, seeds as to form position and direction varied (Stearn 1983). 

  Equisetum arvense L. fo. varium (Milde) Klinge, variable.


variously: diverse (adv.); varie (adv.), variatim (adv.); nunc ... nunc (q.v.), sometimes (i.e. variously) this way ... sometimes that way ...;

    - elateres saepe nunc spirales nunc infirme tortuosi nunc bispirales, elaters often variously spiral now weakly tortuose now bispiral.

variously colored, parti-colored: diversicolor,-oris (adj.B),

  diversicolorus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Varnish: vernix,-icis (s.f.III), abl. sg. vernice, q.v.


varnished: laccatus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'with the appearance of a varnished  surface,' nitens,-entis (part.B) 'shiny, as of a varnished surface,'

  vernicosus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'varnished'; see shining.


varnished surface, appearance of; shiny: laccatus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Varus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. varo: a facial eruption, a pimple or blotch:

  see variole, variola.


varying, diversifying, changing: see varians,-antis (part.B).


varying, changing, diversifying: varians,-antis (part.B), q.v.;

    - fructus magnitudine variantes, fruits varying with respect to size, fruits of variable size (Stearn, 1983).


varying to or into: 'ad' or 'in' (+ acc.);

varying from:       'de' or 'ab' (+ abl.) ... into: 'ad' or 'in'(+ acc.);


  ad or in ( + acc.) ... desinens, desistens, inclinans, vergens.

  de or ab (+ abl.) ... ad or in (+ acc.) ... desinens, desistens, inclinans, vergens.


e.g. - petalla rosea in colorem violaceum desinentia, petals rose-colored varying (ending) into a violet color.1. in (+ acc.) ... desinens,-entis (part.B) [> L. desino,-sii 4. 'desit' to cease, stop, desist; end close;

  desinens,-entis (part.B): ceasing, stopping]

    - folia in apicem desinentia, leaves ending in the apex.

    - sepala de roseo in colorem purpureum desinentia, sepals ending from rosey into the color purple. Note 'colore' after 'de' is understood.

    - folium primo velutinum ad glabrum desinens, leaf at first velvety ending glabrous ('glabrum' - folium is understood).


2. in (+ acc.) ... desistens,-entis (part.B) (desistum, part.A) [> L. desisto,-stiti,-stitum, 3: to of an action, to leave off, cease, desist from with de, ab or simple abl.; 

    - costa in apicem desistens, costa ceasing in the apex.

    - planta de arbore ad suffruticem desistens, plant from a tree to a subshrub ending.

    - capsula laevis ad statum marchescentem desistens, capsule smooth ending in a withered state.


3. in (+ acc.) ... inclinans,-antis (part.B) (inclinatus, part.A)) [> L. inclino,-avi,-atum 1. to cause to lean or bend, to incline, turn in a direction, to bend down or bow something + ad and acc.;  

    - petalla de colore albo ad colorem purpureum inclinantia, petals tending from a white color toward (changing into) a purple color.

    - capsula ad formam ventricosam inclinans, capsule tending to a ventricose form.

    - caulis de linea recta ad flexuosam inclinans, stem from a straight to a flexuosa (line) varying.

    - planta de arbore ad suffruticem inclinans, plant from a tree varying to a subshrub.

    - ad solem inclinatus, turned toward the sun.


4. in (+ acc.) ... vergens,-entis (part.B) [> L. vergens,-entis (part.B): tending towards, approaching ('toward' + ad + acc.) ('on' + in + acc.);

    - colore languido in candidum vergente, with a dull color tending to (or verging on) white.

    - optimus frutex rubens aut in purpuram vergens, the best fruit is red or verging on the purple.

    - planta de arbore ad suffruticem vergens, plant from a tree to a subshrub approaching.


5. passage from one condition to another, using ex (e) + abl.:

    - foliis 7--15 cm latis, ex [statu] late ovato orbicularibus, with leaves 7-15 cm wide, orbicular from a widely ovate condition (state). "Statu" does not have to be written out: foliis ex late ovato orbicularibus; status,-us (s.m.IV), acc. sg. statum, abl. sg. statu 'state or condition.'


Vas, vasis (s.n.III), acc. sg. vasem, dat. sg. vasi, vase, (NOTE the plural is vasa,-orum as though it were a second declension noun): vessel, duct; nom. & acc. pl. vasa, gen. pl. vasorum; see ductus,-us (s.m.IV);

    - fasciculus vasorum, bundle of vessels.

     - vasa laticis, lactiferous ducts [laticis = latex,-icis, juice].

    - vas medullosum, medullary vessel. 

    - vasa scalariformia, scalariform vessels.

    - fasciculo vasorum unico in sectione litteram V simulante, with a  single bundle of vessels in section resembling the letter V (Stearn 1983).

  Fusarium vasinfectum, a fungus causing wilting disease wherein plant tissues lose turgor pressure.


vascular, fibrovascular: (fibro)vasalis,-e (adj. B), (fibro)vascularis,-e (adj.B); cf.falsinervis,-e (adj.B): with nerves formed of cellular (not fibrovascular) tissue (Stearn);

    - plantae vasculares, vascular plantes, i.e. phanerogams and pteridophytes.

    - fasciculus fibrovasalis totam radicis longitudinem percurrens, fibrovascular bundle running down the whole length of the root (Stearn).

    - endodermis 2 fasciculis fibrovascularibus discretis, endoderm with 2 discrete fibrovascular bundles.


Vascular bundle: fasciculus,-i (s.m.II) vascularis (adj.B), abl. sg. fasciculo vasculari.


Vasculatura,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vasculatura: vasculature.

Vasculum,-i (s.n.II), vasculo: a botanist's case for carrying  specimens as they are collected [> L. dim. vas, vasis, s.n.III)

  cf. Proc. Bot. Soc.  Brit. Isles, 3: 135-150 (1959); Stearn 1983).


Vaseline (pharm.): vaselinum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. vaselino.


vase-shaped: urceolatus,-a,-um (adj.A); q.v. for definition.


vast: immensus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Vault, arch, 'fitted together in a circular form,' apse: absis or apsis,-idis, (s.f.III), abl. sg. abside or apside; absida,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. absida 'a vault, an arched roof, the interior of a vault;' camera,-ae (s.f.I), camera (also camara,-ae (s.f.I): chamber;  fornix,-icis (s.m.III), q.v., abl. sg. fornice, q.v., vault, an arched structure; see chamber.


vaulted, arched: absidatus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'having an arch; arched, vaulted' as a porch or an enclosure; fornicatus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.


Vector,-oris (s.m.III), abl. sg. vectore: a carrier, bearer; vector.

  Stolonivector,-oris (s.m.III), a liverwort.

vectus,-a,-um (part.A): carried [> L. veho, vexi, vectum, to carry, bear, convey].


Vegetabile,-is (s.n.III), vegetabili: a plant, a vegetable;

  holus,-eris (s.n.III), q.v. indicates 'kitchen or garden herbs of any kind; vegetables;


         singular         plural    

Nom.    vegetabile      vegetabilia   

Gen.    vegetabilis     vegetabilium

Dat.    vegetabili      vegetabilibus

Acc.    vegetabile      vegetabilia

Abl.    vegetabili      vegetabilibus


    NOTE: this is an i-stem neuter noun, see -e for declension.

Vegetabile (for eating): vegetabile oleraceum (adj.A), planta (s.f.I) oleracea (oleraceus implies 'fit for the garden', fit for eating). [[also olera,-orum (pl.n.II) abl. pl. oleris.

resembling or pertaining to vegetables: holeraceus,-a,-um (adj.A), oleraceus,-a,-um (adj.A).

planted with vegetables: (h)oleratus,-a,-um (part.A) [> L. (h)olero,-avi,-atum, 1. to plant with vegetables].


Vegetable or kitchen garden: holerarium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. holerario, olerarium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. olerario: a vegetable-garden, kitchen-garden [> L. holus,-eris (s.n.III), q.v.].


vegetabilis,-e (adj.B): animating; of or relating to plants; organic material (materia,-ae (s.f.I) organica (adj.A); contrast with animalis,-e (adj.B):

  pertaining to a living creature, animal; see mineralis,-e (adj.B); 

    - regnum (s.n.II) vegetabile, plant kingdom. 

    - ad solum vegetabile habitat, it dwells on vegetabile soil (i.e. not mineral soil).

    - plantae gregariae in foliis acerosis Piceae ad humum ex materia organica putrida compositum habitantes, plants gregarious growing on needle leaves of Picea on humus composed of rotten organic material.


vegetans,-antis (part.B): arousing, enlivening, quickening, invigorating [>L. vegeto,-avi,-atum 1. to arouse, enliven, invigorate, quicken].


Vegetation: vegetatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. vegetatione;


vegetative: vegetativus,-a,-um (adj.A)[ > L. [> L. vegeto,-avi,-atum, 1. to arouse, enliven, quicken, invigorate + ivus: growing, causing to grow or having the power of growing]; see dormant; see vegetus,-a,-um (part.A); see crescens,-entis (part.B): 'growing;' see fruiting;

   1. engaged in nutritive and growth functions vs. reproductive functions;

      - organa (pl.n.II) vegetativa, organs associated with the growth of the plant, not the reproduction (organa reproductionis, 'organs of reproduction').

   2. asexual, q.v.  vegetativus,-a,-um (adj.A); with new plants produced asexually by proliferation or fragmentation of sterile tissue in the absence of embryo or seed formation; see apomictic, asexual; cf. sterile;

     - multiplicatio (s.f.III) vegetativa, abl. sg. multiplicatione vegetativa: vegetative multiplication.

   3. vegetative as opp. to animal world; see vegetabilis,-e (adj.B).


vegetative reproduction, asexual regeneration, such as by detached buds, gemmae, bulbils, plant fragments: reproductio (-onis (s.f.III) vegetativa, abl. sg. reproductione vegetativa; regeneratio (-onis (s.f.III) vegetativa, abl. sg. regeneratione vegativa.


Vegetative cell: (diatoms), cellula,-ae (s.f.I) vegetativa. 


vegetatus,-a,-um (part.A): aroused, enlivened, quickened, invigorated [> L. vegeto, see vegetans,-antis (part.B)].


vegetus,-a,-um (part.A): fresh, vigorous; lively, active, brisk [> L. vegeo,-ere: to move, excite, quicken, arouse];

  opp. marcidus, q.v.; opp. dormiens,-entis (part.B), to be dormant.


vehementer (adv.): strongly, forcibly;

    -  semina ex capsula vehementer expulsa, seeds from the capsule forcibly ejected. 


Veil: see velum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. velo; = Greek calyptra (s.f.I), a covering, a woman's veil; velum was once used to indicate the calyptra (> Gk. =  veil, covering) of the moss capsule; see volva,-ae (s.f.I);

    - velum universalis, abl. sg. velo universali; volva universalis, universal veil or volva. 

    - velum partiale (adj.B): partial veil, abl. sg. velo partiali;

    - pileus in superficie reliquias volvae universalis tenui-farinosas retinens, pileus on its upper surface retaining finely-mealy remains of the universal veil.

  Velum universale = volva universalis for "universal veil."

Partial veil: cortina,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. cortina, q.v.


veiled, covered, concealed: velatus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.

veiling, covering, concealing (verb): velans,-antis (part.A), q.v.


Veiling, covering (noun): see cover.


Vein, originally of the body: vena,-ae (s.f.I), acc. sg. venam, abl. sg. vena, nom. pl. venae, gen. pl. venarum, acc. pl. venas, dat. & abl. pl. venis; see nerve; see nervule, -phlebius,-a,-um (adj.A), phlebo-;

    - maculae amphigenae, orbiculares, venis limitatae, spots amphigenous, orbicular, limited by the veins.

    - venae 8-9-jugatae (steriles), 6-8-jugatae (fertiles), veins 8-9-paired (sterile), 6-8-paired (fertile) (of ferns).

  NOTE: falsinervis,-e (adj.B): with nerves formed of cellular (not fibrovascular) tissue (Stearn); see vascular.

Vein, of plants: nervus,-i (s.m.II), nervo.

    NOTE: in classical Latin nervus meant sinew, tendon, nerve, that is, a reference to an animal body.

following veins: nervisequens,-entis (part.B), nervisequus,-a,-um (adj.A).

full of veins: venosus,-a,-um (adj.A)

growing on veins: venicola,-ae (s.c.I), abl. sg. venicola.

Cross-vein: vena transversalis (adj.B). Primary vein: vena primaria (adj.A). Secondary vein: vena secondaria. Tertiary vein: vena tertiaria.


-veined: in L. comp. -venius,-a,-um (adj.A); see -nerved; -venosus,-a,-um (adj.A) q.v.: in L. comp. - many-veined;

    - atrovenosus, black-veined; luteovenius, with yellow veins; multivenius, with many veins; parallelivenius, with parallel veins; paucivenius, with few veins; purpureovenosus, with purple veins; qinquevenius, 5-veined.

             in Gk. comp. -phlebius,-ia,-ium (adj.A)

    - dictyophlebius, with netted veins; oligophlebius, with few veins; parallelophlebius, with parallel veins; pentaphlebius, 5-veined; polyphlebius, with many veins; xanthophlebius, with yellow veins.

  NOTE: without perceptible veins: avenis,-e (adj.B), avenius,-a,-um  (adj.A).

  NOTE: venatus,-a,-um (part.A) is a past participle or venor, l., a deponent verb meaning to hunt, so it is not used to indicate 'veined'.


Veining: nervatura,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. nervatura; venatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. venatione; 

    - anastomosis (cross-connection of veins forming network): anastomosis,-is (s.f.III), abl. sg. anastomose

    - area between Veins: intervenium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. intervenio.

    - area enclosed by Veins or Veinlets, Vein-islet: areola (-ae, s.f.I).

    - midrib (central or main vein): costa,-ae (s.f.I), nervus (s.m.II) medius (adj.A), nervus centralis (adj.B). 

    - midrib of fern-pinna: costula,-ae (s.f.I).

    - network of veinlets: rete, gen. sg. retis (s.n.III), abl. sg. rete, nom. & acc. pl. reta, dat. & acc. pl. retibus.


Vein-islet, area enclosed by veins or veinlets: areola,-ae (s.f.I). 

Veinlet, a small vein: venula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. venula, nom. pl. venulae, acc. pl. venulas, dat. & abl. pl. venulis.

veinlike: veniformis,-e (adj.B).

vein-following, following veins: nervisequens,-entis (part.B), nervisequus,-a,-um (adj.A).


vel (conj.): 'or,' generally used when there are two clear alternatives); see 'or;' [> L. vel, akin to or the imperative of volo; to wish or choose);


  A. when used alone: 'or'

    - folia basalia obovata vel late spathulata, basal leaves obovate or broadly spathulate.

    - margine dentata vel subintegra, with the margin dentate or nearly entire.


  B. vel potius, or, or if you will, or rather (to correct a previous statement, perhaps inserting a condition, such as age or a different state);

       - folia laevia, vel potius in statu sicco striata, leaves smooth, or rather in a dry state striate. 

       - pileus viscosus vel potius aetate siccus, pileus viscose or rather with age dry.

  C. vel ... vel: either ... or; be it ... or (vel may be repeated 3 or 4 times);

       - androgynophoro sepalis vel aequante vel potius paulo breviore vel nullo, with the androgynophore either equaling or somewhat shorter than the sepals or none.

       - capsula vel primo vel deinde non schizocarpica, with the capsule be it at the beginning or finally not schizocarpous.

  D. vel ... vel ... vel etiam (vero etiam or omnino): either ... or ... or even

     even (or in truth, or even; or in general);

       - folius pilis variabilibus vel papillis vel omnino ambabus praeditus, leaf provided with variable hairs or papillae or in general both.

       - margine vel plano vel subrecurvo vel etiam deflexo, with the margin flat or almost recurved or even deflexed.


  E. with superlatives, whether of adj. or adv. to denote the highest possible degree: the very; the utmost; the most ... possible.

       - flore valde glabro vel glabrissimo, with the flower strongly glabrous or as glabrous as possible.

       - sporae minus vel aetate minime ampla, spores less or with age least abundant.


  NOTE: another use of 'vel,' particularly in botanical Latin prose, with  adjectives and adverbs, is to indicate a gradient or range, translating the English preposition 'to.' The Latin preposition 'ad' + object in the accusative is fine with nouns (especially numerals), but there is a problem with adjectives whose case endings must follow that of a noun within the text:

     - petallis ablis vel cinereo-albis, with petals white or grayish-white.

  'Petallis' is in the ablative (plural); were one to use 'ad' between the two color terms, the second term would be strange in the accusative (cinereo-alba).

  'Vel' here does not express two distinct choices but perhaps the end members of a gradient or cline.

    - ovula 6 ad 8, fructu obovato vel oblongo, ovules 6 to 8, with the fruit obovate or oblong.


Velamen,-inis (s.n.III), abl. sg. velamine, nom. & acc. pl.

  velamina, dat. & abl. pl. velaminibus: cover, covering;

    - stratum tenue saxa limumque velamine continuo obducens, layer thin  spreading over rocks and mud as a continuous cover.

    - velamen radicum, velamen, i.e. the moisture-absorptive covering of aerial roots of tropical orchids and aroids (Stearn 1983).

    - secretione tenaci pro affixione ad velamen proctodaei interius, holdfast secretion for the attachment to the inner covering (i.e. lining) of the hindgut.

  Velamen: "A thin, often chartaceous ... or pergamentaceous ... outermost tissue layer of an aerial root; esp. in Orchidaceae" (Kiger & Porter 2001).


Velamentum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. velamento: 'a cover, covering; a cover, concealment, screen.'


velans,-antis (part.A): covering, partially concealing, veiling [> L. velo, 1.]

   - bracteolis calyce usque ad apicem (98-100%) valens, with bracteoles covering the calyx to the apex (98-100%).


velaris,-e (adj.B): of or belonging to a veil or curtain. 


Velarium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. velario: a covering, screen, awning.


velatus,-a,-um (part.A): covered, partially concealed from view,

  veiled [> L. velo,-avi,-atum, 1.: to cover, cover up, envelop, wrap up, to veil];

  see concealed, covered;

    - calyx per bracteolas apicales usque ad apicem (98-100%) velatus, the calyx by the apical bractioles covered to the apex (98-100%).


vellosus,-a,-um (adj.A): furry, fleecy, wooly; see wooly.


Vellus,-eris (s.n.III), acc. sg. vellus, abl. sg. vellere, nom. & acc.

  pl. vellera: fleece, wool, down; the stipe of some fungi (Jackson);

    - herba vellere longorum pilorum obtecta, herb with a wool of long hairs covered (Stearn 1983). 

    - infusio (-onis s.f.IIII) velleris, a dying or coloring of wool.


Velocity, speed: velocitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. velocitate; rapiditas,

  -atis (s.f.I), abl. sg. rapiditate; celeritas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. celeritate: swiftness, quickness, speed, celerity; celeritudo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. celeritudine: swiftness; opp. tarditas; see pernicitas,

  -atis (s.f.III). 


velociter (adv.): swiftly, quickly, speedily; see quickly. 


Velocitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. velocitate: 'swiftness, fleetness, speed, rapidity, velocity;' syn. celeritas,-atis (s.f.III), q.v.;

  see velocity.


velox,-ocis (adj.B): swift, quick, fleet, rapid, speedy; as an epithet, it may refer to 'speedy growth; to do' syn. celer,-eris (adj.B), q.v. 


Velum,-i (s.n.II), velo, nom. & acc. pl. vela, dat. & abl. pl. velis: veil; velum, (diatoms); in Agaricales, the enclosure where the development of the sporophore occurs; see veil, volva.

  Also "A membranous adaxial flap or fold of vegetative tissue wholly or partly covering the sporangial cavity of a sporophyll: in Isoetaceae" (Kiger & Porter 2001); 

    - velum partiale (adj.B): partial veil, abl. sg. velo partiali.

    - velum pelliculare (adj.B): pellicular veil, abl. sg. velo pelliculari.

    - velum cortinoideum, cortinoid veil, abl. sg. celo cortinoideo. 

    - velum hymeniale, partial veil of agarics, abl. sg. velo hymeniali.

    - velum universale, universal veil or volva, abl. sg. velo universali.

    - pileus reliquiis floccosis veli universalis instructus, pileus  provided with the floccose remains of the universal veil. 

    - protoblema,-atis (s.n.III), abl. sg. protoblemate, primary universal veil.

    - teleblema,-atis (s.n.III), abl. sg. teleblemate, the universal veil.

  Apparently velum universale is as acceptable as volva universalis for "universal veil."

  NOTE: the universal veil of agarics and Gasteromycetes constitutes a layer of tissue covering the fruit-body while development takes place; = teleblem;

  cf. volva. The primary universal veil = protoblem (Ainsworth & Bisby), q.v.


velut (adv.), veluti (adv.): just as, like, as, as if; to introduce an example, for example;

    - zoosporis velut isogametae fungentibus, with zoospores functioning as if isogametes (Stearn).

    - folia madore apice caulis veluti in rosulam congesta, leaves in moisture congested as in a rosette.

    - folia veluti rosulam minutam sistentia, leaves standing like a minute rosette.

    - braceis velut petalla coloratis, with bracts colored as if petals.

  NOTE: in these examples the zoospores are not isogametes, nor is the stem in a rosette; note also in these examples the nouns following 'velut' are in the nominative.


velutinus,-a,-um (adj.A): velvety, densely covered with fine short soft erect hairs;

    - coloniae tegetem velutinam formantes, colonies forming a velvety mat.

  Psathyrella velutina, a mushroom whose cap is densely covered with dark brown hairs.

velutipes,-pedis (adj.B): velvet-stalked; see -footed.

  Flammulina velutipes, a mushroom whose short stalk is covered with velvety hairs.


Velvet: velvetum,-i (s.n.II), velveto.

velvety, velutinate, densely covered with fine short soft erect hairs: velutinus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Vena,-ae (s.f.I), vena: vein: see veining.

Venation: see veining.

venenatus,-a,-um (adj.A): poisoned, poisonous, q.v. [> L.

  venenum s.n.II];

    - fungus crudus venenatus, costus esculentus, fungus when raw poisonous, when cooked edible (Stearn).

  Galerina venenata, a deadly poisonous mushroom, as is Tricholoma venenata.


venenosus,-a,-um (adj.A): (very) poisonous [> L. venenum s.n.II]; see poisonous.

  Angelica venenosa.

  NOTE: not to be confused with 'venosus,-a,-um' 'having many veins.' 


Venenum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. veneno: poison.


venetus,-a,-um (adj.A): bluish-green, aeruginose, venice-blue.


venosus,-a,-um (adj.A): having many branched veins or conspicuously veined; opposite of avenis,-e (adj.B), avenius,-a,-um (adj.A), veinless, without lateral nerves and veins.

  Rumex venosus, veiny, 'from the conspicuous valves' (Fernald 1950) that are rose-colored and very veiny.


-venosus,-a,-um (adj.A): in L. comp. - many-veined; see -veined;

    - luteovenosus, with many yellow veins; parallelivenosus, with many parallel veins; quinquevenosus, 5-veined.

    - 5-6-venosus, with 5-6 veins.


Venter,-tris (s.m.III): [drop the -e before -r when declining] gen. sing. ventris, abl. sing. ventre, nom. & acc. pl. ventres, gen. pl. ventrum, abl. pl. ventribus; the belly, a curving or protuberance, belly; expanded basal part of an archegonium, containing the egg; the ventral surface, front; Greek synonym, see gaster; see stomach; cf. frons (s.f.III), frontis (s.f.III), the front of anything; opp. dorsum,-i (s.n.II), q.v., the back, lower, or outer (abaxial) side of an organ;  

    - perianthio rotundo-obovato dorso subcarinato ventre biplicato, the

        perianth rounded-obovate with a subcarinate back (dorsum) with the biplicate ventrum (ventral part). 

    - lobis seu a dorso vel ventre visis truncato-serratis, with the lobes seen either from the back or front truncate-serrate.


ventosus,-a,-um (adj.A): full of wind, windy, puffed up [> L. ventus,-i (s.m.II)].


ventralis,-e (abj.B): ventral, i.e. on the inner face or the one towards the axis, as, in mosses, the inner surface of a peristome tooth, the upper or adaxial surface of a leaf, and the lower surface of a prostrate plant or structure: opp. dorsalis,-e (adj.B), q.v. and abaxial, q.v.; same as adaxial, q.v.; 

    - stratis pluribus stereidarum ventralium et dorsalium, with several layers of ventral and dorsal stereids (Stearn). 

    - in facie dorsali et ventrali, on the dorsal and ventral face.


ventraliter (adv.), adaxialiter (adv.): ventrally, adaxially;

     - ramificans saepissime laterali- atque ventrali-intercalariter, branching nearly always lateral- and ventral-intercalary.


ventraliter (adv.) ventrally, = in parte ventrali; see dorsaliter.


ventricose, bellied, bulging, swollen; swelling unnequally or inflated on one side; ventricosus, -a,-um (adj.A) [> L. venter,-tris, s.m.III], gasteropodus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.; see also lecythiformis,-e; cf. strumosus,-a,-um (adj.A).

  Catathelasma ventricosa, a mushroom, perhaps associated with the double ring, superior and persistent, which at first flares upward; Alopecurus ventricosus 'bellied-out', from the upper sheaths inflated.

ventricoso-rostratus,-a,-um (adj.A): ventricose-rostrate, 'ventricose with a tip or beak or narrowed prolongation; same as 'lageniform,' 'sicyoid,' and 'cucurbitiform,' unless one chooses to make distinctions on the length of the neck or prolongation,' (S&D) cf. 'utriform.'


ventriculosus,-a,-um (adj.A): of or pertaining to the belly, stomach.

Ventriculus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. ventriculo: the belly, the stomach; a ventricle, as of the heart; see stomach; see belly.

ventrifixus,-a,-um (part.A): with the point of attachment on the adaxial side well above the base.

ventrifluus,-a,-um (adj.A): laxative, purgative; see medicine;

    - medicamentum ventrifluum, a purgative medicine.


ventriosus,-a,-um (adj.A): big bellied, having a large belly, pot-bellied.

ventruosus,-a,-um (adj.A): bellying outwards.

Ventulus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. ventulo: a breeze, a small or light wind.

Ventus,-i (s.m.II), vento: wind.


Venula,-ae (s.f.I), venula: veinlet, a small vein; see veining.


Venus,-eris (s.f.III), venere: beauty, charm, loveliness; the goddess of love and grace; love; often generically referring to women, especially women's or female sexuality; qualities that excite love, loveliness, elegance, grace; syn. Cypris,-idis (s.f.III), q.v.; in Gk. = Aphrodite,-es (s.f.I), q.v., abl. sg. Aphrodite;

    - Scandix pecten-veneris L. Lady's comb (comb of Venus).

  Adiantum Capillus-Veneris L. 'old generic name, Venus' hair' {Fernald 1950) Venus'-hair Fern, also called Maiden-hair Fern; Specularia Speculum-Veneris, mirror of Venus, the epithet being an old generic name.

  Achillea pecten-veneris; Acosta veneris; Centaurea veneris.  


venereus,-a,-um (adj.A), venerius,-a,-um (adj.A): of or relating to Venus; aphrodisius,-a,-um (adj.A), aphrodisiacus,-a,-um (adj.A).

venuste (adv.), compar. venustius (adv.), superl. venustissime (adv.): beautifully, charmingly.

venustus,-a,-um (adj.A), compar. venustior,-ius, superl. venustissimus,-a,-um (adj.A): lovely, comely, charming, pleasing, agreeable,  beautiful, graceful; syn. pulcher, formosus, speciosus, q.v.; see beautiful.

  Calochortus venustus, the White Mariposa-lily; Cirsium venustum; Taraxacum venustum.


Vepres (vepris, veper)(gen. sg. -is) (s.m.III), abl. sg. vepre; more usual in the plural: vepres, gen. pl. veprium, dat. & abl. pl. vepribus: a thorn-bush, briar- or brier-bush, bramble-bush; see bramble, briar, thicket.


Vepretum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. vepreto: a thorn-hedge, bramble-thicket; see brake, hedge, thicket.

Veprecula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. veprecula: a little thorn- or brier-bush.


vepraticus,-a,-um (adj.A): of or belonging to a thorn-bush;

    - spinae vepraticae, spines like those of a thorn-bush.


Ver, gen. sg. veris (s.n.III), abl. sg. vere; spring (season), q.v.; see -er, -eris, third declension neuter nouns;


       singular        plural

  Nom.  ver            vera

  Gen.  veris          verum

  Acc.  ver            vera

  Dat.  ver            veribus

  Abl.  vere           veribus


    - vere, in spring (i.e. fruiting or flowering).

    - primo vere, vere novo, at the beginning of spring.

    - ineunte vere, at the beginning of spring.


verbal, derived from a word: verbialis,-e (adj.B).

Verbum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. verbo: a word, q.v.

    - word for word: ad verbum.

verbosus,-a,-um (adj.A): wordy, full of words, prolix, verbose.


Verdure, the greenness and freshness of growing vegetation; a green growth: viride,-is (s.n.II), q.v., abl. sg. viride. 


verdigris (H.C.C. 6.55), verdigris-colored, a green or bluish deposit esp. of copper carbonates formed on copper, brass or bronze surfaces; cf. patina,-ae (s.f.I); verdigris green is a yellowish green, [ > Old French: vert green + de 'of' from L. Graecia, the green of Greece']: aerugineus, -a,-um (adj.A), aeruginosus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. patina,-ae (s.f.I). 


vere (adv.): actually, genuinely, really, in fact, properly, rightly, exactly, according to truth, truly [> L. verus,-a,-um (adj.A), true]; cf. vero (adv.) 'certainly, assuredly, in truth, in fact, exactly, surely; see revera;

    - differt foliis non vere lanceolatis, it differs by the leaves not truly lanceolate.


vere (noun): abl. sg. of ver, gen. sg. veris (s.n.III), q.v. 'in spring,' often referring to fruiting or flowering time. 


verging upon, lying near, bordering upon, being contiguous to: attingens,-entis (part.B), q.v. 


vergens,-entis (part.B): tending towards, approaching [> L. vergo, versi, 3. to bend, to be inclined, to be directed ('toward' + ad + acc.) ('on' + in + acc.); of places, to lie towards, be situated towards "ad flumen" "ad septentriones"; to approach, come near; of disposition, to tend to; to incline, to bend, turn; (of color) to shade into]; see average;

    - ad flumen vergens, being situated toward the river, approaching the river; ad septentriones vergentes, being situated toward the north.

    - capsula rubra ad lutum vergens, capsule red shading to yellow (color).

    - floribus ad terram vergentibus, with flowers directed or inclined toward the ground.

    - colore languido in candidum vergente, with a dull color tending to (or verging on) white.

    - optimus frutex rubens aut in purpuram vergens, the best fruit is red or on the purple.


veris (gen. sg. ver,  gen. sg. veris (s.n.III), q.v.); of the season of spring; see vernal.


verisimilis,-e (adj.B); probable, likely.

Verisimilitudo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. verisimilitudine: probablilty, likelihood, plausibility.

verisimiliter (adv.): very likely, probably, in a manner resembling the truth, plausibly;

    - species 2, originis adhuc incertae, verisimiliter e montibus Asiae mediae, species 2, as yet of uncertain origin, probably from the mountains of mid-Asia.

    - planta verisimiliter ex hybridatione harum specierum orta, plant probably arose from a hybridization of these species.

    - herba verisimiliter annua, herb probably annual.

Veritas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. veritate: reality, actuality, what actually exists, the true nature of a thing, the truth, accuracy.


vermicularis,-e (adj.B), vermiculatus,-a,-um (adj.A): worm-shaped, almost cylindrical and bent or curved in places, marked with irregular waves  or bent lines [>L. vermiculus, little worm].


vermiculatus,-a,-um (part.A): to be full of worms, wormy, to be worm-eaten, as of trees; in the form of worms.

vermiculate (adv.): in a vermiculated manner, resembling worms or their tracks.


vermiculosus,-a,-um (adj.A): full of worms, wormy. 


Vermiculus,-i (s.m.II), vermiculo: little worm, a grub (in decaying things) [> L. vermis, gen. sg. vermis (s. m. III);

    - vermiculus nematoideus (adj.A), nematode, eelworms. 


vermiformis,-e (adj.B): worm-shaped; see hieroglyphicus,-a,-um (adj.A).


vermillion (H.C.C. 18), scarlet, brilliantly red, a bright-red sulphide of mercury, obtained native from the mineral cinnabar, q.v.; the cochineal: cinnabarinus,-a,-um (adj.A).


vermifluus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'swarming with worms.' 


Vermifugus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. vermifugo: in medicine, a vermifuge (Muldoon 1946), that which destroys or expels parasitic worms, as of the intestine [> L. vermis, worm + fugare, to put to flight]; see anthelmintic.


verminosus,-a,-um (adj.A) full or worms, wormy.


Vermis, gen. sg. vermis (s.m.III), abl. sg. verme, gen. pl. vermium (i-stem): an earth-worm; see worm.


vernacular: vernaculus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - nomen (-inis s.n.III) vernaculum, vernacular name.


vernal, pertaining to spring: vernalis,-e (adj.B), vernus,-a,-um (adj.A).

vernalis,-e (adj.B), vernus,-a,-um (adj.A): belonging to spring.

prevernalis,-e (adj.B), pre-spring, flowering or appearing in early spring. 


vernans,-antis (part.B): flourishing, being verdant, blooming, renewing [> L. verno,-are,-atum, 1. to appear like spring, to flourish, be verdant; to bloom, grow young, renew itself, to spring]; see vernatus,-a,-um (part.A). 


Vernation, "the manner in which leaves are arranged within the leaf-bud"; [> L.  vernatus > vernare to flourish, be verdant; note that vernus,-a,-um refers to   spring, just as aestivus to summer; cf. aestivation, which refers to the arrangement of the petals or other flower parts]; vernatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. vernatione;

    - "When of a folded kind this may be conduplicate (vernatio conduplicata), with the leaf folded lengthwise along the midrib so that the two halves of teh upper side face one another.

    - pleated or plicate (vernatio plicata), with the leaf folded several times lengthwise along the primary veins like the pleats of a closed fan;

    - reclinate (vernatio reclinata), with the leaf bent downwards;

    - wrinkled, crumpled or corrugated (cernatio corrulata);

    - equitant (vernatio equitans), with the leaves overlapping entirely and in parallel;

    - obvolute (vernatio obvoluta), when the margin of one leaf overlaps that of the leaf opposite.

    - When of a rolled kind the vernation may be revolute (vernatio revoluta), with both margins of the leaf rolled back towards the midrib on the lower side;

    - involute (vernatio involuta), with both margins rolled forward towards the midrib on the upper side;

    - convolute (vernatio convoluta, ver. convolutiva, ver. supervolutiva), when the leaf is wholly rolled lengthwise from  one margin, so that one margin is at the center of the coil and the other outside;

    - circinate (vernatio circinata), when the leaf is rolled spirally from the apex downwards;

    - folia juniora convolutiva nec conduplicata, young leaves convolute not conduplicate. 

    - folia vernatione plicata, leaves with plicate vernation (Stearn 1983).


vernatus,-a,-um (part.A): flourishing, having flourished, having become verdant; having  bloomed [> L. verno,-are,-atum, 1. to appear like spring, to flourish, be verdant].


vernicosus,-a,-um (adj.A): varnished, q.v.; see shining.

    Cyathus vernicosus, a fungus; Hamatocaulis vernicosus (Mitt.) Hedenas    [umlaut over 'a'], a moss.


vernifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.A): flowering in spring, spring-blooming, that which brings spring in. 


Vernix,-icis (s.f.III), abl. sg. vernice: varnish.

  Rhus Vernix L., the epithet referring to 'varnish' "Linnaeus supposing this   species to be the Asiatic source of lacquer" (Fernald 1950).


Vernix caseosa (adj.A): 'A white cheesy substance that covers and protects the skin of the fetus and is still all over the skin of a baby at birth.

  Vernix caseosa is composed of sebum (the oil of the skin) and cells that have sloughed off the fetus' skin' WIII.


Vernum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. verno: spring-time, the spring; abl. sg. verno;

    - verno ( 'in the spring'; verno anni, in the spring of the year.


vernus,-a,-um (adj.A): vernal, pertaining to spring; syn. vernalis,-e (adj.B);

    - tempus (s.n.III) vernum, abl. sg. tempore verno, the time of spring.

    - aequinoctium (s.n.II) vernum, abl. sg. aequinoctio verno: spring or vernal equinox. 


vero (adv.): certainly, q.v., assuredly, in truth, in fact, exactly, surely [> L. verus,-a,-um (adj.A), true]; see revera, vere;

    - species proxima  Ilici kunthianae Triana, sed differt vero: ramulis junioribus teretibus, the species is nearest Ilex kunthianae Triana, but it differs assuredly by the younger branchlets terete.


veronica-violet (H.C.C.6.39): veronicinus,-a,-um (adj.A); see violet.


veronicinus,-a,-um (adj.A): veronica-violet (H.C.C.6.39).


verisimiliter (adv.): very likely, probably.


Verruca,-ae (s.f.I), verruca: wart, wart-like, outgrowth or   swelling;

    - verrucis bubalinis vel flavis pyramidalibus ornatus;  ornamented with buff or yellow pyramidal warts.

    - at verrucae fructificationi haud inservientes, but the verrucae are not serving in fructification.

verrucatus,-a,-um (adj.A), verrucosus,-a,-um (adj.A): warty. 

verruciformis,-e (adj.B): verruciform, shaped like a wart.

verrucipes,-pedis (adj.B): warty-stemmed,-stalked; see -footed.

Verrucula,-ae (s.f.I), verrucula: small wart.

verruculatus,-a,-um (adj.A): having small warts

  Disterigma verruculatum Pedraza, is unique in the genus because of its papilliform outgrowths on the stems, therefore its name.


verruculosus,-a,-um (adj.A): covered with small wart-like outgrowths, hence irregularly roughened; cf. tuberculatus.


versatilis,-e (adj.B): versatile, capable of turning, turning freely on its support, attached on the back so as to be capable of movement, as in the anthers of some palm genera; attached near the center and movable on the filament;

    - antherae erect vel versatiles, the anthers erect or versatile.


versicolor,-oris (adj.B), versicolorus,-a,-um (adj.A): variously colored or changing color; see -color for declension; cf. irinus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'rainbow-colored.' 

  Linaria sect. Versicolores (Bentham) Wettsttein; Iris versicolor, variously colored. 


versiformis,-e (adj.B): of different shapes, altering in shape with age;

    - pleurocystidia e cellulis versiformibus composita, the pleurocystidia  composed of cells of different shapes.


versum (adv.), versus (adv. and prep. with acc.): placed usually after the name of a place to which motion is directed:

    1. (adv.) towards, turned in the direction of,usu. after the name of a place to which motion is directed.  ; in forum versus;

       - margine basis pinnarum acroscopica ad paginam abaxialem versus saepe subplicata, with the margin of the base of the pinnae acroscopic, often subplicate on the abaxial side.

    2. prep. with acc.: towards [Romam versus]

       - apicem (basem) versus, towards the apex (base).

       - folia apicem versus caudicis elongata, leaves toward the apex of the trunk elongate.

       - frondibus basem versus paulatim decrescentibus, with the fronds toward the base gradually diminishing (narrowing).

    3. in combination with other adverbs:

       - deorsum versus, downwards.

       - quoquoversus, in every direction.

       - sursum versus, upwards (from below).

NOTE: Lewis and Short in a note indicate that versus was not a preposition in the classical period. The noun that preceeds the adv. 'versus' is in the acc. (the prep. 'ad' being understood).


Versus,-us (s.m.IV), abl. sg. versu: a furrow, a line, row.


versus,-a,-um (part.A): as a participle: turned towards, facing; after ad and acc., or after a noun in the accusative;

    - ad muros versus, turned toward the walls.

    - ad Oceanum versus, towards the ocean; ad Alpes versus, facing the Alpes.

    - in agrum versus, turned into the field;

    - costis in apices versus evanidis, with costae vanishing into the apices.

    - pileus centrum versus convexus vel planus, pileus toward the center convex or plane.

    - lamina a basi apicem versus gradatim attenuata, with the blade from the base to the apex gradually attenuated, after acc. alone: Arpinum versus.

    - costa apicem versus evanida, seta vanishing toward the apex.


vertens,-entis (part.B): turning towards, facing; changing, altering [> L. verto, versi, versum, 3., to turn, to turn round or about; syn: verso, contorqueo; to turn one's self, direct one's way; to turn towards; to turn into, to change, alter, transform (syn. muto)


versus or versum (adv. with prepositional force, used after a noun in the accusative, ad being understood): turned in the direction of, towards a thing, usu. after the name of a place to which motion is directed (in the accusative, ad being understood); also after other adverbs: deorsum versus, sursum versus.


vertens,-entis (part.B): turning, turning round [> L. verto (vorto), verti  (vorti), versum (vorsum, 3. to turn, turn round];

    - anno vertente, in the course of a year.


Vertex,-icis (s.m.III), vertice, also vortex,-icis (s.m.III), abl. sg. vortice: the top, highest point, peak, summit, crown of the head; also, that which turns or is turned, a whirl; a whirlpool of water, eddy, whirlwind, coil of wind, tornado [> L. verto (vorto), verti (vorti), versum (vorsum, 3. to turn, turn round]; see turbo,-inis (s.m.III),

  abl. sg. turbine, that which spins or twirls around;

    - vertice, at the top.

    - a vertice, from above, down from above.

    - ab imis unguibus usque ad verticem summum, from top to toe, Cicero, (from the lowest toe to the tip top).

    - vertex austrinus, vertex australis, the south pole.

  NOTE: a vortex has come to be associated with a whirl, eddy, whirlpool of water, wind or flame (cf. turbo,-inis (s.m.III), whereas vertex is associated with the highest point, top, peak or summit as of a mountain, a tree.


verticalis,-e (adj.B): vertical, placed in a direction from the base to the tip, perpendicular; opp. horizontalis,-e (adj.B); see erect, perpendicular;

    - fila verticalia arcte aggregata, erect threads closely aggregated. 


vertically (adv.): recte (adv.), directo (adv.), ad lineam, ad  perpendiculum;'

    - ostiolis lateraliter vel recte insertis, with ostiola laterally or vertically inserted.


Verticil, whorl, the 'whorl of a spindle'; a whorl or circular arrangement of similar parts around an axis; three or more leaves or flowers at one node, in a circle; the 'cycle', q.v.; cf. candelabriformis,-e (adj.B): verticillus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. verticillo, nom. pl. verticilli, acc. pl. verticillos, dat. & abl. pl. verticillis [> dim. of L. vertex,-icis (s.m.III), a whirl, that which turns]; a 'cycle', q.v. 


Verticillaster, a false whorl, composed of a pair of opposed cymes, as in Labiates (Jackson): verticillaster, gen. sg. verticillastri (s.m.II), abl. sg. verticillastro, nom. pl. verticillastri, dat. & abl. pl. verticillastris;

    - verticillastri nunc multiflori axillares vel ad apices ramorum racemosi nunc in capitula terminalia conferti nunc omnes pauciflori, verticillasters (false-whorls) sometimes many-flowered axillary or at tips of branches racemose sometimes in terminal heads crowded sometimes all few-flowered (Stearn 1983). 

verticillastratus,-a,-um (adj.A): provided with verticillasters or false whorls.


verticillate (adv.), verticillatim (adv.): verticillately, in a whorled manner.

verticillatus,-a,-um (adj.A): verticillate, whorled;

    - univerticillatus, biverticillatus, triverticillatus, once, twice, thrice verticillate.

  NOTE: monoverticillatus,-a,-um (adj.A): this word occurs in English as a Greek and Latin hybrid word meaning 'with a single whorl,' as in a seashell

   - in Latin it is univerticillatus. 

verticilliflorus,-a,-um (adj.A): when whorls have a spicate arrangement (Jackson).

Verticillus,-i (s.m.II), verticillo: whorl, ring of organs on the  same plane. 


veruculatus,-a,-um (adj.A): cylindric and somewhat pointed (Jackson) [> L. vericulum,-i (s.n.II), a small javelin].


verum (adv.): but, but yet, nevertheless, still; synonym of sed, q.v.;

    - margines non modo serratae verum etiam undulatae, the margins are not only serrate but they are also undulate. not only ... but also: non solum ... sed etiam; non modo ... verum etiam;

    - pinnis non solum brevioribus sed etiam latioribus, with the pinnae not only shorter but also wider.


Verum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. vero: the truth, fact;

    - de vera (adv. phrase), in fact, truly, in accordance with the facts.


verus,-a,-um (adj.A): actual, true, real, genuine, authentic, standard (not to be confused with veris, gen. sg. of ver, veris (s.n.III) the season of spring), compar. verior,-ius; superl. verissimus,-a,-um (adj.A); opp. falsus,-a,-um (adj.A), fictus,-a,-um (adj.A), spurius,-a,-um (adj.A), 'spurious' in epithets, an indication of hybrid origin;

    - verum L. hastatum Desv. testibus insuper Kunze et Wright, true L. hastatum, moreover, by the witness of (according to) (both) Kunze and Wright (Stearn 1983).

  NOTE:. occasionally an epithet does not derive from this adjective, as “verae” in Actinocephalus verae Sano & Trovóis is in honor of Prof. Dr. Vera Lucia Scatena, a specialist of the Eriocaulaceae; verae = gen. sing.


very; opp. 'somewhat' q.v.; cf. completely, exceptionally, especially, intensely;


   1. may be expressed by use of the adj. superlative ending, usually -issimus,-a,-um (adj.A)attached to the base of a Latin adjective); see Superlative degree of adjectives.


   2. may be expressed by use of the adverb superlative ending as well as other adverbs: eximie (adv.): exceptionally, exceedingly, excellently; maxime 'in the highest degree,' valde 'strongly, very, intensely,' minime 'least of all,' magnopere 'greatly,' pessime, the worst, plurime, 'the most,' summe 'in the highest degree, most highly or greatly, extremely, to the utmost extent;'

      - foliis piliis summe obtectis, with leaves with hairs covered to the highest degree.

      - planta Rosae blandae maxime proxima, the plant extremely near to Rosa blanda.

      - sporis maxime variabilibus, with spores very greatly variable.


   3. adverbs modifying colors: distincte (adv.) 'clearly, definitely, distinctly, handsomely, elegantly;' fortius (adv.) more strongly or powerfully;' fortiter (adv.): 'strongly, vigorously;' laete (adv.), 'lightly, not severely, brightly, joyfully, rejoicingly;' lucide (adv.) 'brilliantly, dazzlingly, shiningly;' saturate (adv.) 'intensely, richly, fully (as opposed to dilute, pallide); vivide (adv.), 'lively, vigorous;'

      - foliis intense viridibus, with leaves intensely green.


   4. bene (adv.), comp. melius (adv.), superl. optime (adv.) 'best': well, quite, rightly, excellently; with adjectives and adverbs 'well, thoroughly;' cf. sat (adv.), satis (adv.);

      - bene penitus, (adv.) thoroughly within, deep inside.

      - bene robustus (adj.) thoroughly hard or solid


   5. per-, q.v.: as a Latin prefix intensifies the adjective or adverb with which it is associated, 'very, extremely;'

    perpusillus, very small;

     NOTE: in color terms, it indicates intensity (deepness) of color: 

    perruber,-ra,-rum, deep red;

    perviridis,-e, deep green;

    peraurantiacus,-a,-um deep orange;

    perinteger,-ra,-rum, thoroughly or completely entire (especially in a plant expected to be serrate, lobed, etc.);

     NOTE: before a word beginning with 'l' the final letter in 'per' becomes an 'l': pellucidus: per + lucidus > pel-lucidus.

    prae-, q.v.: a Latin prefix meaning "very, extremely:" praealtus,-a,-um (adj.A)  

    very high, very deep (altus); praecalidus,-a,-um (adj.A), very hot (calidus);

    praedulcis,-e (adj.B) very sweet, luscious.

    - lamellis affixis percongestis angustissimis, the lamellae attached, very crowded, extremely narrow

    - pertenuis, very thin; perpauciflorifer, bearing very few leaves.

    - cellulae permagnae, the cells very large.


    6. admodum (adv.) (of degree) fully, quite, completely, much;   

        - receptacula admodum nuda, receptacles quite naked;   


    7.  see za-: in Gk. comp., intensive and inseparable prefix, 'very, exceedingly;'


so very: tam (adv.), tantum (adv.), q.v.


vescus,-a,-um (part.A): 'not having food' hence, small, little, thin, weak, feeble [> L. vescor, vescum, 3. to fill one's self with food, to feed, eat].

  Russula vesca Fr.


Vesica,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vesica: a bladder, q.v., in the body of animals, the urinary bladder; anything made of or resembling a bladder, e.g. a purse, q.v.;

  a bladder-like tumor, blister.'


vesicarius,-a,-um (adj.A): belonging to the bladder, bladder-like, inflated, bladder-; (classically) vesicaria,-ae (s.f.I) (herba): a plant that cures pain in the bladder, bladder-wort. 


Vesicle: vesica,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vesica, vesicula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vesicula.

Vesicula,-ae (s.f.I), vesicula, nom. & acc. pl. vesicula, dat. & abl. pl. vesiculis: vesicle, small bladder or blister, air-cavity [> L. vesicle: vesica,-ae (s.f.I)]; small bladders or utricles, q.v., as in species of carnivorous Utricularia possessing underground or underwater vesiculae that trap and digest small invertebrates, or which contain seeds; see utricle;

    - zoosporae e vesicula persistenti liberatae, zoospores released through a persistent vesicle.

  Vesiculina (Walt.) Raf. a former genus, some species now in Utricularia L., the Bladderworts;


vesicularis,-e (adj.B): bladder-like.

  Vesicularia vesicularis (Schwaegr.) Broth. in Engl. & Prantl, in reference to the lax areolation of the leaf cells.

vesiculatus,-a,-um (adj.A): bladder-like, in pollen-grains synonymous with alate, saccate and winged (Kiger & Porter 2001).

vesiculosus,-a,-um (adj.A): vesiculose, inflated, bladderlike; covered with or full of little bladders or blisters; cf. pustulosus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Vespa,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vespa: a wasp. 


Vesper,-eris (s.m.III), abl. sg. vespere: the evening star; the evening.


vespertinus,-a,-um (adj.A): evening-blooming, opening in the  evening, belonging to the evening, q.v., also western, q.v.; cf. diurnus,

  nocturnus, cf. nyctanthus,-a,-um (adj.A): night-flowering; matutinus,-a,-um 'in the morning).'

Yucca vespertina (McKelvey) S. L. Welsh


Vessel, duct: vas, vasis (s.n.III), abl. sg. vase; see vas.


vester m., vestra f., vestrum n. (adj.A): second person plural possessive adjective: your, yours, of you all, of all you; of or belonging to you (pl.); the word appears to be used with adjective force and takes the gender of a noun or nouns irrespective of whether 'you' are  a group of men or women;


                  singular                                        plural

              m.          f.           n.               m.           f.        n.      

Nom.        vester      vestra      vestrum           vestri      vestrae      vestra        

Gen.        vestri      vestrae     vestri            vestrorum      vestrarum   vestrorum     

Dat.        vestro      vestrae     vestro                        vestris      

Acc.        vestrum     vestram     vestrum           vestros     vestras      vestra        

Abl.        vestro      vestra      vestro                        vestris     


  NOTE: the genitive plural is contracted to vestrum and can be used partitively:

  vestrum omnium, 'of all of you' [vestrorum omnium]; but una vestrarum, one of you (women understood); based on examples given by Glare (2006);

    - vestra familia, your family (the family of all of you)

    - vestra voluntate, by your choice, such as by the choice of two parents.

    - auctoritas nominis vestri dubia, the authority of your name doubtful, such as the name proposed by two authors.

    - apud vestras litteras, in your letter (epistle)

    - vestris moribus similis, similar to your custom (habits).

    - sententia vestrorum collegarum, the opinion of your (as males) colleagues.


vestiens,-entis (part.B): clothing, covering [> L. vestio, -ivi,-itum, 4., to cover with a garment, clothe]; see vestitus,-a,-um (part.A).


vestigens,-entis (part.B): clothing, covering, lining;

    - vellus folia vestigens, a down the leaves covering.


vestigial: vestigialis,-e (adj.B); see obsoletus,-a,-um (adj.A).

Vestigium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. vestigio: vestige, remnant, trace.


Vestimentum,-i (s.n.II), vestimento: vestiture, clothing, covering; see coating;

    - planta vestimento foliari tomentello vel aetate glabrescenti distinguenda, plant by the vestiture foliar tomentellous to with age glabrescent. 


Vestis,-is (s.f.III), veste: a covering, garment.

Vestitura,-ae (s.f.III), vestitura: vestiture, a covering; [> L. vestio, -ivi, -itum, 4., to cover with a garment, clothe + -ura,-ae (s.f.I), q.v.], also vestamentum,-i (s.n.II), q.v. 

vestitus,-a,-um (part.A + abl.): clothed, lined, covered;

    - perianthio plicato dense colliculis vestito, with a perianth plicate densely clothed with little elevations.

    - costulae infra paleis minutis vestitae, the costules below clothed with minute scales (paleae).

   Cheilanthes vestita, 'clothed.'


Vesture, vestiture, coating, including either or both trichomes or exudate: indumentum,-i (s.n.II), indumento; vestura,-ae (s.f.I), vestura, nom. pl.  vesturae, vesturas, dat. & vesturis; see coating, pubescence. 


veternus,-a,-um (adj.A), vetus (irreg. adj.A, q.v.), vestustus,-a,-um (adj.A): aged.


vetus, -eris, abl. sg. -ere, (adj.), compar., veterior (archaic, the classical compar. is vetustior), superl., veterrimus, old, ancient;


                 vetus (adj.B) 'old'

        singular                      plural

         m.f.      n.                m.f.       n.

  Nom.  vetus    vetus             veteres    vetera

  Gen.     veteris                     veterum

  Acc.  veterem  vetus             veteres   vetera

  Dat.      veteri                     veteribus

  Abl.     vetere                      veteribus


    - per totum orbis veteris hemisphaerium boreale, through the whole northern hemisphere of the Old World. 

    - caudice simplici basibus foliorum veterum vestito, with a simple caudex with the bases of old leaves clothed.


           singular                      plural

      m. & f.       n.               m. & f.      n.

Nom. vetustior  vetustius        vetustiores vetustiora

Gen.     vetustioris                  vetustiorum

Acc. vetustiorem vetustius       vetustiores vetustiora

Dat.     vetustiori                   vetustioribus

Abl.     vetustiore                   vetustioribus


    - ramuli hornotini pilosi, annotini glabri, vetustiores crassi cortice griseo fisso, branchlets of this year's growth pilose, of last year's growth glabrous, the older ones thick with the bark grey fissured (Stearn).

    - rami juniores aculeis recurvatis armati, vetustiores fere semper inermes, younger branches armed with recurved prickles, the older ones almost always unarmed (without prickles).

    - ramis gracillimis, in vetustioribus aphyllis, with branches very slender, the older ones leafless.


Vetustas,-atis (s.f.III): age [> L. vetustus (adj.A)];

    - pileus sub vetustate areas virides formans, pileus during (old) age forming green areas. 

    - pileus vetustate subdepressus primo immaculate albus cito super discum flavidus, pileus in old age somewhat depressed at first a pure white soon over the disc yellowish.


vetustus,-a,-um (adj.A): old, ancient, that has existed a long time [> L. vetus,-eris];   

    - densissime caespitosum partibus vetustis arcte contextum, very densely caespitose, closely woven together from the old parts.


vexillaris,-e (adj.B), vexillarius,-a,-um (adj.A): vexillary, i.e. in aestivation of Leguminosae, with the standard petal much larger than the others and folded around them; with the standard petal having a standard, as in pea-like flowers. 


vexillum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. vexillo, nom. & acc. pl. vexilla; vexillum, the upper and usually largest petal of a papillionaceous flower, as in peas, sweet peas, species in Astragalus (Leguminosae); see standard petal, wing.


Via,-ae (s.f.I): road, path, way;

    - via ferrea (adj.A), railway, 'iron road.'

  Viola viarum Pollard (of roads; originally found by a railroad (Fernald  p. 1037).

vialis,-e (adj.B), viarius,-a,-um (adj.A), viaticus,-a,-um (adj.A): growing along roads or paths.


Vibex,-icis (s.f.III), vibice: the mark of a blow, scar; less commonly used than Cicatrix, q.v., for 'scar.'


vibratile: vibratorius,-a,-um (adj.A).

vibrabilis,-e (adj.B): quivering, trembling; (of light) flickering.

vibrabundus,-a,-um (adj.A): tremulous;, glimmering, flickering (as of stars, light)

vibrating, tremulous, quivering: tremulus,-a,-um (adj.A); vibrans,-antis (part.B): in tremulous motion, moving to and fro, shaking, agitating, quivering, vibrating [> L. vibro,-avi,-atum, 1. to set in tremulous motion, to move rapidly to and fro, to brandish, shake, agitate; shake, quiver, vibrate, tremble; (of light) to glimmer, glitter, gleam, scintillate; see agitating. 

Vibration, quivering or tremulous motion: vibramen,-inis (s.n.III), abl. sg.

  vibramine: a tremulous motion, quivering, vibration; vibratio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg.

  vibratione; vibratus,-us (s.m.IV), abl. sg. vibratu, a vibrating, quivering, tremulous motion; of light (vibratus luminis) flickering; see agitation, motion.

vibrans,-antis (part.B): vibrating, q.v.

vibratus,-a,-um (part.A): shaken, agitated; impetuous, forcible; [> L. vibro, 1.].


vicaneus,-a,-um (adj.A), vacanus,-a,-um (adj.A): of or dwelling in a village.


vicarius,-a,-um (adj.A), serving as a substitute, performed or endured as a substitute for another: vicarious.

vicarie (adv.): (performed or endured) vicariously, through a substitute.


vice (adv.): instead of, for, in place of, on account of; [> L. vicis (nom. sg. not occurring), acc. sg. vicem, abl. sg. vice; nom. & acc. pl. vices, dat. and abl. pl. vicibus: a feminine noun 'change, interchange, alternation, alternate or reciprocal succession' Lewis & Short];

    - ordines dentium duos vice unius, two rows of teeth, instead of one. (Stearn 1983)

    - folia 4-6.5 cm (vice 10.5-14 cm), leaves 4-6.5 cm (instead of 10.5-14 cm).

    - foliis linearibus vice oblanceolatis, with leaves linear instead of oblanceolate.

    - coloniae in agaro malto crescentes vice agaro hordeo, colonies growing in a malt agar instead of an agar of barley.

    - fructus vice bulbili, fruits instead of bulbils.


vicem (adv.) + genitive: instead of, in place of, for; see vice (adv.);

    - caulibus vicem fructuum nutrimentum praebentibus, with the stems providing nutriment instead of the fruits.

    - partibus fructuum in vicem toti abortivis, with the parts of the fruits, instead of the whole, abortive.


viginti (num. adj. indecl.) 'twenty;' q.v.

vigenti-: in L. comp. 'twenty-'; = Gk. icosa-, q.v.;

    - folia vigintijuga, leaves 20-paired; vigintifolius, 20-leaves.

vicensimus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'twentieth.'


viceni (adv.): growing in twenties.

vicensimus,-a,-um (adj.A): twentieth.

  viciens (adv.), vicies (adv.): twenty times.


Vicinity, neighborhood: vicinia,-ae (s.f.I), vicinia; vicinitas,-atis (s.f.III), vicinitate; propinquitas,-atis (s.f.III) propinquitate, 'vicinity, neighborhood, nearness;' 

    - species in ruderatis et hominum domiciliorum vicinis inveniuntur, the species on rubbish dumps and in vicinity of the dwellings of men are found.

    - zygosporae in vicinitate conjugationum scalariformium effectae, zygospores formed in the vicinity of scalariform conjugations.


vicinus,-a,-um (adj.A): near, neighboring; see adjacent;

    - in area fulcro vicina sterili, in the area neighboring the sterile support.


vicis: see vice (adv.).


vicissim (adv.): on the other hand, on the contrary; in turn;

    - planta uno tempore culmos efficiens, deinde vicissim flores, plant at one time producing canes, then in turn the flowers.

    - gametophyton effectum nunc vicissim sporophyton, the gametophyte having developed now in turn the sporophyte.


Vicus,-i (s.m.II), vico: a quarter or district of a town, a street; a village, hamlet;

    - in vico vulgo vocato Fleetstreet, on the street commonly called Fleetstreet.

    NOTE: urbs is for city, oppidum or municipium is for a town; pagus and vicus for a village or hamlet (i.e. small town), although pagus can also mean the larger district or province. 


videtur (3rd pers. sing. pres pass. of video, bidi, visum 2, to see): 'it seems';

    - ut videtur, as you will, apparently.

    - frons ex icone pedalis videtur, frond according to the illustration appears to be one foot long (Stearn 1983).

    - plantae ut videtur dioeciae, plants apparently dioecious.


viduus,-a,-um (adj.A + abl.): deprived of, without, lacking;

    - pileus aetate pilis viduus, pileus with age lacking hairs.


viescens,-entis (part.B): shrinking up, shriveling, withering [> L.

  viesco,-cere: to shrink up, shrivel, wither].


vietus,-a,-um (part.A): bent together, shrunken, shriveled, withered, wrinkled [> L. vieo,-etum, 2. shrunken, shrivelled, withered, wrinkled].


View: aspectus,-us (s.m.IV), abl. sg. aspectu 'an outward appearance;' visus,-us (s.m.IV), abl. sg. visu 'an outward appearance;' see profile;

    - aspectu cingulari, in girdle view, from the aspect of the girdle.

    - aspectu ventrali (dorsali, laterali), in ventral (dorsal, lateral (side)) view.

    - aspectu frontali, in frontal view, in face view.

    - aspectu aequatorio, in equatorial view

    - sporae visu mediano subcuneiformes usque elongatae, spores in median view subcuneiform to elongate.

    - in visu polari, in polar view.

    - ab obliquo, ex obliquo, obliquely, sideways.

  Compare: facies,-ei (s.f.V): external form, shape, appearance, q.v.;

    - valve-view: facies (-ei, s.f.V) valvaris (adj.B), facies frontalis (adj.B).

    - in facie dorsali et ventrali, on the dorsal and ventral face.


View, a seeing or looking at: conspectus,-us (s.m.IV), q.v., abl. sg. conspectu, 'a seeing, looking at, sight, a look, view;' intuitus,-us (s.m.IV), intuitu: look, view;

    - primo intuitu, at first glance.

  NOTE: both conspectus,-us (s.m.IV) and synopsis,-is (s.f.III), synopse are also used for 'survey, short general view of a subject, a synopsis.'


viewed, seen, observed: visus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.;

    - imago oblique visa, the image seen sideways (obliquely).

    - seminibus non visis, with the seeds not observed (seen).

    - lobis seu a dorso vel ventre visis truncato-serratis, with the lobes seen either from the back or front truncate-serrate.

    - sporophoris nullis visis, with no sporophores seen.


vigens,-entis (part.B): flourishing, thriving, q.v. [> L. vigeo, 2., to be vigorous, thrive, flourish; see inhabiting; vigent 'they flourish;'

    - species 4 inter tropicos vigentes, 2 in America, 2 in Asia, 1 etiam in Africa, species 4 flourishing amid tropical regions, 2 in America, 2 in Asia, 1 also in Africa.

    - ceterae regionibus tropicis et humidis Americae vigent, the other (species) flourish in tropical and humid regions of America. 


viginti (num. adj. indecl.): twenty, q.v.;

    - folia vigintijuga, leaves 20-paired.


Vigor,-oris (s.m.III), abl. sg. vigore: vigor, force, energy;

    - cum vigore acervuli erumpentes, acervuli breaking forth with vigor.


vigorous: fortis,-e (adj.B), q.v., robustus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v. 'strong, robust,' valens,-entis (part.B), q.v., 'strong, powerful,' validus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'strong, stout, robust-growing;' vegetus,-a,-um (adj.A) q.v., 'fresh, lively, vigorous;' vigens,-entis (part.B) 'flourishing, thriving;'

    - ex leguminibus valentior faba quam pisum, among the legumes the faba is more nutritive (i.e. powerful) than the pea.


vigorously, strongly: fortiter (adv.), valde (adv.); vivaciter (adv.) with liveliness or spirit, vigorously; vive (adv.) in a lively manner; vivide (adv.): brightly, vividly, vigorously.


Villa,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. villa: a country-house, farm, villa. 

villaris,-e (adj.B): of or belonging to a farm or country-house; = villaticus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - animalia villaria, farm animals.


Villa, farm, the country: rus, gen. sg. ruris (s.n.III), acc. sg. rus, abl. sg. rure, nom. & acc. pl. rura, dat. & abl. pl. ruribus. 


Village, hamlet: vicus,-i (s.n.II), vico: a quarter or district of a town, street; a village, hamlet. 

    NOTE: urbs is for city, oppidum or municipium is for a town; pagus and vicus for a village or hamlet (i.e. small town), although pagus can also mean the larger district or province

  of or dwelling in a village: vacanus,-a,-um (adj.A), vicaneus,-a,-um (adj.A).


villaticus,-a,-um (adj.A): of or belonging to a farm or country-house; = villaris,-e (adj.B);

    - animalia villatica, farm animals.


villosus,-a,-um (adj.A): villous, i.e. shaggy with fairly long, soft, straight not interwoven ascending hairs.


Villus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. villo, nom. pl. villi, dat. & villis: long weak hairs; in mosses, once used of paraphyllia; see paraphyllium;

    - villis in sinubus calycinis nullis distinguenda, to be distinguished by hairs none in the calyx sinuses. 

    - axibus inflorescentiae villis simplicibus unistratis praeditis, with the axes of the inflorescence provided with simple, unistratose villi.


Vimen,-inis (s.n.III), vimine: a long flexible shoot, an osier, that is, a willow with pliable twigs used in furniture and basketry; see willow; see twig.


viminalis,-e (adj.B): bearing shoots for plaiting and wicker-work.

  Salix viminalis.

vimineus,-a,-um (adj.A): having long flexible shoots, used for wicker-work.

  Streptanthus vimineus (Greene) Al-Shehbaz & W. D. Taylor; Aster vimineus Lam. osier-like, 'its branches like a sprig of osier' Lam. (Fernald 1950).


vinaceus,-a,-um (adj.A), vinicolor (adj.B), vinosus,-a,-um (adj.A): wine-colored, purplish-red.

  atro-vinaceus,-a,-um (adj.A): dark purplish red; see burgundy.

vinarius,-a,-um (adj.A): pertaining to wine.


Vincetoxicum L.  vinco, to conquer + toxicum, poison: species of the genus were thought to be antidotes to snake-bite.


Vine: apparently used of stems that not only recline but have  modifications for climbing, such as a twining habit or tendrils, as opposed to plants with stems that sprawl or recline on objects for their support. Vines designate woody or herbaceous habits of plants in temperate areas, such as the grape; woody vines of tropical areas are lianas, q.v.: vitis,-is (s.f.III), vite, nom. & acc. pl. vites gen. pl. vitium [i-stem], dat. & abl. pl. vitibus; labrusca,-ae (s.f.I), a wild vine; see liana.

  Planta,-ae (s.f.I) volubilis (adj.B), twining plant, or caulis,-is (s.m.III) volubilis, twining stem could also be used;

    - vite lignosa interdum herbacea, gracili, volubili, with a vine, woody, sometimes herbaceous, slender, twining.

    - herbae scandentes, fruticantes, herbs climbing [i.e. viney], becoming shrubby.

    - herba volubilis, twining herb.

    - vitis sylvestris, woodland (i.e. wild) vine.

  NOTE: classically, ampelos,-i (s.f.II), abl. sg. ampelo [> Gk. ampelos] indicated a vine, a grape-vine, syn. vitis,-is (s.f.III). It has not been used as the name of a genus in Linnean nomenclature, although its Latin synonym 'vitis' has (Vitis,-is L., Vitaceae); see ampelos,-i (s.f.II); see ampelos,-i (s.f.II) and labrusca,-ae (s.f.I).


a little vine: viticula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. viticula.


Vine, wild: vitis silvestre (adj.B), vite silvestri.

vinealis,-e (adj.B): belonging to vines, growing in vineyards.

  Didymodon vinealis, a moss.

vine-bearing: vitifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.A).


vines, belonging to or relating to: vinealis,-e (adj.B), vinearius,-a,-um (adj.A),

vineaticus,-a,-um (adj.A), vitineus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Vinegar: acetum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. aceto. 

  Acetobacter xylinum, the Vinegar Plant.

  Vinegar-bottle: acetabulum,-i (s.n.II), acetabulo.


vineus,-a,-um (adj.A): pertaining to wine.

viney, as or of a vine: vinearius,-a,-um (adj.A), or by genitive of vitis; herba scandens, climbing herb.

Vineyard: vinea,-ae (s.f.I), vinea; vinetum,-i (s.n.II), vineto; arbustum,-i (s.n.II), arbusto.

vinicolor,-oris (adj.B): wine-colored.

vinifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.A): wine-bearing.

vinous, full of vines: vinosus,-a,-um (adj.A).

  NOTE: vinosus also is 'wine-colored', see vinaceus,-a,-um (adj.A) above.

Vinum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. vino: wine.


Viola,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. viola: the violet; Gk. ion; a violet color, violet.

  Viola L., Violet; Viola cucullata, V. papilionacea; the violet aphid:

  Neotoxoptera violae, a plant louse; Sphaceloma violae, the fungus causing violet scab.


violabilis,-e (adj.B):  that may be violated or injured, violable.


violaceus,-a,-um (adj.A): violet colored (H.C.C. 36); violaceus refers to the blue-red colors nearer blue, purpureus nearer red (Stearn 1983):

  rubello-violaceus,-a,-um (adj.A): reddish-violet.

  Oxalis violaceua: the violet wood sorrel.


violaris,-e (adj.B): of violets, violet-.

Violarium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. violario: a bank or bed of violets; see garden.


Violet (plant): see viola,-ae (s.f.I).


Violet Color; see purple color, blue color.


violet, 'pure blue stained with red, so as to be intermediate between the two colors' (Stearn 1983): violaceus,-a,-um (adj.A), violeus,-a,-um (adj.A), ianthinus,-a,-um (adj.A), ionides. Deeper tones of violet, see deep violet below.


1. violet-: in L. comp., ianthin-, ianthino-, violaceo-; violet (the plant) viol-, violi-;

    - violaceopictus, painted with violet; violiflorus, with flowers like a Viola (Stearn 1983). 


2. violet-: in Gk. comp., ianthin-, ianthino-; io-, ion-, iono- io- [> Gk. s.n.II, the violet (in L. viola,-ae s.f.I);

    - ionandrus,-a,-um (adj.A), with violet stamens; ionanthus,-a,-um (adj.A), with violet flowers. 

    Lobelia ionantha.

  ianthinus,-a,-um (adj.A): violet, L. from a Greek and Latin word, violet-blue, violet-.

  ianthinum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. ianthino: the color violet. ianthina,-orum, violet-colored garments. Ianthis,-idis (s.f.III), abl. sg. ianthide: a violet-colored flower.

  Iodanthus T. & G. (s.m.II) Purple Rocket [> Gk. ion, s.n.II, the violet (in L. viola,-ae s.f.I); > Gk. iodes, violet-colored, and anthos, flower.    


Adjectives are modified by adverbs: 

 - dilute (adv.) violaceus, pallide (adv.) violaceus, dilute or pale violet. pallide vel mediocriter (adv.) violaceus, paley to moderately violet.

 - medie (adv.), mediocriter (adv.): moderately, medium-: medie violaceus, medium violet.

 - "deep shades of colour are usually indicated by adding the prefix atro- to the colour-name;" Stearn also indicates that the prefix implies "blackish or very dark."  atro-violaceus, deep (dark) violet.

 - saturate (adv.), vivide (adv.) violaceus, saturated, vivid violet (bright violet).

 - obscure (adv.): indistinctly, obscurely; 'dull' of colors: obscure violaceus, dull violet.

 - sordide (adv.) violaceus: dingy, dirty violet.

 - fusci-, fusco-: in L. comp., darkened or dark brown-: fusco-violaceus, dark-brownish violet.

 - sordide (adv.) violaceus: dingy, dirty violet.

 - intense violet: maxime (adv.) violaceus, maxime ianthinus.



  - juventute (young state), aetate (in time), maturitate (at maturity): (abl. of time within which): pileus juventute violaceus, pileus in youth violet.

  - bruised: contusus,-a,-um (part.A): pileus ubi contusus violascens, pileus when bruised becoming violet.

  - cut: scissus,-a,-um (part.A), sectus,-a,-um (part.A): pileus postquam sectus violascens, pileus after having been cut turning violet.

  - exudatum colore violaceo, exudate with the color violet.

  - jodo violescens (part.B), in iodine turning yellow (yellowish).


violet-: in L. comp., ianthin-, ianthino-, violaceo-; violet (the plant) viol-, violi-;

    - violaceopictus, painted with violet; violiflorus, with flowers like a Viola (Stearn 1983). 


violet-: in Gk. comp., ianthin-, ianthino-; io-, ion-, iono- io- [> Gk. s.n.II, the violet (in L. viola,-ae s.f.I);

    - ionandrus,-a,-um (adj.A), with violet stamens; ionanthus,-a,-um (adj.A), with violet flowers. 

    Lobelia ionantha.   

  ianthinus,-a,-um (adj.A): violet, L. from a Greek and Latin word, violet-blue, violet-.

  ianthinum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. ianthino: the color violet. ianthina,-orum, violet-colored garments. Ianthis,-idis (s.f.III), abl. sg. ianthide: a violet-colored flower.

  Iodanthus T. & G. (s.m.II) Purple Rocket [> Gk. ion, s.n.II, the violet (in L. viola,-ae s.f.I); > Gk. iodes, violet-colored, and anthos, flower.    


aster-violet (H.C.C. 38): asterinus,-a,-um (adj.A).

becoming or turning violet: violascens,-entis (part.B)

bishop's-violet: episcopali-violaceus,-a,-um (adj.A)

campanula vilet: campanulinus,-a,-um (adj.A)

cobalt violet; cobaltino-violaceus,-a,-um (adj.A)

dark livid: atrolividus,-a,-um (adj.A).

dark violet: atroviolaceus,-a,-um (adj.A).

deep violet (Stearn 1983): amethysteus, amethystinus, hyacinthinus, atro-violaceus.

grayish lavender: griseo-lavendulus,-a,-um (adj.A).

hyacinth-blue (H.C.C.40): hyacinthinus,-a,-um (adj.A), a deep violet.

ianthinus,-a,-um (adj.A); jodinus,-a,-um (adj.A), violaceus,-a,-um (adj.A)

jodinus,-a,-um (adj.A): violet-colored, = ianthinus,-a,-um (adj.A).

lavender-colored, violet: lavendulaceus,-a,-um (adj.A), lavendulus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. lilacinus,-a,-um (adj.A): lilac, i.e. 'pale dull violet mixed a little with white' (Lindley) but with more red in it and nearer purple than lavendulaceus, which has more blue and is nearer violet, both being grayed and light (Stearn, 1983).

lavender-gray: lavendulo-griseus,-a,-um (adj.A).

lilac-colored: see lavender-colored.

liventer (adv.) violaceus,-a,-um (adj.A): lividly violet.

lividus,-a,-um (adj.A), liveus,-a,-um (adj.A), livius,-a,-um (adj.A):

  livid, a vague term which 'may be defined as the peculiar livery effect of adding grey and black to the range of hues between blue and red' (H.A. Dade), originally a blue or leaden color' (Stearn 1983); 'livid' was a color used by the Romans to refer to bruises, 'black and blue,' also bluish, blue.

lividulus,-a,-um (adj.A): a paler color than livid.

livid-violet, livid a blue or leaden color: liveo-violaceus,-a,-um (adj.A), livido-violaceus,-a,-um (adj.A); see lividus,-a,-um (adj.A).

mauve, mallow purple, the first synthetic dye derived from phenazine, a basic violet, formerly used chiefly for dyeing silk (WIII): malvinus,-a,-um (adj.A), malvicolor,-oris (adj.B) [> L. malva,-ae (s.f.I), the mallow, the color of malva petals].

pale violet: subviolaceus,-a,-um (adj.A)

slate-violet: violaceo-ardesiacus,-a,-um (adj.A); see slate-colored.

veronica-violet (H.C.C.6.39): veronicinus,-a,-um (adj.A).

violaceus, violet-colored; = ianthinus,-a,-um (adj.A), jodinus,-a,-um (adj.A).

violaceous black: violaceo-niger,-ra,-rum (adj.A).

violaceous gray: violaceo-griseus,-a,-um (adj.A).

violet-blue: violaceo-coeruleus,-a,-um (adj.A)

violet carmine, a dark reddish purple: violaceo-carminus,-a,-um (adj.A),

  violaceo-carmineus,-a,-um (adj.A), violaceo- coccineus,-a,-um (adj.A),

  violaceo-carmesinus,-a,-um (adj.A), violaceo-kermesinus,-a,-um (adj.A);

  see carmine.

violet-gray: violaceo-griseus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Viper, adder, snake, serpent: aspis,-idis (s.f.III), q.v., abl. sg. aspide, asp, viper; vipera,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vipera.

viperalis,-e (adj.A), vipereus,-a,-um (adj.A), viperinus,-a,-um (adj.A): of a viper, serpent or snake; serpent-like. 


Vir, gen. sg. viri (s.m.II), abl. sg. viro: man, hero, a person of courage, honor and nobility; gen. pl. virorum, of men; 


   vir, gen. sg. viri (s.m.II)

        singular           plural


  Nom.  vir                viri

  Gen.  viri               virorum

  Acc.  virum              viros

  Dat.  viro               viris

  Abl.  viro               viris


virellus,-a,-um (adj.A): greenish, somewhat green.

virens,-entis (part.B): being green [> L. vireo,-ui,-ere: to be green or verdant; to be fresh, vigorous or lively; to flourish, bloom].


virescens,-entis (part.B): virescent, becoming green [> L. vireo,-ui,-ere: to be green or verdant; to be fresh, vigorous or lively; to flourish, bloom].


Virentia, gen. pl.-ium (pl.n.III), abl. pl. virentibus: plants, herbage, greenery [> L. virens,-entis (part.B)]. 


Viretum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. vireto: a garden or park, a place green with vegetation or foliage,'a place overgrown with grass, a green place, greensward, sod, turf,' a lawn (Lewis & Short). 


Virga,-ae (s.f.I), virga, nom. pl. virgae, acc. pl. virgas, dat. & abl. pl. virgis: shoot, twig, rod, switch, slender green branch, scion; a wand, q.v.; a branchlet (ramulus,-i, s.m.II) may be the ultimate branch and a twig (virga,-ae, s.f.I) the most recent growth on which the most recent growth of leaves occurs; cf. twig.

  Solidago virgaurea L. "rod of gold" or goldenrod.


Virgetum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. virgeto: a place full of brushwood or withies, a thicket of rods or osiers.  


Virgula,-ae (s.f.I.). a little twig, small rod, wand.


virgatus,-a,-um (adj.A): virgate, made of twigs, twiggy, long and slender, rod-like.


virgeus,-a,-um (adj.A): made or consisting of branches, rods, twigs or shoots.


virgineus,-a,-um (adj.A): pure white.


Virgula,-ae (s.f.I.). a little twig, small rod, wand.


virgulatus,-a,-um (adj.A): possessing lines of color, streaked.


Virgulta,-orum (p.n.II), virgultis: contraction of virguletum, bush, thicket, copse, shrubbery, undergrowth, brushwood, a place of low shrubby vegetation.


virgultus,-a,-um (adj.A): covered with brush, brushwood or scrub;

    - in valle virgulta nemorosaque, in a valley full of brush and woodlands.


Viridarium,-ii (s.n.II): garden planted with trees, pleasure garden, flora; see garden, park.


Viride,-is (s.n.II), abl. sg. viride: green color, greenness, verdure; a green thing, of plants, trees, shrubs.

viridi-: in L. comp., green;

    - viridialbus, greenish-white; viridiflorus, green-flowered.

viridescens,-entis (part.B); becoming green.

viridanus,-a,-um (adj.A): viridian-green (H.C.C. 55).

Viridia,-arum (pl.f.I), abl. sg. viridiis: green plants, herbs or trees.

viridis,-e (adj.B), superl. viridissimus,-a,-um (adj.A): green, q.v.

viridulus,-a,-um (adj.A): greenish.


virilis,-e (adj.B): virile, manly, male, masculine; full-grown, adult, mature; stalwart, vigorous, spirited, bold [> L. vir, gen. sg. viri (s.m.II)].


virinus,-a,-um (adj.A): relating to a virus.


virorum: 'of men,' genitive pl. of vir, viri (s.m.II), q.v.; to distinguish from virus,-i (s.n.II), q.v., a poison.


virosus,-a,-um (adj.A): virose, poisonous, stinking, having an unpleasantly strong taste or smell, rank; compar. virosior,-ius (adj.B), superl. virosissimus,-a,-um (adj.A). 

  Amanita virosa (Fr.) Quel., 'Destroying Angel;' Cicuta virosa L., a poison from this perhaps drunk by Socrates.


Virulence: gravitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. gravitate; vis, vis, q.v. 

virulent: gravis,-e (adj.A).


Virus,-i (s.n.II), viro, nom.& acc. pl. vira, gen. pl. virorum: a slimy liquid, slime; a poison, as of snakes; a harsh, bitter taste.

  NOTE: to be distinguished from vir, gen. sg. viri (s.m.II), abl. sg. viro, a man, gen. pl. virorum, of men;

    - virus mortiferum, deadly virus. 

  NOTE: the neuter case. 


Vis, gen. sg. vis, acc. vim, abl. vi; plur. vires, gen. pl. virium (s.f.III): force, power, strength; of disease: virulent, deadly.


viscid, more sticky than slimey: viscidus,-a,-um (adj.A), viscosus,-a,-um (adj.A) [> L. viscus (s.m.II) also viscum (s.n.II) the mistletoe; birdlime made from mistletoe berries]; see slimy; cf. lubricus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'smooth and slippery;' see glutinous.

  somewhat viscid: viscidulus,-a,-um (adj.A)


Viscidium, a terminal structure of a pollinium by which the pollinium adheres to a pollinating insect, as in Orchidaceae; see caudicle, pollinium, translator arm; viscidium,-ii (s.n.II), viscidio;

    - viscidium hamulosum acumine retrorso dorsali praeditum, viscidium hamulose with a retrorse dorsal point.

viscidulus,-a,-um (adj.A): somewhat viscid.


viscous: see viscid.


visible: visibilis,-e (adj.B), conspicuus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'that is in view, that comes into view, visible;' manifestus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'apparent,  evident;'

    - discus saepe protrudens (visibilis post anthesin), disc often protruding (visible after anthesis).

    - nucleo plerumque visibili, with the nucleus usually visible.


visus,-a,-um (part.A): seen, perceived; observed, looked at [> L. video, vidi, visum, 2, to see, perceive with the eyes; to look at, observe]; see 'seen,' view;

    - specimina ab auctore visa, specimens seen by the author.

    - species a nobis non visa, species by us not seen.

    - folium in superficiem adaxialem visum in medio profunde constrictum, leaf seen in the adaxial surface deeply constricted at the middle.

   - forma et positio raphes ( non visae, form and position of the raphe not seen (note the participle is in the plural, modifying both forma and position (ff.).


  NOTE: may express absence on condition of not having been observed: cf. nullus,-a,-um.


Visus,-us (s.m.IV), abl. sg. visu: appearance, a sight, a thing seen; see view.


Vita,-ae (s.f.I), vita: life; as a period of time = aetas, q.v.; a life; the duration of life, as in plants;

     - curriculum (s.n.II) vitae, the course or running of (one's) life, a career.

vitaceus,-a,-um (adj.A): like the grape, Vitis, q.v.

  Parthenocissus vitacea

vitalis,-e (adj.B): of or belonging to life, vital.

vitaliter (adv.): vitally, essential to life.


Vitamin: vitamina,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vitamina, nom.&acc. pl. vitaminae, gen. pl. vitaminarum, dat.& vitaminis.


vitellinus,-a,-um (adj.A): egg-yolk yellow, 'dull yellow just turning to red' (Lindley).

  Bolbitius vitellinus Fr., a bright yellow fungus.


Vitellum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. vitello; vitellus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. vitello: yolk of an egg.


viteus,-a,-um (adj.A): of or belonging to the vine

    -  rura vitea, lands planted with vines.


viti-: in L. comp., pertaining to the vine (Vitis vinifera);

    - viticola, dweller on the vine.

    - vitifolius, vine-leaves (but viticifolius, with leaves like Vitex) (Stearn 1983).


Vitiarium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. vitiario: a nursery for vines.

Viticula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. viticula: a little vine.


vitifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.A): bearing vines.


Vitis, gen. sg. vitis (s.f.III), abl. sg. vite, nom. & acc. pl. vites, gen. pl. vitium (an i-stem), dat. & abl. pl. vitibus: a vine, the grape vine.

  Vitis, gen. sg. Vitis (s.f.III), abl. sg. Vite (s.f.III): the genus of the grape;

  V. labrusca L., source of many grapes used in horticulture, such as the Concord, Champion and Chautauqua; V. aestivalis Michx.; V. palmata Vahl, V. riparia.

  like Vitis: vitaceus,-a,-um (adj.A).


vitreus,-a,-um (adj.A): glassy, transparent and green-tinged, cf. hyaline, transparent;

    - cultura in lamina vitrea, culture on a glass plate ('slide').

  Vitreochlamys (alga).


Vitrum,-i (s.n.I), abl. sg. vitro: glass.


Vitta: vitta,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vitta, nom. pl. vittae, dat. &  abl. pl. vittis, band, ribbon, strip, stripe; longitudinal rib of a  diatom, aromatic oil-tube in fruit of Umbelliferae;

    - vittae tenues vel tenuissimae ad valleculas solitariae inconspicuae, vittae slender or very slender colitary in the furrows inconspicuous.

    - vitta marginali cellulis scleroticis formata, with marginal band formed by sclerotic cells (Stearn 1983).  not done note formata

    - superficie foliari lamellis vel vittis e materia parietali laevi compositis praedita, with the leaf surface provided with lamellae or strips composed of wall material.

  NOTE: vitta was 'a band worn round the head, a head-band, usually sacred, as of a priest, synonymous with infula,-ae (s.f.I), q.v., and redimiculum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. redimiculo.


vittatus,-a,-um (adj.A): vittate, longitudinally striped, often in reference to a color difference, bearing vittae; cf. balteiformis (adj.B), belt-shaped;

    - valleculis univittatis, with furrows having one vitta.

  Phragmipedium vittatum (Vell.) Rolfe


vittiformis,-e (adj.B): band- or ribbon-shaped.

vittatipetalus,-a,-um (adj.A): with lengthwise-striped petals.


viv-, vivi-: in L. comp. alive, living, fresh (> L. vivus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - viviparus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.


Vivarium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. vivario: a 'living collection' as of algae; an enclosure in which game, fish, etc. are kept alive; a park, warren, preserve, fish-pond (Lewis & Short), 'preserve' (Pliny), park, q.v.;

    - ostrearum vivaria, shellfish ponds, oyster ponds.

    - typus in vivario Cantabrigiensi depositus, type deposited in the living collection at Cambridge.

  Phacelia buell-vivariensis N. D. Atwood is named for Buell Park, the type locality.


vivarius,-a,-um (adj.A): pertaining to living creatures.

vivatus,-a,-um (adj.A): animated, lively, vivid.

vivaciter (adv.) with liveliness or spirit, vigorously. 

Viventes,-ium (pl. part. B), the living (opp. mortui).

vivens,-entis (part.B): surviving, being still alive.

vivus,-a,-um (adj.A), superl. vivissimus: alive, living, that has life, of water (aqua) running

vive (adv.) in a lively manner.


vivens,-entis (part.B): living [ > L. vivo, vixi, victum 3. (vivens,-entis) to live]. 

Living collection: collectio,-onis (f.III) vivens,-entis. 


vivi-: in L. comp. see viv-, vivi-.


vivide (adv.): brightly, vividly, vigorously; cf. distincte (adv.) 'distinctly'.

    - superficies pori vivide rubelli-purpurea, pore surface bright reddish purple.


vividus,-a,-um (adj.A): vivid, bright, pure in color; see 'bright-colored;' having or containing life, living, animated.


viviparus,-a,-um (adj.A): viviparous, i.e. germinating or sprouting while still attached to parent; freely producing asexual propagating parts, as bulblets in the inflorescence; cf. proliferus.


Viviradix,-icis (s.f.III), abl. sg. viviradice: a cutting which has a root, a layer.


Vivum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. vivo: that which is alive, as flesh or beings.


vivus,-a,-um (adj.A): living, fresh; opp. siccus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'dry;'

    - bracteolae in vivo albae, in sicco brunneae, bracteoles in a living state white, in a dried state brown (Stearn 1983). 

    - in capsulis adhuc vivis vel languidis Bryi argentei, on the capsules still living or withered of Bryum argenteum.


vix (adv.): scarcely, with difficulty, barely; see scarcely; cf. tantum;

    - sepalis vix umquam formantibus, with sepals scarcely ever forming. 

    - vix aut haud, scarcely if at all.

    - lobis calycis carinatis vix vel haud imbricatis, with the lobes of the calyx carinate scarcely or not at all imbricate.

    - cellulis vix manifestis, with the cells scarcely obvious.

    - vix ultra 15 cm, scarcely above 15 cm.

    - non vel vix petiolata, not or scarcely petiolate.


vocatus,-a,-um (part.A): called [> L. voco,-avi,-atus, q. to call, to call upon, summon];

    - in vico vulgo vocato Fleetstreet, on the street commonly called Fleetstreet.


Vola: vola,-ae (s.f.I), vola (diatoms).


volatile, easily affected by circumstances; easily being given off by evaporation, readily vaporized: volaticus,-a,-um (adj.A) {> L. volaticus,-a,-um (adj.A): 'flying, winged; fleeting, volatile, inconstant, transitory; fickle, turning from one to another.'

volatilis,-e (adj.B): flying, winged, as of beasts; swift, rapid; fleeting, transitory; changing from one part to another.


volcanic: volcanicus,-a,-um (adj.A), vulcanicus,-a,-um (adj.A), vulcanius,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - in terra volcanico exusta, on burnt-out volcanic soil.

    - in montibus vulcanicis, on volcanic soil.

    - in portu Nagasaki post explosiones volcanicas submarinas cum Fucis variis appulsa, in the port of Nagasaki after submarine volcanic explosions with various Fuci brought to land (Stearn 1983). 


Volcano: mons (s.m.III) ignivomus (adj.A);

    - in monte olim ignivomo, on the mountain formerly vomiting fire.


volnificus,-a,-um (adj.A), vulnificus,-a,-um (adj.A): inflicting wounds [> L. vulnus + facio].


volubilis,-e (adj.B): twining, q.v.; see vine.


Volume (book): volumen,inis (s.n.III), volumine; tomus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg.  tomo;

    - volumen primum, first volume. 


volutus,-a,-um (part.A): rolled up.

-volutus,-a,-um (part.A): rolled up;

    - convolutus,-a,-um (part.A): convolute, rolled up longitudinally; cf. vernation; convolute (vernatio convoluta, ver. convolutiva, ver. supervolutiva), when the leaf is wholly rolled lengthwise from one margin, so that one margin is at the center of the coil and the other outside. 

    - involutus,-a,-um (part. A): involute, rolled inward from the edge (i.e. toward the upper side) or apex.

    - obvolute (vernatio obvoluta), when the margin of one leaf overlaps that of the leaf opposite.

    - revolute, rolled back from the edge (i.e.  towards the lower side) or apex: revolutus,-a,-um (part A) (all from Stearn, 'vernation' 1983).


Volva or vulva, in fungi, sometimes referred to as the 'cup' at the base of the stipe (as in Amanita); of agarics, Gasteromycetes: 'a cup-like lower part of the universal veil round the base of a mature stipe or receptacle; sometimes = universal veil' (Ainsworth & Bisby);'(Lat., a wrapper, covering, integument) a covering or external wrapper, especially the sac enclosing the sporophore of Agarics, ruptured at its apex by the growth of the unfolding pileus' (Jackson): volva,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. volva, nom. pl. volvae, dat. & abl. pl. volvis; vulva,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vulva; [> L. volva or vulva (s.f.I) a wrapping, covering, integument; the womb, syn. uterus]; see veil, velum;

    - volva arcte vaginata irregulariter 4-5-lobata extus grisea, volva closely sheathed irregularly 4-5-lobed outside grey (Stearn 1983). 

    - volva lanosa (adj.A), 'a volva that forms a woolly layer on the whole cap or parts of it' (S&D).

    - volva limbatus (adj.A): "a 'volva' that is 'adnate' to the base of the 'stipe' but has a narrow, free, membranous margin (see Bas, 1969) (S&D).

    - volva universalis, universal veil. 

    - volva,-ae (s.f.I) lamellaris (adj.B) or lamellata (adj.A), or lamellosa (adj.A): layered vola, "a volva that consists of two or more layers differing in structure" (S&D). 

  Apparently velum universale is as acceptable as volva universalis for 'universal veil.'

volvarius,-a,-um (adj.A) or vulvarius,-a,-um (adj.A), volvaceus,-a,-um (adj.A): pertaining to the volva (vulva).

  Chenopodium vulvaria L., the old generic name being Vulvaria: the Stinking Goosefoot, an ill-scented annual; Volvaria, Volvariella; Volvariaceae, mushroom taxa.

volvatus,-a,-um (adj.A): provided with a volva.

  evolvatus,-a,-um (adj.A): with no volva.


volvens,-entis (part.B): rolling up or together, turning, rolling itself round about [> L. volvo, volvi, volutum, 3  to roll, turn about, turn round, tumble anything; to roll up or together, form by rolling; to turn or roll itself round about, to turn]; see rolling.


volutus,-a,-um (part.A): rolled about, rolled up together, formed by rolling.


Voluta,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. voluta: a volute or spiral scroll, as an ornament on the capitals of columns (Lewis & Short).


Volutabrum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. volutabro: a wallowing place for swine, a hog-pool, slough, q.v.

Volutatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. volutatione: a rolling about, wallowing.


vomens,-entis (part.B): vomiting, puking; pouring forth, emptying; to emit, to discharge by vomiting up [> L. vomo,-ui,-itum, 3. to puke, spew, throw up, vomit].


vomitorius,-a,-um (adj.A), that which produces or provokes vomiting, vomitive, vomitory, emetic, q.v.

  Ilex vomitoria Ait 'causing vomiting; the stimulating brew emetic when drunk to excess' Fernald 1950; Russula emetica, a mushroom with a strongly acrid taste.. 

vomificus,-a,-um (adj.A) (vomo-facio): that which causes or provokes vomiting, emetic;

    - medicamentum (-i, s.n.II) vomificum, abl. sg. medicamento vomifico, an emetic.

vomicus,-a,-um (adj.A): ulcerous; foul, filthy, noisome, a morbus.

vomicosus,-a,-um (adj.A): full of sores or tumors.

vomitus,-a,-um (part.A): puked up, vomited forth; see vomens,-entis (part.B)

Vomiting, nausea: nausea,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. nausea that causes nausea or vomiting: nauseabilis,-e (adj.B); nauseosus,-a,-um (adj.A), producing sickness, nauseous, as of bad smells [> L. & Gk. nausea (s.f.I), sea-sickness; sickness, nausea; vomiting].

  Brachystelma nauseosum; Chrysothamnus nauesosus. 


Vomitio,-onis (s.f.III), vomitione: a vomiting, spewing.

Vomitory, emetic, an inducement to vomit: emetica,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. emetica; medicamentum (-i, s.n.II) vomificum, abl. sg. medicamento vomifico.


Vomitum,-ii (s.n.II), a that which is vomited, a vomit.


-vomus,-a,-um (adj.A): -spewing, -vomiting [> L. vomo,-ui,-itum, 3. to puke, spew, throw up, vomit];

    - ignivomus, vomiting fire, as the sun, or a volcano.


voraceous, devouring: vorax, gen. sg. voracis (adj.B), q.v.


Vorago,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. voragine: that which swallows up, an abyss, gulf, whirlpool, depth, chasm.


vorax, gen. sg. voracis (adj.B): devouring, voracious, ravenous, swallowing whole, eating greedily;

    - pestis (-is (s.f.III) vorax, abl. sg. peste voraci, a devouring plague.

    - parasitus (-i (s.m.II) vorax, abl. sg. parasito voraci, a ravenous parasite; abl. pl. parasitis voracibus.


vorsum: see verto.


Vortex,-icis (s.m.III), abl. sg. vortice, a whirl, whirlpool, an eddy of wind, flame or water: see vertex,-icis.


-vorus,-a,-um (adj.A): in L. comp. devouring, consuming, feeding upon, [> L. voro,-avi,-atum, 1. to swallow whole, devour, eat greedily, to overwhelm, destroy]; in Gk. comp. -phagus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.;

    - carnivorus, eating meat, tissues; fungivorus, fungus- or mushroom-eating; insectivorus, consuming insects; lignivorus, wood-destroying, as of fungi; omnivorus, eating all things; pigmentivorus, consuming pigments, destroying paint. 

  The fungi  Erwinia carotovora (Jones) Holland, carrot-eater; Kabatiella caulivora, stem-eating; Phytophthora kalmivora, Kalmia-eater; Erwinia amylovora, responsible for the fire blight of fruit trees.

  Carnivora, neuter pl. of carnivorus, an order of eutherian mammals, with teeth and other organs adapted to suit their carnivorous habit. A carnivore, as a substantive noun, on analogy with serpent (serpens,-entis, q.v.) would be bestia (-ae, s.f.I) carnivora; a herbivore would be bestia herbivora; insectivore: bestia insectivora.


Vox, gen. sg. vocis (s.f.III), abl. sg. voce: a voice, sound, cry, call; a word, saying, speech, sentence; speech, language; see word;

    - nomen a graeca voce drupto lacero et odon, ob dentes peristomii apice lacero-fissos, the name is from the greek word drupto lacero and odon, becuase the teeth of the peristome are lacerate-divided at the apex.


vulcanicus,-a,-um (adj.A), vulcanius,-a,-um (adj.A): volcanic, q.v. 


vulgaris,-e (adj.B), vulgatus,-a,-um (part.A): common, general, ordinary; comparative vulgatior (m.f.) vulgatius (n.), more common, superl: vulgatissimus,-a,-um (adj.A); see common.


vulgans,-antis (part.B): spreading, becoming common; publishing.

vulgatus,-a,-um (part.A): made common, universal, general, ordinary, common [> L. vulgo,-avi,-atum 1. to make general, common or universal, to put forth to the world, publish].

vulgo (adv.): commonly, q.v., everywhere, all over, compar. vulgatius (adv.) 'more commonly;' opposite of raro (adv.), rarenter( adv.) rarely, seldom;

    - in vico vulgo vocato Fleetstreet, on the street commonly called Fleetstreet.

    - apothecium vulgo persistens, raro evanescens, apothecium commonly persistent, seldom disappearing. 


Vulgus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. vulgo: the great mass, the multitude, the public; a multitude.


vulnerable, able to be injured: violabilis,-e (adj.B).


vulnerarius,-a,-um (adj.A): of or belonging to wounds.

Vulneratio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. vulneratione: an injuring, injury. 

vulneratus,-a,-um (part.A): wounded, injured, damaged [> L. vulnero, 1. to wound, injure, harm]; see injured, wounded.


-vulnerus,-a,-um (adj.A): in L. comp., -wounded.

    - quadrivulnerus,-a,-um (adj.A), with 4 red or purple spots like wounds.


vulnificans,-antis (part.B): wounding [> L. vulnifico,-are, -atum 1. to wound].

vulnificus,-a,-um (adj.A): vulnus-facio] wound-making, wound-inflicting,  wounding.

Vulnus,-eris (s.n.III), vulnere, nom. & acc. pl. vulnera: wound, injury.

Vulnusculum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. vulnusculo: a little or slight wound.


vulnificus,-a,-um (adj.A), volnificus,-a,-um (adj.A): inflicting wounds [> L. vulnus + facio].


Vulpes,-is (s.f.III), abl. sg. vulpe, nom. & acc. pl. vulpes, dat. & abl. pl. vulpibus: the fox, q.v.

  Vulpia K. C. Gmel. from L. vulpes, the fox 'from the many long awns of the panicle' (Fernald 1950), perhaps in allusion to whiskers.

vulpinus,-a,-um (adj.A): fox-like, foxy; 'used for species with an inferior sort of fruit' (Stearn 1996).

  Vitis vulpina L. Chicken-Grape, Winter-Grape; Lentinellus vulpinus, a mushroom, perhaps in allusion to the dense white to yellowish hairs on the cap.


Vulva,-ae (s.f.I): see volva,-ae (s.f.I).


vulvarius,-a,-um (adj.A): see volvarius,-a,-um (adj.A).


vulviformis,-e (adj.B): like a cleft with projecting edges.