Mrs. Zander’s Libelli Latini,

Sample Files, The Letter W
P. M. Eckel
Res Botanica
Missouri Botanical Garden
November 23, 2008
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Mrs. Zander’s Libelli Latini

Sample Files, The Letter “W”







There is no word in either classical Latin or Greek with this letter. Thus, no word in Greek or Latin begins with this letter, the 23d letter of the English alphabet, and so no words occur in the Greek or Latin portions of dictionaries that begin with this letter. In Latin dictionaries word entries beginning with 'v' proceed straight to those beginning with 'x', whereas in English dictionaries, words beginning with the 'w' come between them.


The letter 'w' is freely used in Botanical Latin. Words beginning with "w" are usually in epithets honoring a person whose name begins with that letter, or a place name beginning with 'w', transliterations from the Chinese, and so on.


The 'w' is a 'double u.' In English, the letter dates back to the time when the letter 'u' and 'v' were not fully differentiated, originally being written 'uu,' later becoming 'w.' The wyn (wynn, wen) was a rune adopted into the Anglo-Saxon (Old English) alphabet (from Teutonic, or Germanic peoples) and had the phonetic value of 'w', but was replaced first by 'uu' and later by 'w.'


The sound of the 'w' is a consonant when it is the first letter of a word. A vowel is an open sound due to a mouth configuration that does not allow  an interruption of the breath through friction, squeezing or stopping by some part of the mouth or throat (Webster 1915). Sounds that are interrupted are consonants. W is a consonant when it occurs initially (the 'w' in 'we') but at other times (medially or terminally) is considered a vowel or part of a diphthong (two vowels together) (the 'w' in 'few' and 'how').


In the ICBN (2006), 60.4, the letters w and y are stated to be permissible in Latin plant names, but letters in ligatures otherwise foreign to those of Latin or Greek 'are to be transcribed.'


    i. In epithets, the terminal 'w' of a personal or proper noun may occasionally become a 'v', as in Bigelow becoming bigelovii:

Opuntia bigelovii Engelm.; Cereus bigelovii Engelm.; Porothamnium bigelovii (Sullivant) Fleischer in Brotherus; Senecio bigelovii A. Gray (perhaps Henry Clinton Bigelow (1865-1922); or Jacob Bigelow (1787-1879).


    ii. Otherwise, it remains 'w':

Carex Bigelowii; Carex Willdenowii; Dimaria woodrowii Stapf


    iii. The terminal 'u' or 'ou' may also become a 'v';

Porotrichodendron glaziovii (Paris) Wijk & Margadant, after A. F. M. Glaziou, a Brazilian collector.


    iv. German w roughly corresponds to the Gallo-Latin v "of the fifth century A.D. (p. 291 Stearn), "which was rendered sometimes by v, more often by gu."

Wilhelm > Villaume, Vuillerme, Guilhem, Guillaume > Italian Guglielmo > Latinized to Gulielmus.


Waist, the middle or center part, esp. when narrower or less thick than the ends; see circumference; see girdle, isthmus, see wasp-waisted; see zoster-: in Gk. comp. belt-;

    - cinctura,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. cinctura: girdle, q.v.(diadoms); cinctus,-us (s.m.IV  girdle, belt, tucking in of the toga around the waist; cingulum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. cingulo, girdle, belt. 

    - corpor (oris, s.n.III) medium (adj.A), mid-body, abl. sg. corpore medio; corpor centrale (adj.B), abl. sg. corpore centrali; pars (partis, s.f.III) centralis or media, abl. sg. parte centrali (media); sectio (-onis  s.f.III) centralis or media, abl. sg. sectione centrali (media) 'mid-section;' zona,-ae (s.f.I) a circular area, zona centralis;

    - corpore centrali angusto, with the body-center narrow.

    - fructus folia circum medium angustatus, fruit around the middle narrowed.


waisted: medialiter (adv.) cinctus (part.A), 'medially girdled (belted)' girdled, belted, waisted: cinctus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.


Waist-line: linea (s.f.I) corporis medii 'line of the mid-body,' abl. sg. linea corporis medii.


Wall: murus,-i (s.m.II), muro, a 'city-wall;' dissepimentum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. dissepimento 'that which separates, a partition;' sepimentum,-i (s.n.II), sepimento 'partition, hedge, fence, enclosure'; septum,-i (s.n.II), septo, 'barrier, inclosure;' paries,-etis (s.m.III), abl. sg. pariete a 'house-wall'; see  replum, septum, trabecula, tunica; see partition; transeptum,-i (s.n.II) a cross barrier or wall; see -tichus,-a,-um (adj.A)

    - parietibus tenuibus, with thin walls.

    - cellulae disci parietibus aequaliter atque pervalde  incrassatis praeditae, cells of the disc provided with walls  equally and also very strongly thickened. 

    - parietes radiales cellularum epidermaticarum fibrosi porosi, radial walls of the epidermal cells fibrous, porose.

    - parietes tangentiales, tangential walls.

    - loculus in locellos parietibus communibus instructos divisus, locule divided into locelli provided with common walls.  

  NOTE: in classical Latin murus,-i pertained to the wall of a city, whereas paries,-etis indicates the wall (partition) of a house.

Contact-wall, tangential wall: see contact.

Cross or dividing wall, partition: dissepimentum,-i (s.n.II), dissepimento; septum,-i (s.n.II), septo; transeptum,-i (s.n.II),  abl. sg. transepto. 

Outer spore wall: episporium,-ii (s.n.II), episporio; exosporium, -ii (s.n.II), exosporio.

between walls: intermuralis,-e (adj.B).

with horizontal and longitudinal walls: muriformis,-e (adj.B), 'muriform, resembling brickwork in a wall: parallel rows, the ends of each unit situated above the center of the unit below' [> L. murus,-i (s.m.II) a wall;

a bank, mound, dam]; see muriformis,-e (adj.B): a second meaning is 'mouse-shaped.'

with two walls or coats: bitunicatus,-a,-um (adj.A).

inside or within the walls: intramuralis,-e (adj.B).

pertaining to the wall: parietalis,-e (adj.B), parietinus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. tunicatus,-a,-um;

    - partes parietales in forma litterae H distinctae, parts pertaining to the wall in the shape of the letter H distinct.



in L. comp.:

  -septatus,-a,-um (adj.A) in L. comp.;

    - biseptatus, with two walls or septa; octoseptatus, with 8 walls.

  -tunicatus,-a,-um (adj.A): in L. comp. in fungi, -coated;

    - crassitunicatus, with thick walls; glabritunicatus, with glabrous or smooth walls or coats; tenuitunicatus, with thin walls.

in Gk. comp.:

  -dermaticus,-a,-um (adj.A), dermus,-a,-um (adj.A), in Gk. comp. 'skinned';

    - leptodermus (adj.A), leptodermaticus (adj.A) 'thin-walled;'

  -desmaticus,-a,-um (adj.A) in Gk. comp. 'banded';

    - pachydesmaticus,-a,-um (adj.A), with thick walls, bands or bonds.

  -phragm: -phragma,-atis (s.n.III), abl. sg. -phragmate, in Gk. comp.,

    -screen, -partition; -phragmaticus,-a,-um (adj.A), pertaining to a screen or a specified partition;

    - diaphragma,-atis (s.n.III), abl. sg. diaphragmate, diaphragm.

    - epiphragma,-atis (s.n.III), epiphragm.

  -tichus,-a,-um (adj.A)in Gk. comp. in fungi 'applying only to tissues' [> Gk. leptos, thin + teichos, a wall];

    -leptotichus, having thin walls, oligotichus, having few walls, pachytichus, with thick walls, polytichus, having many walls.


thick-walled: in fungi, crassitunicatus,-a,-um (adj.A), pachydesmaticus, -a,-um (adj.A) 'with thick bands or bonds,' pachypleurus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'with thick sides,' pachytichus,-a,-um (adj.A), with thick walls.

thin-walled: leptodermus (adj.A), leptodermaticus (adj.A); in fungi, tenuitunicatus (adj.A); leptotichus (adj.A), having thin walls.


Wall-thinnings: areis tenuibus parietinis, i.e. with 'thin wall areas' (area,-ae, s.f.I); area tenuiparietina (adj.A), thin-walled area. 

Wall-thickenings: areis crassis parietinis, i.e. with 'thick wall areas' (area,-ae, s.f.I); area crassiparietina (adj.A), thick-walled area.


Wallpaper: see paper.


Walnut, both tree and nut: juglans,-ndis (s.f.III), abl. sg. juglande.

  Juglans L.; J. cinerea; J. nigra; Juglandaceae.


Wand: see twig. 


wandering: vagans,-antis (part.A), q.v.; errabundus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'wandering to and fro, wandering about; of odor, floating about'; erraticus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'wandering to and fro, roving, erratic', vagus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'uncertain, having no particular direction, in  several directions, rambling.'

-wandering: -vagus,-a,-um (adj.A); see vagus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - montivagus, wandering over the mountains; mundivagus,-a,-um (adj.A): spreading around the world, that which wanders about the world, wide-spread; noctivagus,-a,-um (adj.A): night-wandering, that wanders about by night, as the moon; paludivagus, wandering over the bog. 


wanting: see without.


warm: calidus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'hot,' tepidus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'just   warm,' lukewarm; see temperate, hot; cf. thermalis.

growing warm: calescens,-entis (part.B) [> L. calesco,-ere, 3. to grow or become warm].

made warm: calefactus,-a,-um (part.A) [> L. calefacio,-ere,-factum, 3., to make warm].

very warm: calidissimus,-a,-um (adj.A).

warmer: calidior (m.f.) calidius (n.) (adj.B);

    - per regiones calidiores, throughout warmer regions. 

Warm springs, a warm bath: thermae,-arum (pl.f.I), q.v.; see bath.

relating to warm springs or warm water: thermalis,-e (adj.B);

    - in aqua thermali stagnanti, in stagnant thermal water.

Warm water: calida,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. calida.

warming, that serves for: thermanticus,-a,-um (adj.A).

Warmth, heat: caldor,-oris (s.m.III), abl. sg. caldore; calor,-oris (s.m.III), abl. sg. calore, opp. frigus,-oris (s.n.III) q.v., abl. sg.

  frigore, cold; see heat, temperature.

warming, causing warmth, heating; calorificus,-a,-um (adj.A).

Warming, heating: calefactio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. calefactione.


Wart, small swelling or protuberance: verruca,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. verruca, nom. & acc. pl. verrucae, dat. & abl. pl. verrucis; cf. tuber,-eris (s.n.III): abl. sing. tubere, nom. & acc. pl. tubera, dat. & abl. pl. tuberibus, 'swelling, protuberance, hump, bump;' see plage;

    - basidiosporae et plaga subapicali et verrucis humilibus amyloideis  praeditae, basidiospores provided with a subapical plage and low, amyloid warts.

Wart, small: verrucula,-ae (s.f.I), verrucula;

  tuberculum,-i (s.n.II), tuberculo, nom. & acc. pl.

  tubercula, dat. & abl. pl. tuberculis: tubercle, a small swelling, boil, wart.

pertaining to warts: verrucularis,-e (adj.B), tubercularis,-e (adj.B).

wart-like: tuberculiformis,-e (adj.A), verruciformis,-e (adj.B).

warty: tuberculatus,-a,-um (adj.A), verrucatus,-a,-um (adj.A),

  verrucosus,-a,-um (adj.A), phymatodeus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - protuberationibus verrucatis, with warty protuberances. 

having small warts: verruculatus,-a,-um (adj.A).


wash: lotio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. lotione [> L. past part. of lavo, q.v.]

washing: lavans,-antis (part.B).

washed: lavatus,-a,-um (part.A), lautus,-a,-um (part.A), lotus,-a,-um (part.A).

  a washing, bath, bathing: lavatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. lavatione 'a washing, bathing, bath; bathing apparatus; a bathing place, bathing room, bath; lavacrum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. lavacro: a bath; lotio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. lotione [> L. past part. of lavo, q.v.]; lotura,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. lotura, a bathing, washing.

washing or bathing-tub: lavabrum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. lavabro.


Wasp, an insect generally with a slender smooth body but with the abdomen attached by a narrow stalk: vespa,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. vespa. 

  shaped like a wasp: vespiformis,-e (adj.B).

wasp-waisted (with a constriction in or near the middle); see

  strangulatus,-a,-um (part.A):

    - folium in medio vespiforme, leaf in the middle shaped like a wasp.

Waste, that which is discarded: exuvium,-ii (s.n.II), q.v., abl. sg. exuvio; see rubbish.

waste (adj.): (of places), desolate: vastus,-a,-um (adj.A), desertus,-a,-um (adj.A); uncultivated: incultus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'uncultivated, untilled'; cf. superfluous.

Wasteland: incultum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. inculto; locus (s.m.II) incultus, abl. sg. loco inculto.


wasting away: tabescens,-entis (part.B), q.v., tabidus,-a,-um (adj.A); see diseased.


Water: aqua,-ae (s.f.I), gen. sg. aquae, abl. sg. aqua, nom. pl.

  aquae, gen. pl. aquarum, dat. & abl. pl. aquis; see bath, spring (water);

    - aqua pluvialis (adj.B), rain or soft water.

    - fresh water, aqua dulcis (adj.B).

    - aqua marina (adj.A), sea water.

    - aqua subsalsa (adj.A), brackish water.

    - aqua salsa (adj.A), aqua salina, salty water

    - summa (adj.A) aqua, the surface of the water.

    - in summa aqua, on the surface of the water.

    - aquae marinae et dulcis hospites, of water sea and fresh the guests, i.e. inhabitants of sea water and fresh water (a.m. & d. in; see hospes) (Stearn). 

    - in aquis quietis, in still waters.

    - in aquis rapide fluentibus, in rapidly flowing water; see rapids.

    - aqua lenta (adj.A), slow (stagnant) water.

    - ground water: aqua plerotica (adj.A); see plerotic.

    - aqua pluvialis (adj.B), rainwater

    - typus ex aqua irrigua apud seminarium ornamentale in Reipublica Virginiae, USA, isolatus, type isolated from irrigation water at an ornamental nursery in the State of Virginia, USA.

in or on the water: ephydrus,-a,-um (adj.A), ephydricus,-a,-um (adj.A): in or on the water.

living near the water, parhydrous:  parydrus,-a,-um (adj.A) (para + hydros), the final -a- of para is elided, and there is no 'h' before the u of -hydros:

   parydrous 'living near the water.'

wanting or without water, anhydrous: anydrus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v., anydricus,-a,-um (adj.A) (> Gk. a-privative + (h)ydros).

Aqueduct: aqueductus,-us (s.m.IV), abl. sg. aqueductu: aqueduct;

  hydragogia,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. hydragogia.

Cold water: frigida,-ae (s.f.I), sc. aqua, cold water (like calida or calda, -ae, warm water).

Condensation, the formation of a liquid from vapor: condensatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. condensatione.

living in or near water: aquatilis,-e (adj.B).

loving the water, water-loving:  philydrus,-a,-um (adj.A) (philos + hydros), 'water-loving,' (phil- + ydros).

Natabulum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. natabulo: a place for swimming.

pertaining to water: aquarius,-a,-um (adj.A), aquaticus,-a,-um (adj.A).

Rain: pluvia,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. pluvia.

River Basin, q.v.: corrivatio (-onis s.f.III) aquarum;

Running Water: aquae currentes [> L. curro, cucurri, cursum, 3, to run, hasten]; see river; see river, stream, vortex,-icis (s.m.III), whirlpool.

    - running water: aquae (pl.f.I) currentes.

    - in currentibus aquarum, in currents of water.

Sea-water: aqua marina (adj.A).

Soapy or sudsy water, suds: saponatum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. saponato, q.v.

Spray, sprinkling (of water): aspergo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg.  aspergine; aspersio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. aspersione;

    - in aspergine salsa, in salt spray.

    - in zona aspersionis cataractarum, in the zone of spray of cataracts.

Water vessel, water pot: hydraeum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. hydraeo; hydraeuma, -atis (s.n.III), abl. sg. hydraeumate.

Warm water: calida,-ae (s.f.I), sc. aqua, abl. sg. calida

  (cf. frigida,-ae (s.f.I), cold water).

Well-water: aqua (s.f.I) putealis, aqua puteana.

water, clear as: aqueus,-a,-um (adj.A); see transparent; 

    - herbae succo aqueo vel lacteo scatentes, herbs abounding in a watery [i.e. clear] or milky juice (Cactus). 

water-inhabiting: aquaticus,-a,-um (adj.A), aquatilis,-e (adj.B).

of or relating to water: aquarius,-a,-um (adj.A).

water, pertaining to standing, pools, lakes: in Gk. comp. limn-; limnophilus, pond-loving; potamophilus,-a,-um (adj.A): river-loving.

watery, full of water: aquaticus,-a,-um (adj.A), aquosus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - herbae succo aqueo vel lacteo scatentes, herbs abounding in a watery [i.e. clear] or milky juice (Cactus).

    - succus aquosus, the sap watery.

    - philydrelus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'abounding in moisture' (philos + hydrelos).

well-watered: eukrenos,-a,-on (adj.A); euhydrus,-a,-um (adj.A), euhydricus, -a,-um (adj.A), 'euhydrous, well-watered, abounding in water;'

watered, irrigated, well-watered, wet, soaked: irriguus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.

Water, rain: aqua pluvialis (adj.B), abl. sg. aqua pluviali;  aqua pluvia (adj.A); see rain.

Water, well: aqua (s.f.I) putealis (adj.B), aqua puteana (adj.A).

flowing or running water: aqua profluens (part.B), abl. sg. aqua profluenti; aqua viva (adj.A), running water, 'living' water; flumen,

  -inis (s.n.III)  vivus (adj.A); fluvius,-ii (s.m.II), abl. sg. fluvio;

    - in flumine vivo, in running water.

    - in rivo cito (celeriter, rapide) fluenti, in a fast-flowing stream.

Watering, irrigation: irrigatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. irrigatione; humectatio (umec-),-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. humectatione (umec-).

    - irrigatio agri, a watering of the field. 

Watery place: aquosum,-i (s.n.II), aquoso.

Place where water is collected: aquivergium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. aquivergio.

Waterplant, aquatic plant, hydrophyte: hydrophyton,- (s.n.II), abl. sg. hydrophyto.

Waterfall: cataracta,-ae (s.f.I), cataracta.

Waterworks, reservoir: dividiculum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. dividiculo.

watery, thin, mixed with water: aquatus,-a,-um (part.A

with water, by the use of water: aquate (adv.).

without water, anhydrous, wanting water: anydrus,-a,-um (adj.A), anydricus, -a,-um (adj.A) (an-privative + hydros).



in L. comp. aqu-, aqui-, q.v.;

    - aquifer, aquifera, aquiferum (adj.A), bearing water.

in Gk. comp. hydr-, hydro-, q.v. [> Gk. hydor, gen. sg. hydatos (s.n.III) water];    

    - hydrophilus, water-loving, growing in water.

    - hydrophyton,-i (s.n.II), water-loving or aquatic plant.

in Gk. comp. -hydrus,-a,-um (adj.A), -hydrelus,-a,-um (adj.A): watered;

    - anydrus,-a,-um (adj.A), anydricus,-a,-um (adj.A): anhydrous, wanting water (a-privative + hydros)

    - parydrus (para + hydros), the final -a- of para is elided, and there is no 'h' before the u of -hydros: parydrous 'living near the water.'

    - philydros (philos + hydros), 'water-loving,' (phil- + ydros) (not philhydros).

    - however, with epi the final -i- is elided, but the 'p' becomes 'ph' before the 'y': ephydrous (epi + hydros), growing on the water, the 'ph' is rendered in Greek with the Greek letter 'phi'

in Gk. comp. hygr-, hygro-: in Gk. comp. damp, moist, moisture, wet  = Lat. liquidus; opp. xEros (Latin siccus);

    - hygrophilus,-a,-um (adj.A), moisture loving, adapted to wet but not aquatic habitats.

    - hygrophyton,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. hygrophyto: hygrophyte, a plant of wet habitats but not growing in water.

in Gk. comp. hyo-, from a verb associated with rain; see hyo-;

    - Hyophila (s.f.I), rain (moisture-) loving; Hyocomium B. & S.

in L. comp. imbr-, imbri-, rain;

    - imbrifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.A), rain-bringing.

in Gk. comp. -notis,-idis (s.f.III), -notus,-a,-um (adj.A):

in Gk. comp.

    moisture, damp, wet [> Gk. notis,-idos (s.f.III) moisture, damp, wet;

    notios,-a,-on, adj.: wet, damp, rainy];

    - philonotus,-a,-um (adj.A), moisture loving. 

in Gk. comp. ombro-: 'rain,' q.v.;

    - ombrophilus,-a,-um (adj.A); ombrophilicus,-a,-um (adj.A), rain-loving, able to withstand rains, as in areas of torrential downpours.

in Gk. comp. rheo-: in Gk. comp., pertaining to flowing water;

    - rheophilus, loving rivers, etc.


Wattle, from and Old English word indicating a 'bandage' is a form of building construction using interwoven slender branches, withys or reeds, reminiscent of basketry from willow wands; wattle also refers to the material (rods, branches, reeds) used in such construction; the word also refers to a fleshy skin depending from the head or neck of an animal (a dewlap). Wattle is also, for some reason, the common name for various trees in the genus Acacia, primarily in Australia, where it is the largest genus of vascular plants. Acacia pycnantha is the floral emblem of that country.

   Acacia decurrens, 'Green Wattle' the var. mollis 'Black Wattle,'  A. pubescens 'Hairy  Wattle', A. longifolia 'Sydney Golden Wattle.' (Bailey 1938), some species are especially useful for tanning and material for axe handles, bullock yokes (Uphof).


waved, wavy: sinuatus,-a,-um (part.A) (applied to flat edges curving strongly in and out); undulatus,-a,-um (adj.A) (applied also to edges waved upwards and downwards (Stearn); undatus,-a,-um (adj.A).  having wavy elevated lines: undulato-striatus,-a,-um (adj.A).  in a wavy manner: undatim (adv.)having small waves: sinuolatus,-a,-um (adj.A)

wavy-stalked: undipes,-pedis (adj.B); see -footed. 


Wax: cera,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. cera; cerumen,-inis (s.n.III), abl. sg. cerumine, cerumentum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. cerumento: NL "irreg. from L. cera 'wax': the yellow waxlike secretion from the glands of the external ear, called also earwax; a mixture of wax, resin and sometimes earth that is used in place of pure wax in the building activities of stingless bees" WIII.

waxy: ceraceus,-a,-um (adj.A), cereus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - in foliis sculptura epicuticulari ceracea, on the leaves with a  epicuticular wax sculpture.

waxy-yellow, 'dull yellow with a soft mixture of reddish brown (Lindley); wax-gold: cerinus,-a,-um (adj.A) (Stearn).


Way: see modus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. modo; road, path.



  both (of two) ways, in either point of view, in both directions: utroque (adv.);

    - capsulae utroque dehiscentes, nunc irregulariter nunc per zonas tenuitatis, capsules dehiscing in both ways, sometimes irregularly, sometimes through zones of thinness.

  all the way: ad finem;

    - vitta ab basi ad finem prope apicem producta, with a band from the base all the way to near the apex extended.

    - ab basi ad finem apicis, from the base all the way to the end of the apex.

  by way of: per (prep. + acc.), q.v.

  in any way: ex ulla parte;

    - reproductione ex ulla parte efficienti, with reproduction in any way achieved.

  in different (various) ways or manners: diversimodus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - habitus (s.m.IV) diversimodus (adj.A): manner of growth in diverse ways.

    - regeneratione diversimoda, with reproduction in various ways. 

  in different or many ways; multifarie (adv.);

    - planta multifarie regenerans, plant reproducing in many ways.

    - reproductione multifarie efficienti, with reproduction in various ways achieved.

  in every way, entirely, wholly: omnimodis (adv.)

    - fructificatione omnimodis efficienti, with fructification entirely achieved

  in no way, by no means; on no account: nullimodo (adv.), nequaquam (adv.).

   nullo modo (adv. phrase), 'by no means, in no way,' numquam, 'at no time, never,' haud, 'not at all, by no means,' are more emphatic;

    - the genus naturalissimum nequaquam, nostro sensu, in genera plura divellendum, the genus, in no way the most natural, in our mind, should be separated into many genera.

  in the same way: eodem modo;

    - fungi folia specierum Rosacearum eodem modo inficientes, fungi infecting leaves of Rosaceous species in the same way.

  in this way, by this means: ad hunc modum, hoc modo;

    - species ad hunc modum distributae, the species distributed in this way.


Wayside: proximus,-a,-um viae ( via), the wayside, area beside the road.


weak: 1. infirmus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'weak, feeble, infirm', debilis,-e (adj.B) q.v., 'feeble, weak', invalidus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'weak, impotent,

  feeble'; cf. lenis,-e (adj. B); flaccidus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'limp',

  languidus,-a,-um (adj.A), vescus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'little, thin, weak,'

  exilis,-e (adj.B): 'small, thin, slender, lank, meagre, poor, feeble;'

    - conidiomata in mediis debilibus (e.g. agaro aqueo vel farinae Zeae maydis) pustulos discretos formantia, conidiomata in weak media (e.g. water agar or cornmeal) forming discrete pustules.

     2. of colors, pallidus,-a,-um (adj.A), dilutus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.


weakened, crippled: debilitatus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.

somewhat weakened: subdebilitatus,-a,-um (adj.A).

weakening, crippling; debilitans,-antis (part.B), q.v.


weakly, faintly, feebly: exiliter (adv.) 'thinly, meagerly, feebly,'

  infirme (adv.), debiliter (adv.), languide (adv.) 'feebly, weakly,'

  leniter (adv.) 'mildly, gently;' molliter (adv.) 'gently, weakly'

  of colors, pallide (adv.), dilute (adv.); opposite of valde (adv.),

  fortiter (adv.) 'strongly, robustly, vivide (adv.) vividly;'

  cf. almost, slightly, somewhat;

    - venarum lateralium pari basali infirme evoluto, by the basal pair of lateral veins weakly developed.

    - paribus basalibus debiliter evolutis, by the basal pairs weakly developed.

    - cellulae in catenulas leniter silicatas dispositae, cells arranged in weakly silicated chains.

    NOTE: use of prefix sub- in L. comp., with adjectives indicates lack of fulfillment, such as subcyanophilus,-a,-um, weakly cyanophilic, use of sub-; also -iusculus, 'somewhat' 'not quite' 'rather': incrassatiusculus, somewhat thickened; cf. strongly.


Weakness: exilitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. exilitate,' thinness, meagreness, weakness, poorness;' debilitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. debilitate, debilitatio, -onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. debilitatione, 'weakness, lameness, debility;'

  infirmitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. infirmitate;' tenuitas,-tatis (s.f.III), abl. sg. tenuitate: 'thinness, fineness, scantiness, insufficiency, sparseness;'

    - capsulae utroque dehiscentes, nunc irregulariter nunc per zonas tenuitatis, capsules dehiscing in both ways, sometimes irregularly, sometimes through zones of thinness.


Weather, stormy; rainy weather, storm, winter, q.v.: hiems, hiemis (s.f.III), abl. sg. hieme; see bruma,-ae (s.f.I).


characteristic of a weaver: textorius,-a,-um (adj.A).


Wedge: cuneus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. cuneo; in Gk. comp. sphen-, spheno-, a wedge.

  Sphenopholis Scribn., a North American perennial grass, 'from Gk. sphen, a wedge, and pholis, scale, referring to the broadly obovate or cuneate second glume' Fernald 1950.

Little wedge: cuneolus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. cuneolo.

wedge-shaped: cuneatus,-a,-um (part.A), cuneiformis,-e (adj.B);

    - frustula in aspectu cingulari cuneiformia, frustules in girdle view wedge-shaped.

in wedge-shaped wise: cuneatim (adv.).


Weed: planta (s.f.I) advena (adj.A), 'newly arrived, adventive' plant; species (s.f.V) advena, adventive species; herba (s.f.I) inutilis (adj.B), abl. sg. herba inutile; plantae adventiciae, adventitious plants (weeds), alien or introduced plants; planta noxia (adj.A) 'harmful or injurious' plant; planta infestans, plantae infestantes, infesting, injurious plant(s).

Weedy or herbaceous infestation: infestatio (-onis s.f.III) herbacea, abl. sg. infestatione herbacea.


Week: hebdomas,-adis (s.f.III), gen. sg. hebdomadis, abl. sg. 

   hebdomade, nom. & acc. pl. hebdomades, gen. pl. hebdomadum; dat. & abl. pl. hebdomadibus;

    - mycelia aetate duarum vel trium hebdomadum longitudinem 2-3 cm. attingentia, mycelia at the age of two or three weeks attaining a length of 2-3 cm.

    - colonia in PDA tarde crescens, aetate 4 hebdomadum in temperatura 25C culta diametrum 9-12 mm attingens, colony in PDA slowly growing, with the time of 4 weeks cultured in temperature 25C attaining a diameter of 9-12 mm.


weekly: hebdomadalis,-e (adj.B).


weeping: see exsudans,-antis (part.B).

weeping habit, as of a tree, such as a willow: habitus (s.m.IV) pendulus (adj.A), abl. sg. habitu pendulo.


Weft: a loosely interwoven, often ascending growth form; also web, fabric, an article of woven fabric; a thin layer, esp. of cloud, mist or smoke; a thin feltlike layer of interlacing hyphae; see caespes,-itis (s.f.III),

  trama, tuft;

    - caespes laxe intricatus, a loosely interwoven tuft (turf), 'loosely interwoven sods.'

    - caespes tenuiter implicitus (part.A) 'matted', a sod thinly matted.

    - caespes laxe implexus (part.A) 'matted', a sod thinly matted.

    - plantae caespites tenuiter textiles formantes, plants forming thinly woven sods (i.e. wefts).

  NOTE: caespes,-itis (s.m.III), q.v., abl. sg. caespite, 'tuft, sod, tuft.'


Weight, heaviness: gravitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. gravitate,

  pondus,-eris (s.n.III), pondere 'a weight; a weight, mass, load, burden.'

Lightness in weight: levitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. levitate.

weightily, heavily, ponderously: graviter (adv.).

weighty, heavy: ponderosus,-a,-um (adj.A); see heavy.


Weld: Reseda luteola L. (Resedaceae), dyer's-weed, the source of "an excellent deep yellow dye; used for coloring silk. Employed since neolithic times." (Uphof 1968).


Well: puteus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. puteo, 'a well; a pit.'

of or belonging to a well: putealis,-e (adj.B), puteanus,a,-um (adj. A).

  Coniophora puteana, one of two fungus species  generating 'cellar fungus.'

Well-water: aqua (s.f.I) putealis, aqua puteana.


well, not sick, healthy: saluber,-bra,-brum (adj.A), salutaris,-e (adj.B)

  'of or belonging to well-being, healthful, wholesome,' salvus,-a,-um (adj.A),

  'saved, preserved, unhurt, uninjured, well, sound;' sanus,-a,-um (adj.A):

  sound, whole, healthy, physically or mentally.

well (adv.), healthily: sane (adv.).

Wellness, health, well-being: sanitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. sanitate;

  sanatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. sanatione 'healing;' salus, gen. sg.

  salutis (s.f.III), abl. sg salute. 


well, quite: bene (adv.), q.v.; recte (adv.) 'rightly, correctly, suitably,'

  rite (adv.)'well, properly, correctly;' opp. male (adv.) 'badly;

  scarcely, barely, hardly,' q.v.; see completely.


well-: in Gk. comp. eu-, q.v., well, good, thoroughly, completely, truly;

    - euhydrus, well-watered; eumorphus, well-formed


well-developed (adj.): effectus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v. + bene (adv.),

  valde (adv.) 'strongly;' see -osus,-a,-um (adj.A); the superlative of the adjective or adverb may be used: see -issimus,-a,-um (adj.A),

  -issime (adv.);

    - stratum stereidarum bene effectum, band of stereids well developed.

    - species notis bene distincta, the species by the characters

      quite distinct.


Well: see fons, gen. sg. fontis (s.m.III); see bath.


West: occidens (s.m.III), gen. sg. occidentis; see occidens;

   - ad occidentem, to the west.

   - occidens sol, the setting sun (sol, gen. sg. solis, s.m.III), the west.


west, western: occidentalis,-e (adj.B), hesperius,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - aspectu orientali, with an eastern aspect; aspectu occidentali, with a western aspect.

north-western: boreali-occidentalis,-e (adj.B):

    - species 1, Americae boreali-occidentalis incola, species 1, native of  north-western America.

south-western: austro-occidentalis,-e (adj.B).

West Indian (adj.): antillanus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - inter species antillanas valde peculiaris, among West Indian species very extraordinary.


wet, damp, moist: humectatus,-a,-um (part.A) moistened,

  wetted, irrigated; humectus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'of a moist nature, moist,

  damp, wet; humidus,-a,-um (adj.A), madidus,-a,-um (adj.A),

  udus,-a,-um (adj.A), uvidus,-a,-um (adj.A), irriguus,-a,-um (adj. A);

  roridus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'dew-like, dewy;' riguus,-a,,-um (adj.A) 'watered, wet;' cf. moist; see water-, liquid; hygros,-a,-on (hyO, hydOr), hygricus,-a,

  -um (adj.A): hygrous, hygricous, 'wet, moist, liquid;' Lat. liquidus; opp. to xEros, Lat. siccus, 'dry.'

    - locus (s.m.II) humectatus, a damp place.  

wet or moisture absorbing: hygrometricus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Wet, wetness, dew, any dripping moisture: mador,-oris (s.m.III),

  madore: moisture, wetness; ros, roris (s.m.III), rore

  'wetness, dew, any dripping moisture;' umor,-oris (not hu-), abl. sg. umore: (s.m.III): a liquid, fluid of any kind, moisture; uviditas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. uviditateuvor,-oris (s.m.III), abl. sg. uvore, moistness, moisture,

  humidity;' see liquid, vapor.

  Rubus roribaccus, the dewberry.


somewhat wet, rather damp: humidulus,-a,-um (adj.A), uvens,-entis (part.B),

  uvidulus,-a,-um (adj.A).

being wet, dripping with moisture, moist, wet: madens,-entis (part.B).

wet, becoming, growing moist or wet: humescens,-entis (part.B), madescens,

  -entis (part.B), umescens,-entis (part. B) [> L. umesco (hu-),-ere, 3.:  to grow moist or wet]; uvescens,-entis (part.B).

    - solum humescens, the soil growing moist. 


made wet, soaked, moistened: madefactus,-a,-um (part.A): made wet, moistened, soaked.

wetted, moistened: humectatus,-a,-um (part.A) 'moistened, wetted,

  irrigated;' madefactus (part.A), madidus,-a,-um (adj.A); irriguus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'watered, irrigated, well-watered, wet, soaked;'

  riguus,-a,,-um (adj.A) 'wet, moistened, bedewed;' uvidus,-a,-um (adj.A).

Wetness: see moisture.

Wetting, watering, moistening: humectatio (umec-),-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. humectatione (umec-).


what: see who.


Wheat: triticum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. tritico: wheat as a plant or crop, esp. a wheat of the emmer group, as Triticum durum[, T. aestivum L.]; the threshed grain of wheat, wheat as a comodity' Lewis & Short; siligo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. siligine, 'a soft variety of wheat: Triticum vulgare;' 'a kind of very white wheat, winter-wheat: Triticum hibernum L.,' Lewis & Short; frumentum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. frumento: corn (i.e. wheat), grain; see barley; see spelta,-ae (s.f.I), Elymus, Secale, see Zea mays L.; see fruit;

   Various wheat species by common name: Club Wheat: Triticum compactum Hort.; Common W.: T. aestivum L.; Duram Wh.: T. durum Desf.; Inca Wh.: Amaranthus caudatus L.; Indian Dwarf Wheat: T. sphaerococcus Percival; Macaroni Wh.: T. durum Desf.; Polish Wh.: Triticum polonicum L.; Wild Wh.: Elymus triticoides Buckl. (Uphof 1968).


wheaten, of, belonging to or consisting of wheat, wheaten: triticeus,-a,-um (adj.A), triticius,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. frumentaceus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'pertaining to wheat, grain.'

wheat, of or concerning, as a crop: triticarius,-a,-um (adj.A).


Wheel: rota,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. rota.

little wheel rotula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. rotula.

wheeled, having wheels: rotalis,-e (adj.B);

    - machina rotalis, a wheeled device. 

wheel-like, revolving: rotatilis,-e (adj.B);

    - gyri rotatiles, wheel-like or rotating rings.

wheel shaped i.e. round, circular: rotundus,-a,-um (adj.A).

like a wheel, in a circle: rotatim (adv.), q.v.

a wheeling or turning about in a circle, rotation: rotatio,-onis (s.f.III),

  abl. sg. rotatione


when, at a time when: quum (conj.), cum (conj.), ubi (adv.);

    - ramus cum (=quum) evolutus virescens, a branch when it has been developed becomes green.

    - petala longitudine varia, erecta ubi brevia, patentissima ubi elongata, petals in length varying, erect when short, most outspread when elongated (Stearn). 

    - stipes quum contusus brunnescens, stipe when bruised becoming brown?

    - calyx ubi patens papillis dense tectus, calyx when spreading densely covered with papillae.

    - fructus nondum evoluta cum folia expansa, the fruit not yet developed when the leaves expanded.

    - fructificatio quum perfecte aperta usque ad 10 cm lata, fruiting body when fully open to 10 cm wide.

    - seminibus multis evolutis cum fructus expandens, with many seeds developed

      when fruit expanding.

    - cum atro-brunneus, pileus non expansus, when black-brown, the pileus  not expanded.

    - planta ubi madida tum patens, plant when moist then spreading.

    - foliis ubi veteribus involutis, with leaves, when old, involute.

  NOTE: 'cum' here is not the prep., cum + abl. - 'together with,' but a  conj., hence governs no case. In classical Latin, when describing the circumstances of a past action the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive are common but apparently not necessary (Simpson 1968).

  NOTE: the conj. dum, 'while, whilst, as long as, see 'dum';

    - folia dum in gemmis pubescentia sed quum patentia glabra, leaves while in buds pubescent, but when spreading glabrous.

  NOTE: time [during or within which] with ablative, expressing a state: aetate 'when old, in age', siccitate 'when dry, in dryness'.

    With prepositions: in (+ abl.) statu madido, 'in a wet state', in statu sicco, 'in a dry state'; per (+ acc.) anthesin 'during anthesis.'

  NOTE: the ablative absolute (the ablative of attendant circumstance), using the passive past participle:

    - flore praenanti, sepala caduca, (when) the flower is fertilized, the sepals caducous.

    - folio filamentis circumvoluto, planta lente moriens, (when) the leaf has been wrapped by filaments, the plant slowly dying.


when, at the time when: sub (prep. + abl.): see while.


when(ever) ... then:  cum (quum, ubi) ... tum or tunc (then, thereupon);

    - quum pileus expansus tum color rubrescens, whenever the pileus has expanded then the color becomes red.

    - cum papillae absentes tunc cellulae in aspectu late mamillosae, when the papillae are absent then the cells appear broadly mamillose. 

    - planta ubi madida illo tempore patens, plant when moist at that time spreading.


when, after, as soon as, after that: postquam (conj.) ... tum or tunc (then, thereupon), or illo tempore 'at that time;'

   - calyx postquam patens tum cito marchescens, calyx after spreading then quickly withering.


whence, place from which: unde (adv.).


whenever: quandoque (adv. and conj.), q.v.; quandocumque (adv. and conj.);

    - capsula effracta quandoque attacta, the capsule broken whenever touched.

    - quandoque fructus non evoluti tum sporae eorum abortivae, whenever fruits not developed then its spores abortive.


where, in which place; when: ubi (adv.), q.v.


wherever, where, wheresoever, anywhere: ubicumque (adv.), ubicunque (adv.);

    - stipes brunnescens vel atrobrunnescens ubicumque contusus, stipe becoming brown or dark brown wherever bruised.

    - ubicumque folia papillis carentia, superficies nitida, wherever the leaves lack papillae, the surface is glossy.


wherever, wheresoever: quacumque (adv.), quaqua (adv.), ubicumque (adv.), ubivis (adv.);

    - quacumque mador exstitus tum etiam germinatio, wherever moisture occured, then also germination.

    - stipes brunnescens vel atrobrunnescens ubicumque contusus, stipe becoming brown or dark brown wherever bruised.


wherefore: quamobrem (prep.).


whether ... or ...;

    whether (conj.): in disjunctive conditional sentences, when a thing is true, in either of two conditions:

    - sive ... sive ...:

        - folia, sive statu madida sive sicca, non crispa, the leaves, whether in a moist or dry state, not crisped.

    - seu ... seu ...:

        - sporae dimorphae, seu magnae seu parvae, fertiles, spores dimorphous, whether large or small, fertile.

        - rami, seu gemmae evolutae seu perichaetia, intercalares, the branches, whether gemmae produced or perichaetia, intercalary.

  NOTE: the above conditions are simple predicative statements with the verb 'to be' implied: the leaves ARE not crisped whether wet or dry.

  NOTE: the Latin formulation an ... an ..., and utrum ... an ..., both employ the subjunctive verb form and are not treated here.


which, English pronoun, of what kind, what one or ones out of a group: see who.


while, at the time when, during: sub (prep. + abl.); see sub;

    - sub maturitate, when (in the time of) maturity; sub maturitate conidiorum, at the maturity of the conidia.

    - sub germinatione, while germinating, at or during germination.

    - sub anthesi, while flowering, at or during anthesis.

    - sub fructificatione, while fruiting, at the time of fruiting.


while, whilst, as long as: dum (conj.), q.v.; see 'when.'


for a while, for a moderate period of time, neither too long nor too short; : aliquantisper (adv.);

    - post anthesin sepala aliquantisper persistens, after flowering the sepals for a little while persisting.

while, for a little, for a short time: paulisper (adv.of time); parumper (adv. of time), q.v.;

    - post anthesin sepala paulisper persistentia, after flowering the sepals for a little while persisting.

    - petalis post anthesin parumper persistentibus, sed mox cadentibus, petals after anthesis persisting a short time, but soon falling.

for a long while, of long duration: longe (adv.);

  in longum: for a long time (longum as substantive [s.n.II]);

    - calyce in longum persistenti, with the calyx persisting for a long time.

    - calyce longe persistenti, with the calyx persisting for a long time.


Whip, lash: mastix,-igis (s.f.III Greek), abl. sg. mastige, flagellum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. flagello. whip-like: flagelliformis,-e (adj. B); furnished with whips: flagellatus,-a,-um (adj.A).

whirled or turned around: rotatus,-a,-um (part.A) [> L. roto,-avi,-atum, 1, to turn a thing round like a wheel; to whirl about, swing round].


Whirlpool, also agitated waters, stream, sea: gurges,-itis (s.m.III), abl. sg. gurgite; see vertex,-icis (s.m.III), abl. sg. vertice; vortex,

  -icis (s.m.III), abl. sg. vortice; vorago,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. voragine 'an abyss, gulf, whirlpool, depth, chasm.


Whiskey: spiritus (s.m.IV) frumenti (, abl. sg. spiritu frumenti; see frumentum,-i (s.n.II).


White Color:


1. Album,-i (s.n.II), albo, albedo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. albedine,

   albor,-oris (s.m.III) abl. sg. albore,

   whiteness; the color 'white;' albumen,-inis (s.n.III), albumene,

   albumentum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. albumento: the white of an egg, albumen.

   albus,-a,-um (adj.A): white, particularly a dull rather than a glossy white; opp. ater,-tra,-trum (adj.A) (black lacking luster); candidus,

   a pure, glossy white, the opposite of which is niger,-ra,-rum (adj.A) (lustrous black).

   albidus,-a,-um (adj.A), albulus,-a,-um (adj.A): whitish, somewhat white.

    Albidella Pichon; Albophoma, a fungus; Albomyces,-etis; Albosynnema Morris, a fugus genus; Albotricha Raitviir

 albicantius (adv., comparative degree): 'somewhat in the way of white' (Lewis & Short).

 white, being: albens,-entis (part.B).

 white, becoming: albicans,-antis (part.B), albescens,-entis (part.B).

  - juventute (young state), aetate (in time), maturitate (at maturity): (abl. of time within which): pileus juventute albus, pileus in youth white.

  - bruised: contusus,-a,-um (part.A): pileus ubi contusus albescens, pileus when bruised becoming white.

  - cut: scissus,-a,-um (part.A), sectus,-a,-um (part.A): pileus postquam sectus albescens, pileus after having been cut turning white.

  - exudatum colore albo, exudate with the color white


 white-: in L. comp., albi-, albo-, [lact-, lacti-, lacto-]

    - albicomus, white-haired; albilepis,-e (adj.B), with white scales;  albinervis,-e (adj.B), with white nerves, with a  white nerve


    - albocostatus, with a white costa or rib; albolanosus, white-wooly; albomarginatus, white-margined; albonervius, white-nerved; albonitens,

      -entis (part.B), white-shining; albovillosus, white-villous.


2. candidus,-a,-um (adj.A): of a shining, dazzling white, white, clear, bright; pure, clean, clean spotless;  candidus, a pure, glossy white, the opposite of which is niger,-ra,-rum (adj.A)(lustrous black). 

  candens,-entis (part.B): shining, dazzlig, white, bright.

  Candidentia,-ae (s.f.I): a white clear lustre, whiteness

    - canadidantia lunae, the clear white of the moon.

  candifactus,-a,-um (part.A): made dazzling white; candificans,-antis (part.B):

   making dazzling white; candificus,-a,-um (adj.A): that makes dazzlingly white.

  candicans,-antis (part.B): to be whitish or white; being brilliantly white.

  candidatus,-a,-um (adj.A): clothed in white.

3. lacti-: in L. comp., milk, milking, referring either to milky color or production of latex;

    - lacticolor, milk-colored; lactiflorus, with milk-white flowers.

4. in Gk. leuc-, leuco-, -leucus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.;

   - leucosporus, chionosporus, white-spored;

   - ochroleucus, ochre-white (white mixed with yellowish brown).

   - xantholeucus, yellowish-white

5. in Gk. chion-, chiono-, q.v., 'snowy';

   - chionanthus, with snowy-white flowers, chionopappus, with snowy pappus, chionosphaerus, with white capitula.

6. in Gk.  gal-, gala-, galact-, galacto-, q.v., 'milky';

    - galactanthus, galanthus, with milk-white flowers; galachrous, galactochrous, milk-colored; galactites, 'white as milk' Jackson.

    - galactinus, milky, milk-white   


bone-white: osseoalbus,-a,-um (adj.A)

  Hypotrachyna osseoalba

brown-white: albobrunneus,-a,-um (adj.A).

chalky white: calceus,-a,-um (adj.A), cretaceus,-a,-um (adj.A),

  gypseus,-a,-um (adj.A)

clothed in white: albatus,-a,-um (adj.A opp. atratus,-a,-um, clothed in black); dealbatus,-a,-um (part.A): whitened, covered with a white powder, lit. 'whitewashed.'

cream white: cremeus,-a,-um (adj.A), cremicolor,-oris (adj.C?)

dull white (no gloss): albus,-a,-um; candicans, canescens,

  cerussatus,-a,-um (adj.A), ermineus,-a,-um (adj.A), virgineus,-a,-um (adj.A).

glossy, shining white: candidus,-a,-um (adj.A), candens,-entis (part.B) 'becoming glossy white.'

greenish white: chloroleucus, greenish-white; viridialbus,-a,-um (adj.A),

  alboviridis,-e (adj.B).

  Haplopappus viridialbus

ivory white (i.e. with yellow tinge): eburneus,-a,-um (adj.A); see cream-colored.

lead white, colored with or as white lead: cerussatus,-a,-um (adj.A).

milk-white: gal-, gala-, galact-, galacto-: in Gk. comp. 'milky' (referring either to milky color or production of latex, white; see lacti-, milk-; galactanthus, galanthus, with milk-white flowers;

  galachrous, milk-colored.

milk white (i.e. with bluish tinge): lactaneus,-a,-um (adj.A), lacteus,-a,-um (adj.A), lactineus,-a,-um (adj.A), lacticolor,-oris (adj.B); see milk. somewhat milk-white: lacteolus,-a,-um (adj.A)

nearly white: see whitish. 

off-white: not quite white, resembling white but tinged with a gray or other pale hue (as cream, oyster, beige); yellowish or grayish white:

  exalbidus,-a,-um (adj.A).

orange-white: aurantiablus, crocinalbus.

pale, pallid, q.v.

pure white: virgineus,-a,-um (adj.A); vivide (adv.)

  albus,-a,-um; immaculate (adv.) albus,-a,-um.

purple-white: albopurpureus,-a,-um (adj.A).

silver-: in Gk. comp., argyr-, argyro-;

    - argyranthus, with silvery flowers.

snow white: niveus,-a,-um (adj.A); becoming snow-white: nivalis,-e (adj.B),

  nivescens,-entis (part.B), niveus,-a,-um (adj.A), nivosus,-a,-um (adj.A);

snow-white: in Gk. comp. chion-, chiono-, 'snowy', snow-, white-.

    Chionanthus L. Fringe-tree [> Gk. chion, snow, and anthos, flower;

    "alluding to the light and snow-white clusters of flowers" p. 1150.

violet-white: alboviolaceus,-a,-um (adj.A).

yellow-white: alboluteus,-a,-um (adj.A).

white-stuffed, stuffed with a (whiteness): albofarctus,-a,-um (adj.A).

white, being, to be white: albens,-entis (part.B); albicans,-antis (part.B) 'making white, becoming white, being white;'  being dazzling or bright white: canens,-entis (part.B).

white, becoming: (ex)albescens,-entis (part.B); albicans,-antis (part.B); (in)canescens,-entis (part.B); note the prefices ex- and in- denote 'becoming whitened' in the sense of 'gray.'

whitened: dealbatus,-a,-um (part.A): whitened, covered with a white powder, lit. 'whitewashed.'

whitened: such colors may be said to be 'grayed;' see 'gray;' also some colors may be 'whitened' by means of a dust or powder; see powdered, powdery.

whitish: albescens,-entis (part.B), albidus,-a,-um (adj.A), albidulus,-a,-um (adj.A),  albulus,-a,-um (adj.A); candidulus,-a,-um (adj.A), exalbidus,-a,-um (adj.A), subalbus,-a,-um (adj.A), subalbidus,-a,-um (adj.A).

whitish-gray, white with age, gray with age, hoary, q.v., whitish-haired as in the indumentum of leaves: incanus,-a,-um (adj.B), canescens,-entis (part.B), exalbescens,-entis (part.B), incanescens,-entis (part.B).

whitish-yellow: albogilvus,,-a,-um (adj.A) (gilvus,-a,-um (adj.A): dull yellow, yellowish tan, but also applied to reddish or grayish colors found on horses (Stearn).

    - albogilvus, whitish-yellow; gilvocanescens, yellowish-gray.

whitish-yellow: albogilvus,-a,-um; albiceratus,-a,-um (adj.A), albiceris,-e (adj. B), albicerus,-a,-um (adj.A) all 'wax-white;'

   xantholeucus,-a,-um (adj.A)

wholly white, all-white: hololeucus,-a,-um (adj.A)


White Blister, white rust: a disease of plants by species of the fungus genus Albugo, especially A. candida (Hook.) O. Kuntze on crucifers; Albugo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. albugine, classically 'a white spot, a disease of the eye,' albugines oculorum (Lewis & Short).

    - brassicis per tabem Albuginis canadidae (Hook.) O. Kuntze consumptis, with mustards wasted by a pestilence of Albugo candida.

Whiteheads, a cereal disease caused by Ophiobolus graminis (Sacc.) Sacc., (graminis = of gramen,-inis (s.n.III), grass);

    - plantae per tabem Ophioboli graminis (Sacc.) Sacc. consumptae, plants by the disease of Ophiobolus graminis wasted.


White of an egg: album (s.n.II) ovi (gen. sg.), abl. sg. albo ovi.

White of the eye: album oculi ( of oculus). 


who: an English relative pronoun exclusively referring to a person, either masculine or feminine. In English, the relative pronoun 'which' or the interrogative 'what?' is similarly used to refer to a neuter, that is, a non person. In Latin all relative pronouns (qui, quae, quod, etc.) refer to masculine, feminine or neuter nouns irrespective of whether or not they refer to a human being; cf. demonstrative pronoun;


    m.f.          n.

1.  who?         what?    interrogative pronoun  (quis (m.& f.), quid (n.)


  As this pronoun, associated with questions, is of slight use in Botanical Latin as used in taxonomic descriptions and diagnoses, the reader is referred to a standard Classical Latin primer.


    m.f.          n.

2.  who          which    relative pronoun       (qui, quae, quod, q.v.).


                singular                       plural

       m.     f.          n.               m.     f.    n.

Nom.  qui   quae (who)   quod (which)      qui  quae   quae

Gen.        cuius (whose, of which)      quorum quarum quorum

Dat.         cui  (to, for whom)               quibus

Acc.  quem  quam (who)   quod (which)     quos  quas   quae

Abl.   quo  qua (by,with,from whom) quo        quibus

                (by,with,from which)


  The following notes apply to use of the Latin relative pronoun:


    a. the antecedent is a substantive noun or pronoun or other word, phrase or clause referred to by a pronoun.

    b. word order: the relative pronoun immediately follows its antecedent (except when preceded by a preposition when the relative pronoun is the object of the preposition). Note how word order is used here, when inflection [?] alone is usually sufficient;


         - [folio quod] quum laeve nitens plerumque valde papillato, with [the leaf, which] when smooth is shining, usually strongly papillate.

         - [folio in quo] sporae dispositae valde papillato, with [the leaf, on which] the spores are arranged strongly papillate.


    c. the relative pronoun, exclusive of its syntax, is declined according to the gender (m.f.n.) and number (sing./plural) of the antecedent;


         nom. sg.  folium (n.) quod        nom. pl. folia quae        

                   the leaf, which ...     the leaves, which ...


    d. the relative pronouns Who and Which introduce a subordinate clause within an independent clause:

       - An independent clause has a subject, verb and object, that is, it is a complete sentence.

       - A dependent clause, which the relative pronoun introduces, although also having a subject, verb and object, is considered dependent solely because the meaning, gender and number of the relative pronoun depends on that of the antecendent.

       - Although the relative pronoun adheres to the gender and number (singular or plural) of the antecedent, its syntax (case endings) will rely on its use only in the subordinate clause which the relative pronoun introduces.

       - The grammatical form of the relative pronoun (its inflected spelling) is dependent on its use in the dependent clause (not the overriding independent clause).

       - Hence the case ending of the relative pronoun is completely independent of the case ending of its antecendent. The antecedent may, for example, be in the dative case, but the relative pronoun may be in the nominative, although both will be the same in number (sg./pl.) and gender (m.f.n.);

           - caulibus qui sporas continentes brunneis papillatis, with the stems which contain the spores brown, papillate.

           Caulis (s.m.III) is in the ablative (in the independent clause), while its relative pronoun, qui, is in the nominative (in the dependent clause).

           Both are masculine nouns, both are plural.


EXAMPLES (note that a comma after the antecedent is helpful, as it is in English):

        - antecendent nominative singular -- relative pronoun nom. sg.:

            pileus qui,   the pileus which. 

            capsula quae,  the capsule which  folium quod, the leaf which ..

        - antecedent genitive singular -- relative pronoun nom. sg.: superficie pilei (m.), qui ex stipite evolutus, rubra, laevi. with the surface of the pileus, which developed from the stipe, red, smooth.

        - antecedent dative singular -- relative pronoun gen. sg.:

            petiolum cauli (m.), cuius superficies spinis praedita, simile petiole similar to the stem, the surface of which is provided with spines.

        - antecedent accusative singular -- relative pronoun abl. sg.:

           foliolis ad radicem (f.), ex qua caulis principalis ortus, sitis, with leaflets on the root, out of which the principle stem has arisen, seated.

        - antecedent ablative singular -- relative pronoun dat. sg.:

            foliolis ex caule (m.), cui petiolum similis, ortis,

            with the leaflets from the stem, to which the petiole is similar, arisen.

   NOTE: the interested student may wish to practice by writing out these sentences with the antecedent and associated relative pronoun in the plural


whole, the whole, entire, the entire: totum,-i (s.n.II); totus,-a,-um (irregular adj.A) q.v. 'all'; integer, integra, integrum (adj.A), 'undivided';

  omnis,-e (adj.B), 'each and every'; see en masse; cf. omnis,-e; in Gk. comp.

  pant-, panto-;

    - planta omnis scaberula, the whole plant lightly scabrous.

    - plerumque omnibus seminibus abortivis, usually with all of the seeds abortive; see totus,-a,-um (= a special adj.);

    - vacuolis contractilibus numerosis per totam cellulae peripheriam

      sparsis, with contractile vacuoles numerous over the whole circumference of the cell dispersed (Stearn 1983). 

    - per totum orbis veteris hemisphaerium boreale, through the whole northern hemisphere of the Old World. 

    - sori totam laminam occupantes, sori occupying the whole blade.


as a whole: in universum (adv. phrase).


whole-, all-:

      1. in L. comp. omni- [> omnis,-e (adj.B): each, every]; see omnis,-e.

      2. in Gk. comp. pant-, panto-, pan-: in Gk. comp. q.v. [> Gk. pas, pasa,

         pan, gen. sg. pantos, pasEs, pantos, all, the whole, entire, of each of a number 'every']; see pant-.

      3. in L. and Gk. comp. hol-, holo-, q.v. complete, entire, total, whole;

         completely, totally, throughout, wholly.


on the whole: ad summum, fere (adv.) 'for the most part, nearly;'

  in totum: 'on the whole, in general; wholly, entirely, altogether, totally;'

  in toto (adverbial phrase): 'on the whole, in general, generally.


Whole quantity, amount, sum: summa,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. summa;

  totum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. toto, q.v.


wholly, entirely (q.v.), completely: omnino (adv.), foliis omnino

  integris with leaves completely entire; sometimes expressed by the use of the adjective in the superlative; foliis integerrimis, with leaves completely entire (integer, integra, integrum); cf. prefixes under 'whole-, all-.'


Whorl, verticil, a whorl or circular arrangement of similar parts around

  an axis; three or more leaves or flowers at one node, in a circle:

  verticillus,-i (s.m.II), acc. sg. verticillum, abl. sg.

  verticillo, nom. & acc. pl. verticilli, dat. & abl. pl.

  verticillis; the 'cycle', q.v.; cf. candelabriformis,-e (adj.B);

    - folia in verticillum disposita, leaves in a whorl arranged (note whorl is in the accusative singular);

    - caulis verticillis usque 8-foliatis, stem with whorls up to 8-leaved;

    - ramuli verticillorum inter se dissimiles, primarii plerumque 8, secundarii minores circa 16, duobus ordinibus, branchlets of the whorls between themselves dissimilar, the primary ones commonly 8, the secondary ones smaller about 16, in two series (Stearn 1983).

verticilliflorus,-a,-um (adj.A): when whorls have a spicate arrangement (Jackson).

false or spurious whorl: verticillaster, gen. sg. verticillastri (s.m.II), abl. sg. verticillastro, nom. pl. verticillastri, dat. & abl. pl. verticillastris.


whorled: verticillatus,-a,-um (adj.A), verticillaris,-e (adj.B).

in whorls,in a whorled manner: verticillatim (adv.), verticillate (adv.); cf. candelabriformis,-e (adj.B).


why (interrogative adv.) cur, quare; 

    - duae sunt causae cur, there are two reasons why.

    - quare capsula rupta ignota est, why the capsule is ruptured is unknown.


wide, broad: latus,-a,-um (adj.A); comp. latior, latius, 'wider'; superl.

  latissimus,-a,-um 'widest;' laxus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v., 'with parts distinct and apart from one another or in an open or loose arrangement;' opp. of narrow, q.v.: angustus,-a,-um (adj.A);


           Comparative: latior,-ius

     singular                       plural

       m./f.       n.           m./f.     n.

Nom. latior    latius     latiores  latiora

Gen.     latioris              latiorum

Dat.     latiori               latioribus

Acc. latiorem  latius     latiores  latiora

Abl.     latiore               latioribus


    - folia caulina principalia 120–170 um et longa et lata, principal cauline leaves 120-170 um both long and wide.

    - valvae capsularum 7-9(10)-plo longiores quam latae, the valves of the capsules 7-9(10) times longer than wide.

    - amphigastria axium principalium remotissima, pro parte maxima latiora quam longiora, amphigastria of the main axes very remote, for the most part broader than long.

somewhat wide: latiusculus,-a,-um (adj.A).

very wide, very broad: perlatus,-a,-um (adj.A).

wide-, broad-: in L. comp. lati-; in Gk. comp. eury-, platy-: q.v.

wide, effuse, spread out (in reference to habit of growth):

  effusus,-a,-um (part.A).

widely, broadly: late (adv.), laxe (adv.) 'widely, spaciously, loosely,

  more freely.' very widely: perlate (adv.) (opposite of anguste (adv.), narrowly); distanter (adv.) distantly (opposite of arcte (adv.) closely, tightly; 

    - broadly ovate: late ovatus. narrowly ovate: anguste ovatus. very broadly ovate: perlate ovatus, latissime ovatus.

    - pedicellis late patentibus, with the pedicels broadly spreading.

    - laminis primo late deinde arcte dispositis, with blades at first widely finally closely spaced.

    - cheilocystidia distanter sparsa, cyeilocystidia widely scattered.

latius (adv.) more widely; latissime (adv.) most widely.


widely, extensively, far: porrecte (adv.), comp. porrectius, farther; see widespread.

widened, spread out, separated: laxatus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.

widened, made wide: dilatatus,-a,-um (part. A), latus factus; see distant;

    - planta et base et apice dilatata, plant both at the base and apex widened.

widening, spreading out: laxans,-antis (part.B), q.v.; see expanding.


widespread (in distribution), far and wide, widely: effuse (adv.).

widespread, stretched out, wide: prolixus,-a,-um  (part.A).

  divulgatus,-a,-um (part.A): widespread, made common, broadcast;

  porrectus,-a,-um (part.A) 'widespread, far-flung;' cf. prolixe (adv.),

  prolixus,-a,-um (adj.A).


wide-spreading, indicates an angle of nearly 90° (less than 90°):

  late (adv. 'widely') patens,-entis (part.B); spreading, spreading at an angle of around 45*: (erecto-)patens, -entis (part.B); squarrose,

  projecting outwards usually at about 90*: squarrosus,-a,-um (adj.A); see spreading.


Width: latitudo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. latitudine; crassitudo,-inis

  (s.f.III), abl. sg. crassitudine: 'thickness, density;' laxitas,-atis

  (s.f.III), abl. sg. laxitate: width, roominess, spaciousness, extent;

  laxatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. laxatione: a widening, wide space, width,


    - lobi ad basem latitudine e cellulis 17-24 cells composita, lobes at the base with a width composed of 17-24 cells (lobes 17-24 cells wide at the base).


wild: ferus,-a,-um (adj.A), sylvestris,-e (adj.B), incultus,-a,-um



Wilderness: locus (s.m.II) incultus, 'uncultivated place', abl. sg. loco  inculto.


Willow: salix,-icis (s.f.III), abl. sg. salice; an osier: vimen,-inis (s.n.III), vimine: a long flexible shoot, a withe or withy, q.v., an osier, that is, a willow with pliable twigs used in furniture and basketry.

willow-: in L. comp. salic-, salici-;

    - salicifolius, with willow-shaped leaves.

pertaining to willow: salicinus,-a,-um (adj.A); Valsa salicina (Salix),

  a fungus of willow trees; pertaining to an osier: viminalis,-e (adj.B),

  bearing shoots for plaiting and wicker-work; Salix viminalis.

willow- or osier-like: vimineus,-a,-um (adj.A): having long flexible shoots,

  used for wicker-work; Streptanthus vimineus (Greene) Al-Shehbaz & W. D. Taylor

willowy, like a willow: salignus,-a,-um (adj.A).


wilted, become flaccid, the opposite of turgid; wilted, drooping, having lost the quality of freshness; opp. turgidus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.

  Wilt-disease, associated with the fungus Fusarium vasinfectum or F. Lini,

  on different plants: languidus,-a,-um (adj.A); marcidus,-a,-um (adj.A)

  'lacking rigidity, drooping, withered;' see diseased;

    - in capsulis adhuc vivis vel languidis Bryi argentei, on the capsules still living or withered of Bryum argenteum.


wilting: arens,-entis (part.B): dry, parched, waterless, of plants, 'dried;' (ex)arescens,-entis (part.B): 'arescent, becoming dry; of plants, wilting;'

  flaccescens,-entis (part.B): esp. of vegetation, to languish, droop,

  flag; languens,-entis (part.B), languescens,-entis (part.B), q.v.; see drooping, flaccid, withering.


Wind: ventus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. vento.

wind-: in Gk. comp., anemo-, pertaining to the wind [> Gk. anemos, s.m.II, a wind; Lat. ventus].

Wind-flower: a common name attributed to species of the genus Anemone, falsely assumed to be cognate with the Greek word 'anemos', a wind; see Anemone.

wind-pollinated: anemophilus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.


Winding, a, coil: see spira,-ae (s.f.I).


winding (verb): circumvolvens,-entis (part.B) 'winding or twisting around;'

    torquens,-entis (part.B) 'winding, twisting, turning about;' sinuans,-antis (part.A) 'winding, curving;' volvens,-entis (part.B): rolling about, turning

    round, rolling up together; see wound (verb, past tense of the verb 'wind'); see twining.

    NOTE: dextrorsum (adv.): towards the right, twisted to the right as viewed from the side, dextrorse; cf. twining

    NOTE: sinistrorsum (adv): towards the left, sinistrorse; twisted to the left, as viewed from the side; cf. twining,


windingly, twistedly, crookedly: torte (adv.)


winding (adj.): flexuosus,-a,-um (adj.A), maeandriformis,-e (abj.B),

  sinuosus,-a,-um (adj.A), tortuosus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. twining.

windingly, twistedly, crookedly: torte (adv.)


Window: fenestra,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. fenestra, q.v.;

    - fenestra magna pellucida viridis, window large transparent green

    - fenestra apicalis, apical window;

    - fenestra basalis, basal window (Stearn 1983).

little opening or window: fenestrula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. fenestrula;

  fenestrella,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. fenestrella.

Windowpanes, a window: specularia,-arum (pl.n.II), abl. pl. speculariise.


windowed: fenestralis,-e (adj.B), fenestratus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.


Wine: vinum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. vino.

pertaining to wine: vinarius,-a,-um (adj.A), vineus,-a,-um (adj.A).


wine-colored, purplish-red: vinaceus,-a,-um (adj.A), vinicolor (adj.B), vinosus,-a,-um (adj.A).

Wineglass: poculum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. poculo.


Wing, a membranaceous expansion or flat extension or appendage of an organ;

  also the lateral petals of a papillionaceous flower (corolla): ala,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. ala, nom. pl. alae, acc. pl. alas, dat. & abl. pl. alis; pennae,-arum (pl.f.I), q.v., abl. pl. pennis; see standard petal, vexillum; cf. Gk. pteron (s.n.II), a feather,  mostly in the plural, feathers; wings; a winged creature; the leafage of trees, like coma; 

    - pteropous, -podos, wing-footed; pteropoikilos,-on: motley-feathered, of pied plumage.

    - seminum testa in alam expansa, the seed-coat of the seeds expanded into a wing.


pertaining to a wing: alaris,-e (adj.B).

wing-, winged: in L. comp.  alato-, -alatus,-a,-um (adj.A);

        - paucialatus, with few wings; multialatus, with many wings;

          quadrialatus, with four wings.

        - alatocaulis, pterocaulis, winged stem;

          alatocarpus, pterocarpus, with winged fruits. 

               in Gk. comp., ptero-; -ptericus,-a,-um (adj.A), -pterus,-a,-um  (adj.A)

        - epiptericus (adj.A), epipterus (adj.A):

          epipterous, alate with a single terminal wing;

          periptericus, peripterus, surrounded by a wing or border.

        - oligopterus, with few wings; tetrapterus, with four wings;

          polyopterus, with many wings.

        - pterocaulis, winged stem; pterocarpus, with winged fruits;

          pteropoikilos,-on: motley-feathered, of pied plumage;

          pterospermus, pterygospermus, with winged seeds  


winged: alatus,-a,-um, (adj.A), aliger,-era,-erum (adj.A), pennifer,-era,-erum (adj.A), penniger,-era,-erum (adj.A); pennatus,-a,-um (adj.A); pterophorus,-a,-um (adj.A).

winged: epiptericus,-a,-um (adj.A), epipterus,-a,-um (adj.A): epipterous, alate with a single terminal wing; periptericus,-a,-um (adj.A), peripterus,-a,-um (adj.A), surrounded by a wing or border. 

wingless: exalatus,-a,-um (adj.A).

wing-shaped: aliformis,-e (adj.B), pteromorphus,-a,-um (adj.A). 


Winter, rainy season: hiems, gen. sg. hiemis (s.f.III), abl. sg. hieme, q.v.;

  bruma,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. bruma, q.v.; opp. aestas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. aestate, q.v.; solstitium,-ii (s.n.II),  abl. sg. solstitio, the summer time,

      the heat of summer;  see hiemisilvae,-arum (pl.f.I);

    - ineunte hieme, primo (adv.) hieme (all abl. sg.), at the beginning of winter

    - adulta hieme, summa hieme, media hieme (all abl. sg.), midwinter.

    - exacta hieme (both abl. sg.), at the end or close of winter

    - ineunte hieme florens et fructificans, flowering and fruiting in the beginning of winter.  

    - perhiemans,-antis (part.B), persisting or remaining all winter.

    - hieme et aestate (both abl. sg.): in winter and summer, i.e. in all seasons. 

  Hiemisilvae,-arum (pl.f.I), abl. pl. hiemisilvis (silva,-ae (s.f.I), a wood):

  woods in which the trees shed their leaves in the dry summer season (Jackson), hence, with foliage in winter, opp. aestatisilvae,-arum (pl.f.I), abl. pl.

  aestatisilvis, deciduous forests, that is, that lose their foliage in winter and are leafed out in summer.   


Wintering, overwintering, a passing the winter: hiematio,-onis (s.f.III), hiematione;

    - planta hiematione subgaea, plant with a subterranean overwintering.

wintry, belonging to winter: hiemalis,-e (adj.B), hibernus,-a,-um (adj.A),

  brumalis,-e (adj.B); opp. aestivalis,-e (adj.B) and

  solsticialis,-e (adj.B), q.v.; cf. perhiemans,-antis (part.B): persisting all winter;

    - circulus (s.m.II) hiemalis, abl. sg. circulo hiemali, the tropic of Capricorn. 


winter annual (plant), autumn germinating, overwintering and dying the following autumn; planta,-ae (s.f.I) annua (adj.A) hiemalis (adj.B); see summer annual;

    - inter plantas annuas hiemales, among winter annual plants

    - planta hieme annua, plant in winter annual; overwintered

    - leaves: folia anni praeteriti, leaves of the year past;

    - rosettes: rosulae anni praeteriti, rosettes of the past year; see praeteritus,-a,-um (part.A); cf. annotinus, hornotinus.


Winter bud, shortened and crowded vegetative shoots found certain genera, such as Potamogeton: hibernaculum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. hibernaculo.


wiped clean: detersus,-a,-um (part.A).


wire-like: filo metallico similis (adj.B, in dat. sg. filum,-i (s.n.II), thread and metallicus (adj.A). filum ferreum, a wire (of iron)

  wiry, wirey; made of wire; resembling wire in flexibility; lean, supple physique, sinewy.


wise; in no wise, in no way: nullo modo (adverbial phrase);

    - statu sexuali autoico, nullo modo synoico, with the sexual state autoicous, in no wise synoicous.

    - margine folii integra, nullo modo denticulata vel serrulata, with the margin of the leaf entire, in no way denticulate or serrulate.


Witches' Brooms, massed outgrowths or proliferations of the branches of woody plants caused by fungi, esp. rusts;

    - fungus propagationes e ramis arborum accretas efficiens, fungus producing massed outgrowths from the branches of trees.


Witches' Butter: Tremella mesenterica (S. F. Gray) Pers., a tough, gelatinous lobed and brainlike fungus on hardwoods.


with: 1. in descriptions usually expressed by the ablative case alone without a preposition; see 'provided with;'

          i. the ablative of description, usually with nouns and attendant adjectives

            in the ablative, alluding to physical characteristics of a certain noun, as 'planta' below:

            - planta habitu suffrutescenti, ramis tenuibus, foliis viridibus, plant with suffructescent habit, with thin branches, with green leaves.

            NOTE: the habit, branches and leaves do not 'accompany' the plant, but serve to describe it - hence, no prep. 'cum.'

          ii. abl. of means (instrument) 'with what, by means of what, by what' without a preposition; note that the ablative of cause comes close to the same meaning - it also does not require a preposition;

                - aetate pileus decolorans, with age (because of age) the pileus losing color.

                - cellulis exilibus capsula friabilis, with weak cells (because of weak cells) is the capsule liable to break into pieces.

          iii. abl. of specification, being used to tell in what specific respect a verb or an adjective is true;

                - species floribus pulchris speciosa, a species splendid with beautiful flowers (in or by its beautiful flowers).

                - varietas statura magna insignis, a variety noted for its great size (a variety with its great size notable; statura magna = abl. case).

          iv. abl. of manner, when an adjective is used with a noun (see 2.ii below);

                - MAGNO vigore acervuli erumpentes, with great force the acervuli breaking forth.

                - petala MINORE celeritudine post anthesin marcescentia, with less speed after anthesis withering.


      2. cum (prep. with abl.) 'together with;' see cum;

          i. expressing accompaniment 'with whom or what'; note the accompanying nouns represent discrete persons or things which do not describe another noun, i.e. are not ablatives of description;

            - habitat in isdem locis cum No. 16, it grows in the same places with number 16.

            - frutex cum ramulis secondariis glabris, shrub with secondary branches glabrous.

            - theca aequalis, cum vel absque annulo, theca uniform, with or without an annulus.

            - stylus extra rostrum carinae incrassatus et cum eo tortus, stigmate obliquo, style beyond the beak of the keel thickened and together with this twisted, with the stigma oblique.

            - cum vel sine petallis, with or without petals.


          ii. expressing manner 'how' 'with what'(note the adverbial force here); note that when an adjective is used with the noun that expresses manner, the abl. without 'cum' is used (see 1.iv above);

            - cum vigore acervuli erumpentes, acervuli breaking forth with vigor (i.e. vigorously).

            - petala cum celeritudine post anthesin marcescentia, petals with speed after anthesis withering (i.e. swiftly).


 NOTE: avoidance of 'cum' and the ablative alone may be achieved with other prepositions (+ abl.) and verbs:

    - 'context with a weak center' might be rendered 'contextus in centro infirmus,' 'context in the center weak;'

    - leaf with a  blunt apex = 'folium in apice obtusus.' 'leaf at the apex obtuse.'

 NOTE: use of verbs governing an object in the acc. case might be substituted for cum and the ablative alone:

    - context with a weak center = 'contextus centrum infirmum praebens' context having a weak center (see praebens,-entis (part.B);

    - also habens,-entis (part.B), q.v. 'contextus centrum infirmum habens.'


with respect to: see concerning.


withdrawn: amotus,-a,-um (part.A) 'removed from, put or taken away, as with an effort;' dimotus,-a,-um (part A) 'parted, put asunder, separated;'

  remotus,-a,-um (part.A)'taken away, withdrawn, removed;' see removed.


Withe, a slender twig, flexible branch, an osier: see willow.


withered: aridus,-a,-um (adj.A), vietus,-a,-um (part.A); marcidus, -a,-um (part.A), emarcidus,-a,-um (adj.A); see wilted, wrinkled.


Withered but persistent parts: induviae (pl.f.I.), gen. pl. induviarum, dat. & abl. pl. induviis. 


withering: arescens,-entis (part.B) 'becoming dry, wilting;'

  marcescens,-entis (part.B): withering but not falling off, hence dry and persistent, as the mature petals in some Hypericum spp.;

  not quite withering, beginning to wither; viescens,-entis (part.B)

  'withering, shriveling;' see wilting, wrinkling;

    - fructus maturitate calyce marcescenti muniti, fruits when mature protected by the marchescent calyx.


within: intra (adv. and prep. with acc.), intus (adv.), interius (adv.); cf. innermost; see inside; 

    - trichomata intra vaginam plura, trichomes within the sheath several.

    - stylus supra ovarium abrupte inflexus, intra rostrum carinae incrassatus, style above the ovary abruptly bent inwards, within the beak of the keel thickened.

    - ascocarpi 1-13, intra stromata geniti, ascocarps 1-13, born within the stromata.


within (adv.): intus (adv.), intro (adv.), with verbs of motion = 'to the inside.'


within- (prefix):

    in L. comp. intra-;

            - intracellularis,-e (adj.B): within the cells; intramuralis,-e (adj.B): within the walls.

      Artemisia intramongolica H.C.Fu, within Mongolia; Elymus intramongolicus (S.Chen & Gaoqwua) S.L.Chen; Roegneria intramongolica S.Chen & W.Gao.


    in L. comp. intro-, mostly with verbs, 'into, within, inside' generally synonymous with the same verb using in- as a prefix;

            - introducens,-entis (part.B), leading or bringing into or within a place, to conduct into or within, introductus,-a,-um (part.A),

              brought within (syn. inducens, inductus).

            - intromittens,-entis (part.B), sending or letting within; intromissus,

              -a,-um (part.A), sent or let within (syn. immittens; immissus).

   NOTE: inter-, in L. comp. indicates 'between, among.'


    in Gk. comp. end-, endo-: within, inside; ento-: in Gk. comp. inside;

      opposite of ecto-, q.v. and exo-, q.v.;

            - endoxylus,-a,-um (adj.A), within wood.

            - endophyton,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. endophyto, an endophyte, a plant living inside another organism.

            - entoparasiticus, entoparasitic, parasitic inside the host;

    Aristida entomelas Mez, Panicum entolaseum; also Aristida endomelas Mez; Panicum endolasion Mez ex Peter; Stipa endotricha Martinovský; Echinops endotrichus Rech.f.


within (of time), in the course of, during, 'at' or 'by' (of time):

   inter (prep. + acc.), intra (prep. + acc.);

    - inter noctem, during the night, by night.

    - inter anthesin, during anthesis (period of flowering), at anthesis. 

    - inter horam tertiam et quartam, within or at the time between the third and fourth hour.

    - inter diem secundum et tertium, during or within the second and third day.

    - intra decem annos, during ten years.

    - intra decem horas, within ten hours.


without (lacking): absque (prep.+ abl.), sine (prep.+ abl.); carens,-entis (part.B), the thing lacking in the ablative); see lacking;

    - absque floribus, lacking flowers

    - sine numero, without a (collecting) number.

    - cum vel sine petallis, with or without petals;

    - capsula operculo carens, capsule lacking an operculum.

    - foliis costis carentibus, with the leaves lacking midribs.


without, outside, beyond: extra (adv. and prep. with acc.), compar. exterius 'on the outside, without, externally; syn. extrinsecus 'from without, from abroad; without, on the outside; outer, and forinsecus (adv.); ' opp. intra, intus, in)", extus (adv.) 'outside, on the outside,' exterius (adv.); cf. outermost; see outside;

    - urbem extra, outside of the city; extra capsulam;

      extra faucem, outside of the throat, extra tubum, outside of the tube.

    - stylus extra rostrum carinae incrassatus, style outside the beak of the keel thickened.

    - ascocarpi 1-13, extra stromata geniti, ascocarps 1-13, born outside the stromata.

    - calyx extus pilis glandularibus minutis, calyx on the outside with minute, glandular hairs. densely papillose.

    - trichomata forinsecus vagina effecta plura, trichomes produced outside the sheath many.


without, outside (adv.): extus (adv.), extra (adv.), with verbs of motion = 'to the outside.'


without-, outside- (spacial prefix):

    in L. comp. extra-;

      - extracellularis,-e (adj.B): without the cells, external to the cells; extramongolicus, outside of or beyond Mongolia;

        extramundanus,-a,-um (adj.A): beyond the world, extramundane;

        extramuralis,-e (adj.B): outside the walls; extranaturalis,-e (adj.B):  beyond nature, unnatural; extravaginalis,-e (adj.B): outside of the sheath. 

    in Gk. comp. exo-: outward, outside; opp. endo-;

      - exobasidialis,-e, having the basidia uncovered or separated by a wall from the basidium; exogenus, undergoing development outside;

        exostylis,-e, with projecting style.

      - exocarpium,-ii (s.n.II), the outermost tissue layer of a pericarp;

        exospora,-ae (s.f.I), the outer layer of a spore-wall.

    in Gk. comp. ecto-, ect-: in Gk. comp. without, outside, external [>Gk. ektos, outside]; opposite of end-, endo-, q.v.;

      - ectochroicus,-a,-um (adj.A): ectochroic, with pigment on the outside of the hypha; ectogenicus,-a,-um (adj.A): ectogenic, living on the outside of a body (of bacteria); ectoparasiticus,-a,-um (adj.A): a parasite living on the outside of its host;  


from without: extrinsecus (adv.), forinsecus (adv.); see without, outside.


Withy, withe: a willow twig, a pliable wand (Jackson); see willow.


Woad: isatinum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. isatino, the material of blue coloring derived from Isatis tinctoria L.


wonderful, astonishing, strange: admirabilis,-e (adj.B); admirandus,-a,-um (adj.A),

   'to be admired; admirable, wonderful;' mirabilis,-e (adj.B), mirus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    mirificus,-a,-um (adj.A).

very wonderful: permirus,-a,-um (adj.A).

wonderfully, admirably; paradoxically, strangely: admirabiliter (adv.);

  mire (adv.), mirifice (adv.), mirimodis (adv.) 'wonderfully.'

Wonderfulness, the quality that produces admiration: admirabilitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. admirabilitate.

Wonder, astonishment, suprise: admiratio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. admiratione

wondering at, admiring, being suprised at: admirans,-entis (part.B).


Wood, 'the lignified portion of plants, included within the cambium layer, but exclusive of the pith; the xylem elements of the united vascular bundles' (Jackson): lignum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. ligno, nom.& acc. pl. ligna;

    - ad ligna putrida terramque umbrosam, on rotten wood (pl.) and shady soil.

Burl, shaggy cloth, a knot or lump in thread or cloth; a hard woody growth occurring on the trunks or branches of trees: lignotuber,-eris (s.n.III): abl. sing. lignotubere, nom. & acc. pl. lignotubera, dat. & abl. pl. lignotuberibus: a burl of wood.

Cellulose: perhaps cellulosum,-i (s.n.II), on analogy with the sugars -ose > -osum,-i (s.n.II).

Grain (of wood), the appearance and texture of wood (aspectus (s.m.IV) lignosus or ligneosus) or textura (s.f.I) lignosa or ligneosa) especially due to the arrangement and direction of stratification of wood fibers: ordinatio,-onis (s.f.II) lignea, a woody pattern or arrangement;

    - conidiomata sporodochialia longitudinaliter secus texturam ligneosam extendentia atque coalescentia, conidiomata

      sporodochial, extending and coalescing along the grain.

Lignin, a brown product obtained from wood by separation from cellosic and other organic materials: ligninum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. lignino.

Log: lignum,-i (s.n.II) 'firewood'; stipes,-itis (s.m.III) 'trunk of a tree', caudex,-icis (s.m.III) 'stem or trunk of a tree', truncus,-i (s.m.II), 'stem or trunk of a tree'; cf. bed-log.

Pieces, fragments or bits of wood: ramenta,-orum (pl.n.II), abl. sg.

  ramentis; see ramentum,-i (s.n.II).

Wood-ball: sphaeroblastus,-i (s.m.II), q.v., abl. sg. sphaeroblasto.

Wood-cells, 'lengthened and thickened, combined into threads, fascicles or bundles, forming prosenchyma' (Jackson): prosenchyma,-atis (s.n.III), abl. sg. prosenchymate; see parenchyma,-atis (s.n.III).

Woodcut: xylographia,-ae (s.f.I), nom. pl. xylographiae; cf. illustration.

Wood cylinder of stems and branches of species of bryophytes: sclerodermis,-idis (s.f.III), q.v., abl. sg. sclerodermide

Wood rot, decay: see caries,-ei (s.f.V) 'decay, rot, 'a hard, dry decay;'

    - basidiocarpus carie brunnea consociatus; basidiocarp associated with a brown rot. 

becoming woody: lignescens,-entis (adj.B).

pertaining to wood, growing on wood: lignatilis,-e (adj.B).

growing on wood, lignicolous: lignicola,-ae (s.c.I), abl. sg.

  lignicola; xylogenus,-a,-um (adj.A), xylophilus,-a,-um (adj.A).

within wood, endoxylous: endoxylus,-a,-um (adj.A).

wood-destroying, wood-consuming: lignivorus,-a,-um (adj.A),

  xylophagus,-a,-um (adj.A), wood-devouring. 

wooden, woody, made of wood: ligneus,-a,-um (adj.A), lignosus,-a,-um (adj.A); made of pine-wood or deal: pineus,-a,-um (adj.A) cf. xyl-.

woody, becoming: lignescens,-entis (adj.B).

somewhat woody: sublignosus,-a,-um (adj.A).


wood-, wooden: in L. comp. lign-, ligni-, ligno-: in L. comp. [> L. lignum]

    - lignicola,-ae (s.f.I, noun in apposition), lignicole, lignicolous, dwelling on wood].

               in Gk. comp. hyl-, hyle-, hylo-, q.v.: in Gk. comp. wood, pertaining to the woods; pertaining to wood as a substance; see yl-.

    - hylophorus,-a,-um, wood-bearing.; hylophagus,-a,-um: feeding in or on the wood(s).

               in Gk. comp. xyl-, xylo-, -xylus (adj.A), -xylicus (adj.A);

     -xylum,-I (s.n.II),-xylon,-i (s.n.II): in Gk. comp., woody, relating to wood;


Woodland, when woody plants dominate the vegetation, woods, forest:

  silva,-ae (s.f.I) less used in botanical Latin than medieval sylva,-ae (s.f.I), gen. sg. sylvae, abl. sg. sylva, nom. pl. sylvae, accl. pl. sylvas, gen. pl. sylvarum, abl. pl. sylvis, an area dense with trees, a forest;

  nemus,-oris (s.n.III), nom.  pl. nemora, gen. pl. nemorum, abl. pl. nemoribus, an open woodland with glades;

  lucus,-i (s.m.II), gen.  pl. lucorum, a wood, a grove, apparently an area of limited extent;

  saltus,-us (s.m.IV), saltu: forest pasture,

  woodland, valley, ravine, dale, pass through a mountain; a forest or

  mountain pasture, cattle-run (Lewis & Short); see yl- (Gk. prefix); see hyl-, hyle-, hylo-: in Gk. comp. wood, pertaining to the woods; see tree; see hiemisilvae,-arum (pl.f.I); see aestatisilvae,-arum (pl.f.I).

   NOTE: -etum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. -eto, q.v.: in L. comp., place dominated by a given plant, a plant association; see -etum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. -eto: in L. comp., a plant association with one species dominant;    

    - castanetum, a wood of chestnut; ericetum, heath; filicetum, a ferny place; pinetum, a piney woods.  


Woodland official, forester, forest officer: saltuarius,-ii (s.m.II), saltuario; sylvarius,-ii (s.m.II), abl. sg. sylvario.

wooded, well wooded: saltuosus,-a,-um (adj.A); nemorosus,-a,-um (adj.A),

   sylvestris,-e (adj.B), silvestris,-e (adj.B), sylvosus,-a,-um (adj.A),

   silvosus,-a,-um (adj.A) .

Woods, an inhabitant of: silvicola,-ae (c.), (silva and colo).

  associated with open woodlands: nemorosus,-a,-um (adj.A).

   Equisetum arvense L. fo. nemorosum (A.Br.) Klinge.

of woods: alsodes, alsodis (adj.C), of woods [> GK. alsodys, es (alsos + eidos) like a grove, woodland < alsos,-eos, to, a place grown with trees and grass, a grove, sacred grove, a glade]: see -odes,-dis (adj.C)

    - Poa alsodes Gray, gen. sg. Poae alsodis, abl. sg. Poa alsode;

  saltuensis,-e (adj.B): of or belonging to a forest;

    - Rubus saltuensis Bailey 'of bushy pastures' (Fernald, p. 855). 

pertaining to woods, growing wild: sylvaticus,-a,-um (adj.A), silvaticus, -a,-um (adj.A), pertaining to woods, growing wild; sylvestris,-e (adj.B),

  silvestris,-e (adj.B) (opp. to cultus, sativus).

   Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.; Equisetum sylvaticum L., Woods-Horsetail.

Woods-nymph: (hama)dryas,-adis (s.f.III), abl. sg. (hama)dryade: a

  wood-nymph; see fairy.

woody: ligneus,-a,-um (adj.A).

woody tissue: xylem, the wood elements of a vascular bundle, possessing tracheal tissue (Jackson): xylema,-atis (s.n.III), xylemate; cf. phloem, phloema,-atis (s.n.III).

woody, becoming: lignescens,-entis (adj.B).

somewhat woody: sublignosus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Wool, long, dense, curled hairs: lana,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. lana; mallus,

  -i (s.n.II), abl. sg. mallo, 'a lock of wool,' from the Greek mallos;

  vellus,-eris (s.n.III) abl. sg. vellere;

    - herba vellere longorum pilorum obtecta, herb with a wool of long hairs covered (Stearn 1983).

  NOTE: see peronatus,-a,-um (adj.A): thickly overlaid with a woolly substance that becomes mealy.


wool-: in L. comp., lani-, lano-, lanos-;

        - lanosantherus, with woolly anthers [the 's' seems to be from 'lanosus', lanos-antherus, with the connecting vowel elided]

        - in Gk. & L. comp. mall-, mallo-.

        - in Gk.  comp., erio-, lasio-, lachn-, lachno-;

        -lasiantherus, with woolly anthers [note the elision of the 'o' before a vowel, 'a']; eriocarpus and lasiocarpus, with wooly fruits. 

        -lachnanthus, wooly-flowered;      lachnocarpus, wooly-fruited;

         lachnophyllus, with wooly leaves; lachnosepalus, with wooly-sepals;

         lachnospermus, with wooly seeds.

  Rubus phoenicolasius, phoenic -o- lasios, hairy, wooly, in reference to the long gland-tipped purple-red hairs characteristic of the shrub.


wool-bearing: laniger,-gera,-gerum (adj.A).


woolly, with long, soft rather matted hairs, like wool, lanate:

  lanatus,-a,-um (adj.A), laneus,-a,-um (adj.A), lanosus,-a,-um (adj.A), lanuginosus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'wooly, downy, fuzzy,'

  vellosus,-a,-um (adj.A); wooly = tomentosus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'clothed with long and tortuous or matted hairs' (Jackson); cf. felted.


Word: verbum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. verbo.

word for word: ad verbum.

wordy: verbosus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Work, job, task, labor; literary effort, book: opus,-eris (s.n.III), acc. sg. opus, abl. sg. opere, nom. & acc. pl. opera, gen. pl. operum, dat. & abl. pl. operibus.


World: orbis (s.m.III), gen. sg. orbis, orbe;

  also orbis terrae, orbis terrarum (gen. sg. and pl. respectively of terra,-ae s.f.I);

    - herbae in alpestribus totius orbis crescentes, herbs in high places of the whole world growing;

    - species inter tropicos in utroque orbe vigentes, species between the tropics on both sides of the world thriving;

    - in regionibus intertropicis utriusque hemisphaerii, in intertropical regions of both hemispheres. 

    Old World: orbis vetus, orbis antiquus;

    - per totum orbis antiqui hemisphaerium boreale, through the whole northern hemisphere of the Old World.

Old World (adj.): gerontogaeus,-a,-um (adj.A); species gerontogaeae, Old World species. 

New World: orbis novus, America. New World (adj.): neogaeus,-a,-um (adj.A), americanus,-a,-um (adj.A) (Stearn 1983);

    - herbae frutices vel arbores pro parte maxima ex orbe antiquo, herbs, shrubs or trees for the most part from the old world.


world-wide: cosmopolitanus,-a,-um (adj.A), per orbem terrarum late dispersus (part.A); plantae cosmopolitanae, inter tropicos rarae, plants world-wide, between the tropics rare.


Worm: vermis,-is (s.m.III), abl. sg. verme, nom. & acc. pl. vermes, dat. & abl. pl. vermibus; vermiculus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. vermiculo, a little worm, a grub; lumbricus,-i (s.m.II), q.v., abl. sg. lumbrico, 'earth-worm'; cf. anguis,-is (s.c.III), abl. sg. angue: a snake, anguilla,-ae (s.f.I) a little snake, eel, worm; see nematode;

    - vermes limnici (adj.A), pond-worms; abl. pl. vermibus limnicis.

    - vermiculus limneticus (adj.A), pond-worm.

    Hookworm: species of Ancylostoma, Necator; pinworm: Enterobius vermicularis; Roundworm: species of Ascaris; Threadworm: Enterobius vermicularis.

Silkworm: bombyx,-ycis (s.m./f. III), abl. sg. bombyce; silky:

  bombycinus,-a,-um (adj.A).


worm-, grub-: in L. comp. anguilli-: q.v. 'eel-, snake-, worm-';

   lumbrici-, vermi-.

       in Gk. comp. scolec-  scoleco-, q.v.


worm-eaten (of wood): cariosus,-a,-um (adj.A).


wormlike, grub-like: scolecoideus,-a,-um (adj.A).


worm-shaped, more or less cylindric and contorted: lumbricalis,-e (adj.B), lumbriciformis,-e (adj.B), vermicularis,-e (adj.B), vermiformis,-e (adj.B); cf.

  anguilliformis 'eel-like, worm-like,' i.e. long, slender, curved; see hieroglyphicus,-a,-um (adj.A), labyrinthine.


tapeworm, like a: taenianus,-a,-um (adj.A): long, somewhat flattened and contracted in various places, like a tapeworm (Taenia) (note: not taeniatus, which is 'ribbon-shaped').


Worms, that which expels (medicine): see vermifugus,-i (s.m.II); see anthelmintic.


wormy, full of worms: lumbricosus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'earth-worms;'

  vermiculatus,-a,-um (part.A): 'wormy, to be worm-eaten, as of trees; in the form of worms;' vermiculosus,-a,-um (adj.A),

  verminosus,-a,-um (adj.A); vermifluus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'swarming with worms.' 


wormy manner, in a: vermiculate (adv.): in a vermiculated manner, resembling worms or their tracks.


worn-out, exhausted, tired: effetus,-a,-um (adj..A) 'worn out by bearing young.'


Woronin hypha: in mycology, a type of coiled hypha in the Ascomycetes 'a loosely coiled hypha at the centre of a young perithecium which later gives ascogenous hyphae' (Ainsworth & Bisby); the Woronin hypha is synonymous with scolecite, q.v.


worse (adj.): deterior,-ius (adj. comparative), worse, poorer, meaner; comparative of malus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'bad:' pejor, pejus (adj.B) 'worse;' see bad.


worse (adv. comparative): deterius (adv.) worse, less; pejus (adv.)


worst: deterrimus,-a,-um (adj.A), pessimus,-a,-um (adj.A, superl. of malus,-a,-um (adj.A)).

worst (adv.): deterrime (adv.), pessime (adv.).


Wort: a plant, especially a cabbage plant.


Wort,  the sweet infusion of malt, or unfermented beer; brewer's wort: an infusion of malt made up of a dilute solution of sugars which, when fermented, forms beer;

  Must, the juice of grapes or other fruit before and during fermentation:

  mustum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. musto 'new or unfermented wine, must;'

   - in musto ex hordeo cum agaro, on wort agar. 


Wort agar: mustum ex hordeo cum agaro, a wort from barley with agar;

  agarum (s.n.II) maltosum (adj.A), abl. sg. agaro maltoso; see agar. 


pertaining to wort or must (new wine): mustarius,-a,-um (adj.A),

  musteus,-a,-um (adj.A);


wound (past tense of the verb 'wind'), twisted around: circumvolutus,-a,-um (part.A), tortus,-a,-um (part.A); sinuatus,-a,-um (part.B) 'wound, bent, curved;' volutus,-a,-um (part.B): rolled about, rolled up together, formed by rolling; see winding.


Wound: ictus,-us (s.m.IV), q.v., abl. sg. ictu,'stab, bite, sting';

  laesio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. laesione; noxa,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. noxa 'injury, hurt, harm, damage;' vulnus,-eris (s.n.III), abl. sg. vulnere, nom. & acc. pl. vulnera; mori ex vulnere, to die from a wound; see sting.

NOTE: ictu hebeti, a blow that bruises and does not pierce [ictus, gen. sg. ictus (s.m.IV), a blow, stroke, stab, hit + hebes, gen. sg. hebetis 'dull'].


wounded: contusus,-a,-um (part.A) 'beaten, bruised, crushed, pounded,

  broken to pieces;'laesus,-a,-um (part.A); vulneratus,-a,-um (part.A); see bruised.

-wounded: in L. comp., -vulnerus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - quadrivulnerus, 'with 4 red or purple spots like wounds'. 


wounding, causing injury, harmful; nocuus,-a,-um (adj.A), noxius,-a,-um (adj.A) 'hurtful, injurious, noxious,' maleficus,-a,-um (adj.A); see destructive, harmful.

not wounded or wounding, harmless: innocuus,-a,-um (adj.A).

wounding: nocens,-entis (part.B).

woundingly: nocenter (adv.) hurtfully, injuriously,

  malefice (adv.): injuriously, hurtfully, noxiously; see harmfully.


woven: textus,-a,-um (part.A), textilis,-e (adj.B);

    - substratum arcte textum, the substrate tightly woven.

    - coloniae e hyphis in coactilia arcte textili compositae, colonies composed of hyphae in a densely woven felt.

interwoven, entangled, entwined: intertextus,-a,-um (part.A), implexus,-a,-um

 (part.A), implicatus,-a,-um (part.A);

    - pileipellis ex hyphis perlaxe intertextis composita,

      pileipellis composed of hyphae very laxly interwoven.


woven pattern: see texture.


wrapping around, enveloping: circumvolvens,-entis (part.B), q.v.

wrapped around, enveloped: circumvolutus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.

Wrapper: volva,-ae (s.f.I), q.v., abl. sg. volva; see envelope.

wrapping up, enveloping: involvens,-entis (part B), q.v.

wrapped up, enveloped: involutus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.


Wreath: corona,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. corona, q.v.; sertum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. serto, wreath or garland of flowers. "Used figuratively in book titles to indicate a selection of plants," (Stearn, 1983); see crown.


Wrinkle, a fold or crease: ruga,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. ruga, gen. pl. rugarum, abl. pl. rugis (diatoms);

  plica,-ae (s.f.I 'fold, pleat'), abl. sing. plica, gen. pl. plicarum, abl. pl. plicis.


wrinkling, shrivelling: caperans,-antis (part.B), corrugans,-antis (part.B),

  plicans,-antis (part.B), rugans,-antis (part.B); see withering.


wrinkled, shrivelled, creased: rugosus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'transversely wrinkled or undulate; longitudinally wrinkled;' rugatus,-a,-um (part.A), caperatus,-a,-um (part.A), corrugatus,-a,-um (part.A), 'irregularly crumpled, wrinkled'; plicatus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'pleated'; sulcatus,-a,-um (part.A): sulcate, furrowed or grooved, strongly plicate, with deep, longitudinal folds, more pronounced than striate or plicate; crumpled and irregularly bent: labyrinthiformis,-e (adj.B);

  in Gk.  comp., rhyti-, rhytido-; cf. striate, plicate, undulate; see withered;

    - calyx primo succulentus deinde in sicco rugatus, calyx at first succulent then in the dry (state) wrinkled.

Rhytidium rugosum, a species of moss with transversely wrinked leaves; Rozites caperata (Fr.) Mich., a mushroom in allusion to its wrinkled margin.

wrinkle-like, fold-like: rugiformis,-e (adj.B).


State of being wrinkled or shrivelled: rugositas,-atis (s.f.III), abl.

  sg. rugositate.

wrinkled-: in L. comp.: caperat-, caperato-; corrugat-, corrugato-;

  rugos-, rugoso-; in Gk. comp. rhysso-, rhyti-, rhytido-, q.v.

  Vernonia rugosifolia; Rhyssocarpus; Rhyssolobium; Rhyssopteris; Rhyssostelma; Rhytidocaulon.


somewhat wrinkled: rugosulosus,-a,-um (adj.A), rugosiusculus,-a,-um (adj.A).


in the writings of: apud (prep. + acc.), q.v.;

   - Sphagnum mougeotii Schimp. apud Mougeot, Stirp. Crypt. Vog. Rhen. no. 1806. 1854, Sphagnum mougeotii Schimper in the writings of Mougeot (label of specimen no. 1806 in the exsiccat here cited).


written down accurately, recorded, noted down: perscriptus,-a,-um (part.B) [> L. perscribo, perscripsi, perscriptum, 3. to write in full or at length,

  to write out, unabbreviated, to write a full description of; to note down, to register; to announce or describe in writing];

    - odor et sapor non perscriptus, odor and taste not recorded.


written: scriptus,-a,-um (part.A) [> L. scribo, -psi,-ptum, 3, to draw, trace (a line), to represent by lines, draw a likeness; to write; to put down in writing, make a record of].


writing: scribens,-entis (part.B).


Writing (noun), a composing in writing, a composition: scriptio,-onis (s.f. III), abl. sg. scriptione; scriptura,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. scriptura;

  scriptum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. scripto, 'something written, a writing, written matter;' cf. book: liber, libri (s.m.II), acc. sg.

  librum, abl. sg. libro, nom. pl. libri, gen. pl. librorum, acc. pl. libros, dat. & abl. pl. libris; libellus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. libello, small book,

  pamphlet; writing, journal.


wrong: falsus,-a,-um (adj.A).


wrongly: false (adv.), falso (adv.).