Mrs. Zander’s Libelli Latini,

Sample files, the Letter U
P. M. Eckel
Res Botanica
Missouri Botanical Garden
February 16, 2010
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Mrs. Zander’s Libelli Latini

Sample Files, The Letter “U”




U, u is the 20th letter of the Latin alphabet. It was originally written V, v as an alteration of the Greek letter Y, u (upsilon).

  The Latin 'u' is 'connected etymologically as well as graphically with the Greek upsilon (Y,u)' (Simpson, D. P. 1968). When Latinized, the Greek upsilon becomes 'y' (see introduction to the section "Y", (or 'hy' if the upsilon that begins a word has a spiritus asper, or "h" sound (see introduction to section "Y")).

  NOTE: the word in German for the letter y in its alphabet is 'upsilon.'

  Within a Greek word (i.e. medially) the upsilon is always transliterated as simply 'y'. Conversely, when a Latin or a Latinized word begins with y or hy, one must seek  its  Greek equivalent in the dictionary under 'u' (as upsilon); medially, the 'y' also becomes 'u', as in phyllon, a leaf, is phullon in the Greek dictionary.

  A classical Latin dictionary will also spell the Greek upsilon as 'Y' or 'Hy', as hydrus is Latin for (h)udros.

  See the ICBN section 60A.2 of the Vienna (2006) Code p. 110 for some discussion of orthography of the spiritus asper.




1. initial upsilon:

     - any prefix using Greek (h)uper-, becomes hyper-: (h)uperbolikos > hyperbolicus,-a,-um (adj.A): excessive, exaggerated.

     - any prefix using Greek (h)upo-  becomes hypo-: (h)upogaios > hypogeus,-a,-um (adj.A): underground.

     - (h)ussopos >  Hyssopus, perhaps Hyssopus officinalis L.

  Note the word in the German language for the letter y is upsilon. NOTE: hardly any Greek word beginning with 'u' is not aspirated > '(h)u.'


2. medial upsilon:

     - thuia, Thua or Thueia, the ancient Greeek name for a resin bearing evergreen > Thuja,-ae (s.f.I), the Arbor Vitae

     - cuparissos > cyparissus,-i (s.f.II) or Cypressus,-i (s.f.II)

     - thumon > thymum,-i, thyme, perhaps Thymus vulgaris L.


Originally in Latin the vowel 'u' was distinguished by Roman grammarians from the consonant ('V'), although the letter 'V' represented both sounds. V was later differentiated into the character 'v' representing the consonant, and 'u' the vowel, as is presently current usage. See introduction to the letter "V" for use of the 'u' and 'v.'


Note the rendering of Peru, the country, as 'Peruvia,-ae' (s.f.I), its adjective peruvianus,-a,-um (adj.A). This suggests that when the word element of a prefix ends in 'u' before a suffix beginning with a vowel, the 'v' is inserted between the terminal (prefix) and initial (suffix) vowels.


Article 60.5, in the ICBN (2006) makes note that names published in works where the letters u and v are used interchangeably must be transcribed to conform with 'modern botanical usage.' Hence (examples 8 and 9, p. 60) such names as Vffenbachia, must be transcribed as Uffenbachia, and Cvrcvligo must be spelled Curculigo.

  The Linnaean generic name Euonymus has a large literature associated with it. Euonymus is the ancient or classical Greek name for a plant, ironically derived from the Greek words 'eu', good, and 'onoma,' name. The irony for Fernald (1950) is that this 'well-named' plant actually is said to poison cattle, but perhaps it is more troubling to nomenclaturists. Linnaeus spelled his genus Evonymus in one publication, and Euonymus in another. Zijlstra and Tolsma (1991) tracked the controversy, which was then compounded by arguments about the gender, both of which had to be determined by special acts of botanical congresses to result in the present spelling (Euonymus) and the present gender (masculine); see Yatskievych 2006 pp. 852 & 854.


To refer again to the discussion at the beginning of "V":

  In the ICBN, 2006 (Vienna Code), Article 60.7, under example 13, it is said that the 'u' in the terminal 'ou' and 'eau,' and 'w' in people's names is rendered with a 'v' when the author seeks to intentionally Latinize such names. Such intentional Latinizations are not to be 'corrected' by later authors; see the beginning of "V" for examples: 'ov', 'eav' and '[o]v' respectively.


GREEK DIPHTHONGS 'ou' and 'eu':


1. 'ou:'

  Greek word elements transliterated into Latin (or English) as 'u' generally represent the Greek diphthong 'ou.' Such Latin words may be sought in a Greek dictionary under words beginning with 'ou' (omikron + upsilon). The Greek diphthong -ou- corresponded to the long 'u' in Latin. Stearn (1983)indicated that the "Latin equivalent" of the Greek diphthong 'ou' was 'ou,' but is transliterated or Latinized, for botanical purposes, as 'u;'

     - Anchousa becomes Anchusa.

     - apouros, far away, absent, becomes Apura xanthosoma (a moth);

     - xouthos, tawny yellow, becomes xuthos.

     - strouthos, any bird, such as a sparrow or eagle, becomes struth-, strutho-,

       -struthio,-onis (s.m./f.III), abl. sgl -strouthione, a sparrow or ostrich.

     - ouranos > Uranus,-i (s.m.II), the father of Saturn.

     - pous (s.m.III), gen. sg. podos, a foot is rendered into Latin as -pus,-podis (s.m.III); apparently Greek prefixes derived from pous begin with pod- [e.g. pod-agra (s.f.I) 'a trap or snare for the feet; a gout in the feet' > pous and agra]; brachypus,-odis (s.m.III) a short foot, but brachypodus,-a,-um (adj.A), short-footed. elephas, elephant, and pous, foot result in Elephantopus L., Elephant's-foot.

    -  Ulota, the name of a genus of mosses, derives from the Greek 'oulotE,' meaning 'something curled' in reference to the condition of the leaves when dry. Its meaning cannot be found in the Greek dictionary under 'u' but under 'ou.'

  NOTE: Note Greek nouns of the third declension lose a syllable in the nominative singular, as in Latin. When making compounds from Greek words such as odous, odontos (s.m.III),'tooth,' is rendered into Latin compounds with the stem (-odon), -odontis (s.m.III), in Didymodon, Zygodon (not Didymodous, or Zygodous).


2. 'eu:' 

  The Greek diphthong 'eu' is transliterated as 'eu', not 'ey':

    - eu 'well'; eupatoria is Greek for a plant, presumably agrimony, or perhaps Eupator,-oris (s.m.III), a surname of Mithridates of Pontus. It becomes Eupatorium, the genus (not Eypatorium).

    - in compounds of eury-, 'wide, broad,' in Greek the first upsilon is rendered with u, the second as -y: eury-: in Gk. comp., from eurys, eureia, eury 'wide, broad' > Eurycaulis; Eurycentrum; Eurylepis; Euryloma; Euryptera; Euryomyrtus; Euryops. 


U, in chemistry: the element Uranium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. Uranio.


-u, -us, as in cornu, gen. sg. cornus 'a horn,' are neuter nouns of the fourth declension, q.v.; see -us,-us (s.m.IV) below.


U-shaped: see hippocrepicus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'horseshoe-shaped'; cf. crescent-shaped;  variously rendered, e.g.:

    - sinus in forma litterae "U", the sinus in the form of the letter "U"; in figura litterae "U"; in aspectu litterae "U" (litterae is genitive singular).

    - lobus aspectu similis litterae "U", lobe with an appearance similar to the letter "U" (litterae is dative singular).

    - semiannulatus,-a,-um (adj. A): half-ring-shaped, semi-annular.


Uber,-eris (s.n.III), abl. sg. ubere: an udder, pap, teat, breast; richness, abundance, fertility;

    - fertilis ubere campus, a field fertile with richness.


uber,-eris (adj.B): rich, abounding in anything, fertile, fruitful, productive, abundant, copious; comparative: uberior,  uberius; superlative: uberrimus,-a,-um (most copious).

  Betula uber Asche

  NOTE: uber,-eris (abundant, copious, fruitful), cf. vetus,-eris, adj. 'old;'


           singular         plural

          m.f.   n.        m.f.   n.      

  Nom.      uber         uberes ubera

  Gen.      uberis       uberium     

  Dat.      uberi        uberibus

  Acc.  uberem  uber    uberes  ubera

  Abl.      uberi       uberibus


Ubertas,-atis (s.f.III), ubertate: fruitfulness, fertility, copiousness, abundance, productiveness (e.g. a field).


ubertim (adv.): abundantly, copiously; uberius (adv.): more abundantly, more copiously; uberrime (adv.): most abundantly, most copiously; see abundantly.


ubi (adv.): in which place, where;

    - locus ubi nix longe perdurat, place where snow persists a long time (a 'snow patch').  

    - Hab. in Nova Caesarea, ubi legit cl. Torrey, it grows (habitat) in New Jersey [U.S.A.], where collected by the famous (cl. = clarissimus) John Torrey.


ubi (adv. of time): when, whenever, as soon as; see 'when;'

    - ubi vere ineunte, arbores foliosi, whenever spring comes in, the trees are full of leaves.

    - petala longitudine varia, erecta ubi brevia, patentissima ubi elongata, petals in length varying, erect when short, most outspread when elongated (Stearn). 

    - planta ubi madida tum patens, plant when moist then spreading.

    - foliis ubi veteribus involutis, with leaves, when old, involute.


ubicumque (adv.), ubicunque (adv.): where, wherever, wheresoever, anywhere;

    - ubicumque folia papillis carentia, superficies nitida, wherever the leaves lack papillae, the surface is glossy.

    - stipes brunnescens vel atrobrunnescens ubicumque contusus, stipe becoming brown or dark brown wherever bruised.


ubique (adv.), perubique (adv.): wherever, anywhere, everywhere, throughout, in any place whatever; cf. omnino (adv.) 'completely, entirely';

    - habitat in agris argillosis ubique, it grows in everywhere in sandy fields.

    - superficies pilei ubique ater maculis albis ornatus, surface of the pileus black throughout, decorated with white spots. 

    - per regiones temperatas totius orbis ubique dispersae, throughout the temperate regions of the whole world everywhere dispersed.

  NOTE: cf. on both sides: utrimque (adv.), utrinque (adv.).


ubiquitous, occurring everywhere, omnipresent, growing in a wide variety of habitats, widespread: omnipraesens,-entis (part. B).


ubivis (adv.): where you will, wherever it may be, anywhere, everywhere;

    - ubivis folia papillis carentia, superficies nitida, wherever the leaves lack papillae, the surface is glossy.

    - stipes brunnescens vel atrobrunnescens ubivis contusus, stipe becoming brown or dark brown wherever bruised.


Udder: see breasts.


-udo,-udinis (s.f.III), -udine: a Latin noun suffix indicating state, condition, quality, degree; cf. the English noun suffix -ness;

    - similitudo,-inis (s.f.III), similitudine (from similis,-e); latitudo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. latitudine (from latus,-a,-um, wide).  


udus,-a,-um (adj.A): damp, moist, soaked, wet; see moist.

  Naematoloma udum, a mushroom with a moist cap.


ugly: deformis,-e (adj.B); turpis,-e (adj.B); informis,-e (adj.B) 'shapeless, unformed, deformed, ugly;' cf. foedus-a,-um (adj.A).


in an ugly or unseemly manner: deformiter (adv.), informiter (adv.), turpiter (adv.).


Ugliness: deformitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. deformitate; informitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. informitate, 'deformity, unshapeliness;' turpitudo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. turpitudine; foeditas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. foeditate 'foulness, ugliness, deformity, hideousness.'


-ugo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. -ugine: a Latin noun suffix; "indicates a substance or property possessed; noun or adjective base; e.g. asperugo, a prickly plant (from asper, rough), lanugo, down (from lana, wool)" (Stearn, 1983); see - ago,-inis; -igo,-inis (s.f.III); -o,-inis, third declension nouns, generally of the feminine gender;. 

   - aerugo,-inis (s.f.III), rust of copper [> L. aes, aeris, s.n.III) [adj. aeruginosus,-a,-um 'rusty.']

   - ferrugo,-inis (s.f.III) one time botanical term for the disease rust [> L. ferrugo, iron rust, the color of iron rust] [adj. ferrugineus,-a,-um; ferruginus,-a,-um the color of iron-rust; the taste of iron].

   - Albugo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. Albugine [a generic name].

   - Mollugo,-inis (s.f.III), mollugine ['An old name for Galium Mullugo, transferred to this genus, probably from the similarly whorled leaves' (Fernald 1950). Molluginaceae.

  Note: adjectives formed from these words end in apparent endings such as

    -ginous or -ginose, but actually end in -eus,-a,-um; -us,-a,-um (adj.A), or -osus,-a,-um (adj.A): aeruginosus,-a,-um (adj.A), rusty; lanugin-osus, ferrugin-us or ferrugineus. They are not related to adjectives ending in -genus,-a,-um (q.v.), such as nitrogenous.


1. ul-, ula-, ule-, uli-: in Gk. comp., a scar; [> Gk. oulE (s.f.I): a wound healed or scarred over, a scar; L. cicatrix, q.v.]

  Perhaps the fungus genera [Uleodothella; Uleodothis; Uleomyces; Uleomycina; Uleopeltis; Uleoporthe; Uleothyrium.

  NOTE: these prefixes beginning in 'u' may be sought in the Greek dictionary under the diphthong 'ou,' omicron + upsilon (see discussion of the letter U above).


2. ul-, ulo-: in Gk. comp.; curly, woolly; whole; destructive; [> Gk. oulos,-E,-on, adj.A]:

a. whole, entire, perfect, complete; L. integer,-ra,-rum (adj.A)

b. of full force, able, substantial.

c. of sight or touch: fine, thick (as of hair on the head), fleecy, twined, crooked; e.g. oulothrix > ulothrix, ulothrichos: with curly hair.

  Ulothrix,-icis (s.f.III) > Gk. oulotrich-, having curly hair, the type of the family Ulotrichaceae, 'of green algae that are common in ponds and consist of simple filaments with band-shaped green chloroplasts' WIII. Ulotrichaceae; Ulotrichales (note the absent -h- in thrix compounds); ulotrichous: ulotrichus,-a,-um (adj.A): having curly hair.

  Ulota, the name of a genus of mosses, for example, derives from the Greek 'oulotE' meaning 'something curled,' in reference to the condition of the leaves when dry.

  NOTE: perhaps the fungus genera Ulocladium; Ulocolla; Uloploca; Uloporus belong here.


d. from Epic Greek, a modification of adjectives (oulomenos, ouloos, etc.): destructive, baneful, deadly, fatal; cf. oulios,-a,-on: baneful, deadly.

  Uloborus,-i (s.m.II), a genus, the type genus of the family Uloboridae, or the orb-spinning spiders [> Gk. ouloboros, having a deadly bite > oulos, deadly, destructive + -borus > bibrOskein, to eat, devour].


3. NOTE also ula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. ula: the buccal gums, > Gk. oula, pl. of oulon.

  uleticus,-a,-um (adj.A): of or relating to the gums.

  ulo-: of or pertaining to the gums, in medicine.


-ula,-ae (s.f.I): see -ulus,-i (s.m.II).


Ulcer, sore, sore spot: see ulcus,-eris (s.n.III).


Ulceratio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. ulceratione: an ulceration, an eruption into sores; a sore or ulcer.

ulceratus,-a,-um (part.A): ulcerated, made sore, wounded and thus knotted or ulcerated [> L. ulcero,-avi,-atum, 1. to make sore, to cause ulcerations]. 

ulcerosus,-a,-um (adj.A): ulcerous, full of sores; of trees, full of knots, knobby, wounded.


Ulcus,-eris (s.n.III), abl. sg. ulcuscere, acc. sg. ulcus, nom. & acc. pl. ulcera: a sore, an ulcer, a sore spot, an excrescence on trees; sometimes spelled hulcus,-eris; cf. cancer, canker. 


Ulcusculum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. ulcusculo: a little ulcer or sore.


-ule: Eng. noun suffix, diminutive in meaning; see -ulus,-i (s.m.II).    


-ulentus,-a,-um (adj.A): in L. comp., also -olentus,-a,-um, 'probably akin to L. olere, to smell: that abounds in (a specified thing): that has (a specified thing) in marked amount or degree' (WIII); full of, abounding in; cf. -fluus,-a,-um (adj.A); perhaps rendered with the English adjective -y, as in watery, dungy, musty, fishy, sleepy, sappy, winey;

  - aqui-lentus,-a,-um (adj.A): full of water, humid, wet; luna aquilenta, moon or month bringing rain. NOTE not - ulentus, but aqui-lentus [perhaps elided due to the vowel in 'qu'].

  - faec-ulentus,-a,-um (adj.A): abounding in dregs or sediment, thick, impure, feculent [faex, s.f.III) dung]

  - must-ulentus,-a,-um abounding in new wine or must [mustum (s.n.II)]

  - pisc-olentus,-a,-um (adj.A), fishy, smelling of fish, fishy smelling [piscis,-is (s.m.III) fish]

  - somn-olentus,-a,-um  full of sleep, sleepy, drowsy, somnolent [somnus,-i (s.m.II) sleep]

  - succ-ulentus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'sappy, juicy' [succus,-i (s.m.II) juice, sap]

  - vin-olentus,-a,-um (adj.A): full of or drunk with wine, drunk, intoxicated [vinum,-i (s.n.II), wine]

    - aquilenter (adv.), lenter (adv.): full of, abounding in;

    - faeculenter, mustulenter, somnolenter; vinolenter

    - somnolenter sleepily

  NOTE: not the diminutive -ulus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.; also not -lentus,-a,-um (adj.A).

  NOTE: pestilentus,-a,-um (adj.A), full of plague, > L. pestis,-is (s.f.III), the -i- is part of the stem.


Ulex,-icis (s.m.III), abl. sg. ulice: a shrub resembling rosemary;

  Ulex,-icis (s.m.III) L., Furze, Gorse, Ulex europaeus L. 'An ancient name, used by Pliny for some not certainly identified plant' (Fernald 1950).


uliginosus,-a,-um (adj.A): uliginose, inhabiting swamps, marshy, growing in marshes, 'wet, damp, moist, marshy;' see palustris,-e [> L. uligo,-inis (s.f.III)];

    - herbae saepius uliginosae aquaticae v. in locis madidis montium crescentes (B&H), herbs very often growing in marshes, aquatic or growing in the wet places of mountains.


Uligo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. uligine: moisture of the soil, wetness of the earth; marshy quality of the earth; syn. umor, q.v.


ullus, ulla, ullum (irregular adj.A): any, anyone, anything;


        singular                                plural

      m.     f.    n.                    m.      f.     n.

Nom. ullus  ulla  ullum                 ulli    ullae  ulla

Gen.   ullius                           ullorum ullarum ullorum

Acc. ullum ullam ullum                  ullos  ullas  ulla

Dat.   ulli                                     ullis

Abl. ullo  ulla  ullo                           ullis


    - sine ulla dubitatione,  without any doubt (ulla = abl. sg.).

    - species notis variis non ulli alii ordini accedens, species not by various characters resembling any other order (ulli = dat. sg.). NOTE: these are irregular A adjectives because the genitive sg. ends in -ius and the dative sg. in -i.  Nullus, nulla, nullum, q.v. (irregular A adjective): no, none, not any. NOTE: not to be confused with the Latin noun suffix -ulus,-i (s.m.II), -ula,-ae (s.f.I), -ulum,-i (s.n.II); or the Latin adj. suffix -ulus,-a, -um (adj.A).


Ulmarium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. ulmario: a plantation or nursery of elms.


ulmarius,-a,-um (adj.A): of or pertaining to elm trees (Ulmus L.). 

  Pleurotus ulmarius, a mushroom that lives on the wounds of living trees.


ulmeus,-a,-um (adj.A): made of elm-wood; of or relating to the elm tree.


Ulmus,-i (s.f.II), abl. sg. Ulmo; from the classical name: the elm. 

  Ulmus rubra, U. procera, U. americana.


Ulna,-ae (s.f.I), ulna: the arm; as a measure of length: an ell, 2 feet, approx. 65 cm.


ulnaris,-e (adj.B): 2 feet long.


ulo-: see ul-.


Ulota,-ae (s.f.I) Mohr, the name of a genus of mosses, from the Greek  'oulotE' meaning 'something curled' in reference to the condition of the leaves when dry.


-ulous (Eng. adj.): see -ulus,-a,-um (adj.A).


ulterior,-ius (adj. compar.) farther, on the farther side.

  [comparative of ulter,-tra,-trum, which is not used in classical Latin]


        singular  plural

      m.  & f.        n.              m. & f.        n.

Nom.   ulterior  ulterius          ulteriores     ulteriora

Gen.       ulterioris                     ulteriorum

Dat.       ulteriori                      ulterioribus 

Acc.   ulteriorem  ulterius        ulteriores     ulteriora

Abl.       ulteriore                      ulterioribus     


  - folia stipulis et pedicellis ulteriora, leaves farther than the stipules and pedicells.

  - foliis quam stipulis ulterioribus, with the leaves further than the stipules.

  - porus apicalis areolis ulterior, the apical pore farther than the areolae.

  - labellum lobulis lateralibus quam intermediis ulterioribus, labellum, with the lateral lobules than the middle ones farther.


ulterius (adv.): beyond, farther on; 

  - examinatione ulterius, with further study.


ultimate, last, farthest, most distant: extremus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'outermost, extreme, last, farthest, of degree or quality;' postremus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'last, final;' supremus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'highest, topmost, loftiest, supreme; last, latest, final, extreme;' ultimus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.; see terminal, uppermost;

    - flores primi et flores postremi, the first flowers and the final (ultimate) flowers.


ultimately, at last, finally: postremo (adv.), extremum (adv.), ad extremum (adv.), denique (adv.), tandem (adv.), ad ultimum (adv.), demum (adv.), ad finem; see finally;

    - spatha pedicellos initio aequans, demum iis duplo brevior, spathe at first equalling the pedicels, ultimately twice shorter than these (i.e. 1/2 their length). (Stearn)

    - folia perichaetialia primo 3 mm ad extremum 5 mm longa, perichaetial leaves at first 3 mm ultimately 5 mm long.

  NOTE: first, firstly, initially (adv.; in order of development): primitus (adv.), primo (adv.), primum (adv.), initio (abl.s. of initium) 'in the beginning'; see deinde, denique, tum; 


ultime (adv.): extremely.


ultimo (adv.) finally, q.v.


ultimus,-a,-um (adj.A): ultimate, farthest, most distant, last; the final section or division of a structure; see terminal; see uppermost;

    - ad ultimum, lastly, finally. 

    - planta ab antiquissimis temporibus cognita sed ultimis temporibus neglecta, plant known from most ancient times but in the latest times  neglected (Stearn). 

    - foliis ultimis alte laceratis, with the end leaves deeply lacerate.

    - plantae in diebus ultimis hiemis fructificantes, plants fruiting in the final days of winter.

    - folia perichaetialia primo 3 mm ad ultimum 5 mm longa, perichaetial leaves at first 3 mm ultimately 5 mm long.


ultra (adv.): on the other side of; beyond, further (of that which is beyond a certain limit), more than; (prep. + acc.) beyond, on the further side of; opp. cis (prep. + acc.) on this side; cf. trans (prep. + acc.) across, beyond, on the far side of];

    - caulis duo pedales vel ultra altus, stem 2 feet or more high.

    - species descriptae ultra 70, species described beyond 70.

    - frondes fiunt pollicem et ultra latae, the fronds become (one inch, 2.5 cm) and more wide.


ultra (prep. with acc.): beyond, on the farther side of, beyond a certain limit, past, beyond, above, more than; opp. cis (prep. + acc.) on this side; cf. trans (prep. + acc.) across, beyond, on the far side of]; in space:

    - herbis ultra Mare Album crescentibus, with plants growing on the far side of (= beyond) the White Sea.

    - ultra Alpes, beyond (=on the far side of) the Alps.

    - costa ultra medium folii producta, costa beyond the middle of the leaf extended.

    - cis Padum ultraque, on this side of the Po (River, Padus,-i, s.m.II) and beyond it.

    - ultra Silianum villam, on the other side of the Silian villa.

    - limbus brevissime vel longe ultra ovarium productus, the limb very shortly or longly (i.e. far) extended beyond the ovary.

  in time:

    - ultra biennium, beyond (=longer than) a two year period.

    - plantae ultra annum viventes, plants beyond a year living (= surviving).

  of number or measure:

    - species ultra 10, species more than ten (in number).

    - cellulis pilorum quoad longitudinem ultra 5, with the cells of the hairs as to length more than 5.

    - vix ultra 10 cm, scarcely above 10 cm.

    - species ultra 160, species more than 160.


ultra-apicalis,-e (adj.B): placed beyond the apex; cf. infra-apicalis,-e, placed below the apex.


ultracentralis,-e (adj.B): beyond the center, on the far side of center; cf. infracentralis,-e, placed below the center;

    - umbone stipitis ultracentrali, with the umbo placed beyond the center of the stipe.


ultramarine blue (see blue): lazulinus,-a,-um (adj.A); caeruleus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'dark blue, cerulean, azure' used of the sky and sea; cyaneus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'dark-blue, sea-blue.'


ultramedius,-ia,-ium (adj.A): beyond or above the middle;

    - costa ultramedia apice dorsali denticulata, the costa above the middle at the dorsal apex denticulate; cf. intramedianus. 


ultro citroque (adv.), ultro et citro (adv.): to and fro, backwards and forwards. 


-ulus,-i (s.m.II), -ula,-ae (s.f.I), -ulum,-i (s.n.II), in L. comp. a diminutive noun suffix meaning 'small one'; also -iculus,-i (s.m.II),  -icula,-ae (s.f.I), -iculum,-i (s.n.II); English suffix -ule, and -icule; note the gender of the diminutive is the same as the original noun; cf. -unculus,-i (s.m.II);

I. First (feminine) and Second declension (masc. & neuter) nouns:

      - bursicula,-ae (s.f.I) a bursicle [> L. bursa (s.f.I) a purse]; capsula,-ae (s.f.I) a capsule [>L. capsa (s.f.I)] 'a box or case for books']; coronula,-ae (s.f.I) a coronule [> L. corona]; lacinula,-ae (s.f.I): a lacinule [> lacinia (s.f.I); lamellula,-ae (s.f.I) a lamellule [> L. lamella s.f.I]; ligula,-ae (s.f.I) a ligule [> L. diminutive of lingua s.f.I, the 'n' elided]; massula,-ae (s.f.I), a small mass [> massa,-ae (s.f.I), a mass);

      - propagule: propagulum,-i (s.n.II) a propagule [> L. propago, a set or layer]; ovulum,-i (s.n.II) [> L. ovum,-i s.n.II.]

      - apiculus,i (s.n.II), little apex (apex,-icis s.m.III); petiolulus,-i (s.m.II) a petiolule [> L.  petiolus]; lobulus,-i (s.m.II) a lobule [> L. lobus,-i s.m.II]; loculus,-i (s.m.II) a loculus [> L. locus,-i (s.m.II)]

  Ascosacculus, a genus of fungi (saccus,-i (s.m.II); Calyculus, a fossil genus (calyx,-icis s.m.III); Phoeniculus, an African genus of birds (wood hoopoes) [>Gk. phoenix,-icis, s.m.III].

II. Third declension nouns (all genders); note the apparent 'c' infix to stems ending in -i-; -(i)culus,-i; -(i)cula,-ae; -(i)culum,-i;

      - animalcululum,-i (s.n.II) [> L. animalculum, > animal,-alis s.n.III); denticulus,-i (s.m.II) a small tooth [> dim. of dens,-entis (s.m.III) tooth, prong]; lodicula,-ae (s.f.I) [> L. lodix,-dicis (s.f.III) a cover]; tuberculum,-i (s.n.II) small tuber [> tuber,-eris (s.n.III)) a round swelling]; ulcusculum,-i (s.n.II) a little ulcer [> L. ulcus,-eris (s.n.III) a wound, sore].

  NOTE: there is only one 'el' in this suffix.


-ulus,-a,-um (adj.A): a Latin adjective suffix, a diminutive, attached to the stem of another adjective, meaning 'somewhat' or 'minute;' cf. -iusculus,-a,-um (adj.A); Eng. -ulous (adj.);

I. with adj. A:

    - asperulus,-a,-um (adj.A), somewhat rough (aser,-ra,-rum (adj.A)); hirsutulus,-a,-um (adj.A), somewhat hirsute (hirsutus,-a,-um (adj.A); hispidulus,-a,-um (adj.A), minutely hispid (hispidus,-a,-um (adj.A); incrassatulus,-a,-um (adj.A), somewhat thickened (incrassatus,-a,-um (adj.A); pallidulus,-a,-um (adj.A), somewhat pallid (pallidus,-a,-um (adj.A); rabidulus,-a,-um (adj.A), somewhat mad (rabidus,-a,-um (adj.A), mad, raving); viscidulus,-a,-um (adj.A), somewhat sticky (viscidus,-a,-um (adj.A).

II. with present indicative active participles (-ens,-entis):

    - arentulus, -a,-um (adj.A) somewhat dry (arens,-entis (part.B) = arent- + ulus); patulus,-a,-um (adj.A), somewhat spreading (patens,-entis (part.B) patent- + ulus).

III. with perfect past participles (-atus,-a,-um (part.A):

    - arcuatulus,-a,-um (adj.A)somewhat arching (arcuatus,-a,-um (part.A), arcuat- + ulus).

  NOTE: there is only one 'el' in this suffix. NOTE: there does not appear to be an adjective equivalent for the diminutive noun suffix in -(i)culus,-a,-um for B adjectives or present participles, such as humilis,-e (adj.B).

  NOTE: adjectives ending in -idus particularly apply here.

  NOTE: this suffix may be applied to a noun + -osus,-a,-um (adj.A), e.g. 'setosus', with setae or bristles, can be rendered 'setulose', with minute setae, 'setulosus,-a,-um (adj.A)'; granulose, with granules (small grains), granulosus; glomerulose, with little glomes, glomerulosus; glandulose, with small glands, glandulosus.

  NOTE: not to be confused with: ullus, ulla, ullum (irregular adj.A), q.v. 'any, anyone, anything.'


Umbel, 'a racemose type of inflorescence with greatly abbreviated axis and elongate pedicels. In a compound umbel the branches are again umbellately branched at the summit' (Gleason 1952), 'an inflorescence in which the peduncles or pedicels of a cluster spring from the same level' (Fernald 1950), the inflorescence may be flat-topped or convex, the pedicels arising from a generally common point, as in the ribs of an umbrella; it may be seen as a highly condensed raceme:

  umbella,-ae (s.f.I), umbella, nom. pl. umbellae, acc. pl. umbellas, dat. & abl. pl. umbellis [> L. umbella,-ae (s.f.I), dim. of umbra, a little shadow, that is, a parasol, sunshade, umbrella];  

    - umbella bulbilis carens, capsulifera, multiflora, irregularis, umbel lacking bulbils, capsule-bearing, many-flowered, irregular.

    - spatha umbellam aequans vel paulo longior vel raro brevior, spathe equalling the umbel or a little longer or rarely shorter.

    - umbella simplex, simple umbel. Stearn.

    - floribus in umbellas dispositis, with flowers arranged into umbels.


umbellatus,-a,-um (adj.A): umbellate, with the inflorescence shaped as or arranged in umbels.

  Polyporus umbellatus, in reference to the caespitose clusters of this mushroom.


Umbellet: see umbellula,-ae (s.f.I).


umbelliferous, bearing umbels; belonging to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae):

  umbelliferus,-fera,-ferum (adj.A); umbelligerus,-gera,-gerum (adj.A).


umbelliformis,-e (adj.B): shaped like an umbel, but not a true umbel, such as condensed cymes rather than condensed racemes; cf. corymbose.


Umbellula,-ae (s.f.I), umbellula, nom. pl. umbellula, acc. pl. umbellulas, dat. & abl. pl. umbellulis: an umbellule or umbellet, a partial or secondary umbel, the ultimate umbel in a compound umbel; an umbellet or umbellule; 'one of the small umbels collectively composing a compound umbel' (Gleason 1952). 


umbellulatus,-a,-um (adj.A): furnished with partial umbels.


umber ('raw' umber), olive-brown becoming redder on burning:

  umbrinus,-a,-um (adj.A). umber ('burnt' umber), olive-brown having become redder on burning: rubro-umbrinus,-a,-um (adj.A), with elision, rubrumbrinus,-a,-um (adj.A), red-umber, burnt umber. 

    - pileus obscure rubro-umbrinus vel umbrinus, ad umbonem castaneus, hygrophanus; specimina sicca pallide cinnamomeus, pileus dark burnt-umber or raw umber, on the umbro chestnut-colored, hygrophanous; dried specimens pale cinnamon.


umbilicarius,-a,-um (adj.A): of or pertaining to the navel, umbilical.



umbilicatus,-a,-um (adj.A), umbiliciformis,-e (adj.B): umbilicate, navel-like, having small central depression or hollow; also used by some authors in the sense of peltatus (Stearn 1983); in mycology, with a pileus with a central depression in the surface opposite the stipe; opp. umbonatus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v. Dentium umbilicatum, a mushroom with a convex pileus.


Umbilicus, navel-like structure, such as the hilum of a seed: umbilicus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. umbilico, umbilici, dat.& abl. pl. umbilicis [> L., the nabel, the center, the middle; 'a projection in the middle of plants' (Lewis & Short)]; in Greek, omphalos (s.m.II), see omphalo-: in Gk. comp.: navel-shaped; opp. umbo, q.v.


Umbo, 'a rounded elevation or protuberance at the end or on the side of a solid organ' (Gleason 1952), such as on the ends of scales of some pine cones; in mycology, with a central prominence on the pileus surface opposite the stipe:

  umbo,-onis (s.m.III), abl. sg. umbone, nom.& umbones, dat. & abl. pl. umbonibus 'boss of a shield; a projecting part of a precious stone, a knob, boss, the full part or swelling of a garment;' opp. umbilicus, q.v.


umbonatus,-a,-um (adj.A): bossed, umbonate, having a rounded, blunt elevation, projection or umbo in the middle; cf. umbilicatus,-a,-um (adj.A); opp. umbilicatus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.

   Suillus umbonatus Snell and Dick: with the cap convex-knobbed;

   Cantherellus umbonatus, a mushroom.


umbonulatus,-a,-um (adj.A): umbonulate, possessed of a very small umbo.


Umbra,-ae (s.f.I), umbra: shade, shadow; shady place.


umbraculatus,-a,-um (adj.A): like an umbrella in shape; possessed of an umbraculum of of umbrella-like structures.


umbraculiferous, bearing umbrella-shaped structures: umbraculifer,

  -fera,-ferum (adj.A); umbraculiger,-gera,-gerum (adj.A).


umbraculiformis,-e (adj.B): umbrella-like;

    - apophyse plano-umbraculiformi vel convexo-umbraculiformi.

    - apophyses disco-umbraculiformes, apophyses disc-umbrella shaped.


Umbraculum: umbraculum,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. umbraculo: umbraculum; anything providing shade, a shady place such as a bower, arbor; a sunshade, parasol, umbrella.


Umbraticola,-ae (s.c.I), abl. sg. umbraticola: fond of the shade, shade-dwelling.


umbraticus,-a,-um (adj.A): of or belonging to the shade, i.e. to retirement, seclusion.


umbratilis,-e (adj.A): remaining in the shade, in retirement.


Umbrella: umbraculum,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. umbraculo, q.v.; umbrella,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. umbrella.

  Sciadopitys,-yis (s.f.III), Umbrella Pine from Gk. skias,-ados, umbel + pitys, a pine or fir tree. "The spreading whorls of needles resemble the ribs of an umbrella or parasol, for which the Greek name was skiadeion," (Stearn 1996).


umbrescens,-entis (part.B): becoming shadowy, darkening, shadowing, shading [> L. umbresco,-ere, 3: to shadow, become shadowy, darken].


umbrinus,-a,-um (adj.A): umber, brown, olive-brown becoming redder on burning.

  Lycoperdon umbrinum, a mushroom at first pure white finally dull brown or umber with age, with a dull purplish hue.the base of the stipe is often a purplish-brown.


umbrosus,-a,-um (adj.A): shady, growing in the shade;

    - in locis umbrosis, in shady places (often the word 'locis' is understood and not written out).

    - habitat in argillosis umbrosis Ohionis, it grows in clayey, shady (places) of Ohio.


umectans,-antis (part.B): see humectans,-antis (part.B).


umens,-entis (part.B): see humens,-entis (part.B).


um-, hum-: words relating to moisture in classical times were spelled without the 'h', hence began with an intial 'u' (e.g. 'humor' was spelled 'umor'). In modern Botanical Latin these words are currently spelled with an initial 'h.'


umefactus,-a,-um (part.B): see humefactus,-a,-um (part.B).


umectatio (humec-),-onis: see humectatio,-onis (s.f.III).


umescens,-entis (part.B), humescens,-entis (part. B): growing moist or wet [> L. umesco (hu-), ere, 3.: to grow moist or wet];

    - solum umescens, the soil growing moist. 


umorosus,-a,-um (adj.A): moist, wet; = humorosus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - loca (pl.n.II) umorosa, moist regions; see locus,-i (s.m.II).


Umor,-oris, abl. sg. umore (s.m.III): humor, a liquid, fluid of any kind, moisture; see liquid; see humor,-oris (s.m.III).


umifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.A): containing moisture, moist [> L. umor,-oris (s.m.III), q.v.];

    - sucus umiferus, moist sap.


umificans,-antis (part.B): making moist, moistening [> L.

  umifico,-avi,-atus, -are, 1. to make moist, to moisten].


umificus,-a,-um )adj.A): that renders moist, moistening.

    - spiritus lunae umificus, the moistening air of the moon (i.e. of night).


umidus,-a,-um (adj.A) = humidus,-a,-um (adj.A): moist, humid, damp, dank, wet.


umide (adv.) moistly, by reason of moisture.


umidulus,-a,-um (adj.A), humidulus,-a,-um (adj.A): rather damp, dampish, wettish.


umescens,-entis (part.B), humescens,-entis (part. B): growing moist or wet [> L. umesco (hu-), ere, 3.: to grow moist or wet;

    - solum umescens, the soil growing moist.


Umlaut (sign): in words of German or Germanic origin, a diacritical sign, two dots over a vowel (resembling the diaeresis), which appears to represent the partial assimilation of two vowels. This applies to the German vowels a, o, and u.

  As diacritical signs are not used in Latin plant names, such vowels must be spelled, respectively 'ae,'oe', and 'ue' in Botanical Latin. (see 2006 Code 60.6 p. 60).

    - Bjornstroem (Friedrich Johann); Hagstroem, Johan Oskar; Hermann Jäger (Herman Jaeger).


Umor,-oris, abl. sg. umore: (s.m.III): a liquid, fluid of any kind, moisture.


umquam (adv.), unquam (adv.): at any one time, ever;

    - sepalis vix umquam formantibus, with sepals scarcely ever forming.

    - pedunculo vix unquam theca longiore, with the peduncle scarcely ever longer than the theca.

    - antherarum loculum divisum, nec unquam in loculos 3 v. 6 aequales partitum, the locule of the anthers divided, not ever parted into 3 or 6 equal locules.


un-: the negative or contrary expressed in English by the prefix 'un-' is often rendered in Latin comp.:

  a) by the prefix in-, or im- before b, m or p;

    - inaequus, uneven; indivisus, undivided; incruentus, bloodless; infecundus, unfruitful.

    - immaturus, immature; imperfectus, not complete, imperfect.

  b) or e- or ex- (before vowels); although in English the 'x' in 'ex-' prefices is often rendered 'ecc-', as in eccentric, in Latin the prefix 'ex-' is retained before 'c': excentricus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - ecostatus, without a costa.

    - excavatus,-a,-um (part.A): hollowed out (from cavus, hollow); exsanguis,-e (adj.B), bloodless.

  c) or the adverb haud or non;

     - haud distinctus, indistinguishable.

  d) dis-: in L. comp., q.v., sometimes it is as in the English prefix 'un-' "reversing or negativing the meaning of the primitive (Lewis & Short).               


in Greek comp:

  a) by the prefix a-, or an- before a vowel [the alpha privitive];

    - aphyllus, without leaves; apetalus, without petals; anantherus, without anthers; ananthus, flowerless; anaerobius, able to live without free oxygen.

  NOTE: 'non' (Latin) is not a prefix: it is always separated from the word associated with it or which it modifies;

    - pileus non albescens, pileus not becoming white.


una (adv.): at the same time, together.


unadorned, simple: inornatus,-a,-um (part.A).


unadulterated: inter,-gra,-grum (adj.A); merus,-a,-um (adj.A); purus,-a,

  -um (adj.A); see pure.


unaltered, unchanged: immutatus,-a,-um (adj.A).


unarmed: immunitus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'without stings, prickles, thorns;' inermis,-e (adj.B) without spines or prickles, thorns or stings; glaber, glabra, glabrum (adj.A), without hairs or indumenta; nudus, -a,-um (adj.A) 'bare.'


unbordered: immarginatus,-a,-um (adj.A).

  Epipterygium immarginatum Mitt.


unbounded: infinitus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'infinite, boundless, unlimited, endless;' indeterminatus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'indeterminate, undefined, unlimited.'


unbranched: simplex,-icis (adj.B);

    - sporangiophora simplicia, sporangiophores simple (undivided, unbranched).


unbroken: integer,-gra,-grum (adj.A) 'whole, undivided, complete, perfect.'


uncatus,-a,-um (adj.A): hooked, bent inwards.


uncertain, doubtful, ambiguous, indefinite: incertus,-a,-um (adj.A), dubius,-a,-um (adj.A), ambiguus,-a,-um (adj.A), vagus,-a,-um (adj.A); see ambiguous.


uncertainly, vaguely: vage (adv.); dubie (adv.) 'doubtfully.'


unchangeable, unchanging: immutabilis,-e (adj.B); constans,-antis (part.B) 'firm, constant, uniform, stable, invariable, unchangeable;' incommutabilis, -e (adj.B) 'unchangeable;' stabilis,-e (adj.B) 'firm, steadfast, stable.'


unchangeably, constantly: constanter (adv.), stabiliter (adv.).


unchanged, unaltered: immutatus,-a,-um (part.A).


Uncia,-ae (s.f.I): twelfth part, 1/12 foot, 1 inch, approx. 2.5 cm; same as pollex, q.v.; see inch.


uncialis,-e (adj.B): 1 inch long; biuncialis,-e, 2 inches long.


unciformis,-e (adj.B): hook-shaped.


uncinatus,-a,-um (adj.A): bent like a hook, barbed, hooked, curved, hooked at the summit or tip [> L. uncus,-i, s.m.II, a bend, curve, barb, hook]; cf. onc-, onco-, in Gk. comp.; see hooked.

   Uncinula, a genus of fungi where the "perithecial appendages have coiled ends" (Ainsworth & Bisby); Uncinia, Uncinulites, Uncinulopsis: fungus genera.


unclean, foul: foedus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. abnormal.


uncolored: aqueus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'clear as water;' hyalinus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'colorless and transparent, like glass,' incolor,-oris (adj.B), incoloratus, -a,-um (adj.A); see clear; see transparent.


uncommon: rarus,-a,-um (adj.A); insolitus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'unfamiliar, unusual,

  unaccustomed, uncommon;' see rare, unusual.  [insolitus,-a,-um,

  inusitatus,-a,-um (part.A) 'unusual, not habitual;' see unusual.


uncommonly: raro (adv.) 'rarely', eximie (adv.) 'exceptionally, uncommonly' singulariter (adv.), singulatim (adv.) 'uniquely, uncommonly, extraordinarily.'  


uncooked, raw: incoctus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'uncooked, raw;' crudus,-a,-um (adj.A): crude, immature, undeveloped; raw, uncooked; see raw.


uncovered, revealed: apertus,-a,-um (part.A) 'uncovered, revealed, exposed;' detectus,-a,-um (part.A) 'uncovered, laid bare;' nudatus,-a,-um (part.A), denudatus,-a,-um (part.A) 'laid bare, stripped;' revelatus,-a,-um (part.A) 'unveiled, uncovered, laid bare;' see naked.


uncovering, revealing: aperiens,-entis (part.B); detegens,-entis (part.B); revelans,-antis (part.B).


Unctio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. unctione: an ointment, unguent;

    - unctio thermantica (adj.A), an ointment that warms.


unctulus,-a,-um (adj.A), unctuosus,-a,-um (adj.A): unctuous, having an oily or greasy  appearance; see oily, slimy.


Unctulum,-i (s.n.II), unctulo: a little ointment.


unctus,-a,-um (part.A): greasy, oiled.


uncultivated, untilled, neglected; savage, wild: incultus,-a,-um (part.A) 'untilled, not cultivated, waste, used of habitats;' vastus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'waste, wasted;'

    - locus (s.m.II) incultus, uncultivated (waste) place.

    - ager vastus, a wasted field.


uncultivated ground: incultum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. inculto, 'wasteland, ground not cultivated.'


-unculus,-i (s.m.II),-a,-ae (s.f.I),-um,-i (s.n.II): noun suffix; associated with the Latin diminutive adjective or noun suffix -culus,

  -culus,-culum, but with the included syllable -un- preceding it; see

  -ulus,-i (s.m.II);

     - homunculus,-i (s.m.II), a little man [> L. homo,-inis (s.m. III), a man]; pedunculus,-i (s.m.II), a little foot [>L. pes, pedis (s.m.III) foot]; ramunculus,-i (s.m.II), twig (little branch) [> Latin ramus,-i, (s.m.II) a branch]; pedunculus,-i (s.m.II), peduncle, 'little foot' [>L. pes, pedis (s.m.III) foot]. 

     - Centunculus L. [>"Latin name of some plant, diminutive of cento,-onis (s.m.III) patchwork" Fernald p. 1143; Ranunculus,-i (s.m.II), a small frog] [> L. rana,-ae s.f.I, frog].

     - capeduncula,-ae (s.f.I) a small bowl, etc. [> L. capedo,-inis (s.f.III) a bowl or cup used in sacrifices]; offensiuncula,-ae (s.f.I) a slight offense [>L. offensio,-onis (s.f.III)], quaestiuncula,-ae (s.f.I) a little or trifling question [> L. quaestio,-onis (s.f.III), a question]; stipulatiuncula,-ae (s.f.I) a little or minor promise [> L. stipulatio,-onis (s.f.III), a promise] . 

  NOTE: the adjective ending -ius- + -culus,-a,-um seems to be related, the -ius giving a greater degree of diminution than -culus; see  -iusculus,-a,-um.    


uncus,-a,-um (adj.A): bent, barbed, hooked [> L. uncus,-i, s.m.II, a bend, curve, barb, hook]; cf. onc-, onco-, in Gk. comp.


Uncus,-i (s.m.II), unco: hook, barb; hamus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. hamo 'hook, barb, fish-hook;' in Gk. comp. see onc-, onco-; see hooked;

    - caudex erectus vel ope uncorum longissime scandens,  trunk erect or with the aid of barbs very longly scandent.


undatim (adv.): in a wavy manner.


undatus,-a,-um (adj.A): wavy; see undulate.


unde (adv.) place from which, whence.


undecided: incertus,-a,-um (adj.A)


undeciens (adv.), undecies (adv.): eleven times, elevenfold.

  undecim (num. adj. indecl.): eleven


undecimus,-a,-um (adj.A): eleventh.


Undeclinable noun: see indeclinable noun.


undecumque (adv.): from wherever.


undefined: see unbounded.


under, underneath (adv.): infra (adv.) 'on the underside, beneath, below;' inferne (adv.),'on the lower part;' subter (adv.) 'below, beneath, underneath, in a lower place;' subtus (adv., no prep.): below, beneath, underneath, in a lower place; opp. supra (adv.) 'on the upper side, above, beyond, over;'

    - laminis subtus minus pubescentibus, with the blades underneath less pubescent.

    - petalis insuper lavandulaceis subter albis, with petals lavander above, white below.

    - caulis supra erecta stem in the upper part erect; caulis inferne erecta, stem in the lower part erect.

    - herbae inferne crescentes, herbs growing downwards.


under, underneath (prep.): infra (+ acc. of space, time, value, etc.): sub (prep. + abl.) 'under, below, near (indicating object under, etc., which thing is situated, at the foot of, near), with verbs of motion + acc.; subter (prep. with abl. when no motion is implied, and acc.) below, beneath, underneath; opp. upper, q.v.; see upon;

    - supra subterque terram crescit, it grows above and below the soil.

    - sub solo habitans, dwelling below the soil.

    - costa sub apicem evanida, costa disappearing below the apex.

    - nervo medio sub apicem attingenti, with the middle nerve reaching to below the apex.

    - sub monte, at the foot of the mountain.

    - bracteis infra petala dispositis, with bracts below the petals arranged.

    - insuper subterque terram crescit, it grows above and below the soil.

    - setis subter capsulis glabris, with the setae underneath the capsules glabrous.


under, lower (adj.A): inferus,-a,-um (adj.A), inferior,-ius (adj. compar. B); infernus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'lower, that which lies beneath, underneath;' see lower; see proximalis,-e (adj.B), dorsalis,-e (adj.B),  abaxialis,-e (adj.B); cf. proximalis,-e (adj.B), dorsalis,-e (adj.B), abaxialis,-e (adj.B); opp. supernus,-a,-um (adj.A); opp. superior,-ius (adj. compare. B);

    - caulibus infernis pubescentibus supernis glabris, with stems in the lower part pubescent, in the upper part glabrous.

    - folia inferiora, underleaves

    - in pagina inferiore, on the under surface (side).

    - glomeruli florum inferiores remoti, superiores approximati, omnes folio suffulti, glomerules of flowers lower remote, upper close together, all by a leaf subtended (Stearn 1983).


under-; opp. upon-, q.v.;

  in L. comp:

    sub-, q.v. (suc-, suf-, sup-, sus-) 'almost, somewhat, not completely, a little; under or below; opp. super-, supra-, over, above; see upon-;

    - subacutus, somewhat acute; subalbidus, somewhat whitish.

    - subepidermalis,-e (adj.B), below the epidermis; subhymenialis,-e (adj.B), below the hymenium;

    - subhymenium = hypothecium

    - hypothecium = subhymenium

  in Gk. comp.:

    hyp-, hypo-, q.v., below, under, beneath, lower, basal; opp. epi,q.v., upon, over; opp. hyp-, hyper-, q.v., upon, over; see upon-;

    - hypargyreus,-a,-um (adj.A), silvery beneath; hypochryseus,-a,-um (adj.A), golden beneath;

    - hypodermicus, beneath the epidermis; hypogaeus, below the ground.

    - hypoxys, somewhat acid.

    - Hypopitys, from Gk. hypo, under and pitys, pine, growing under and perhaps parasitic on Pinus.

  NOTE: these prefixes often indicate an incompleteness to the quality indicated in the word to which the prefix is added; indicating 'slightly,' 'somewhat,' 'less than.'


undermost, lowermost, lowest: infimus,-a,-um (adj.A); intimus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'innermost, inmost; deepest, most profound;' minime (adv.), least, very little, smallest, extremely seldom; paucissimus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'the west, the least;' opp. supremus,-a,-um (adj.A) q.v., 'highest, topmost;' opp. extimus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'outermost;'

     - bracteae infimae folia suprema simulantes, lowest bracts resembling the highest leaves.

     - ab imo ad summum, from bottom to top.

     - caulibus in parte infima glabris, stems in the lowermost part glabrous.


undergoing, submitting to: subiens,-entis (part.B);

    - cellulae divisiones subeuntes, cells undergoing divisions (Stearn 1983).

    - hyphis septationibus subeuntibus, with the hyphae undergoing septation.


underground: subterraneus,-a,-um (adj.A), hypogaeus,-a,-um (adj.A), opp. of aboveground: supraterraneus,-a,-um (adj.A), epigaeus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Undergrowth: see virgulta,-orum (pl.n.II), abl. pl. virgultis.


Underleaf, ventral, generally modified leaf in most leafy liverworts:

  amphigastrium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. amphigastrio, nom.& acc. pl.

  amphigastria, q.v.; see stuppa,-ae (s.f.I); in older Hepatic texts,  underleaves may be rendered foliolum,-i (s.n.II);

    - amphigastria saepe usque plus quam 0.25 partem longitudinis divisa, amphigastria often to more than 0.25 part of the length divided.

    - T. subtrifido similis, sed et foliis et amphigastriis oblique patentibus differt, similar to T. subtrifidum by differs by both the leaves and underleaves obliquely spreading. 


underneath: infra (adv. and prep. with acc.), subter (adv. and prep. with abl. and acc.), subtus (adv.); opp. supra (adv.), q.v. 'on the upper side;' see subtus.


Undershrub or halfshrub, subshrub, perennial plant with only lower part woody, suffrutescent, a small shrub: see suffrutex,-icis (s.m.III), abl. sg. suffrutice, nom.& acc. pl. suffrutices, gen. pl. suffruticum, dat.& abl. pl. suffruticibus; see shrub.


under side, on the, downwards from above, below, beneath, in the lower part: inferne (adv.); opp. superne (adv.),' upper side, on the; upwards, from above, above.'


Underside, undersurface; cf. dorsum,-i (s.n.II) 'back;' cf. frons (s.f.III), frontis (s.f.III), in the sense of 'face,' rather than 'front;' cf. upperside;

    - facies,-ei (s.f.V), faciei, abl. sg. facie, facies: 'face,' facet.

    - in facie foliari abaxiali, on the abaxial leaf-face.

    - pagina,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. pagina: side of a leaf.

    - in pagina foliari abaxiali, on the abaxial side of the leaf.

    - pars, partis (s.f.III), abl. sg. parte: part, portion, piece, section,  sector, division, subdivision: pars, partis (s.f.III), abl. sg. parte;

    - in parte foliari abaxiali, on the abaxial part of the leaf.

    - superficies,-ei (s.f.V), dat. sg. superficiei, abl. sg. superficie

    - in superficie foliari abaxiali, on the abaxial leaf surface.


  + abaxialis,-e (adj.B), the side of the leaf that faces away from the stem (i.e. the underside).

  + aversus,-a,-um (part.A): turned backwards, behind, on the back; (opp. aversus);

    - pagina aversa, under side (of leaf).

    - in parte aversa, on the part behind (said of cultures in agar, as Aspergillus).

  + dorsalis,-e (adj.B), dorsualis,-e (adj.B): dorsal; related to or attached to the back; the surface turned away from the axis, which in the case of a leaf is the lower, abaxial surface.

    NOTE: dorsal is the UPPER surface of a flattened plant body.

    NOTE: ventral refers to the LOWER surface of a prostrate plant or structure.

  + infernus,-a,-um (adj.A); inferus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'lower, under.'

  + inferior,-ius (adj.B), compar. of inferus,-a,-um (adj.A).


    - nervis secundariis in pagina foliari abaxiali planis, with the secondary nerves on the abaxial leaf surface plane.

    - pagina aversa, lower side (of leaf).

    - margine basis pinnarum acroscopica ad paginam abaxialem versus saepe subplicata, with the margin of the base of the pinnae acroscopic, often subplicate on the abaxial side.

    - in facie dorsali et ventrali, on the dorsal and ventral face.


undeveloped: abortivus,-a,-um (adj.A); immaturus,-a,-um (adj.A); rudimentalis,-e (adj.B), rudimentarius,-a,-um (adj.A); see rudimentary.


undetermined, unidentified (unnamed): indeterminatus,-a,-um (part.A), innominatus,-a,-um (part.A);

    - pigmenta Y.P.-1, Y.P.-2, et G.P.-1 innominata continens, containing unidentified pigments Y.P.-1, Y.P.-2, G.P.-1 (Stearn 1983).

  NOTE: determined: determinatus,-a,-um (part.A).


undifferentiated (not in Stearn): aequabilis,-e (adj.B), conformis,-e (adj.B), similar, like, agreeing closely, of the same shape as, with genitive; similar in shape and size to others, ant. difformis,-e (adj.B), non conformis,-e (adj.B); indistinctus,-a,-um (part.A), non distinctus,-a,-um (part.A) 'ill defined, not distinguishable;' homogeneus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'homogeneous, uniform in structure;' similis,-e (adj.B + dat.), q.v.; see similar, uniform;

    - hyphis homogeneis, with hyphae homogeneous.

    - cellulae basales apicalium conformes, the basal cells similar to the apical (gen. pl.).

    - foliis omnibus aequalibus, with all the leaves equal.


undipes,-pedis (adj.B): wavy-stalked; see -footed.


undique (adv.): in every part, from all parts, on all sides; cf. passim (adv.);

    -  stigmatibus 2 filiformibus undique papillosis, with stigmas 2 filiform on all sides papillose.


undivided: indivisus,-a,-um (adj.A); integer, integra, integrum (adj.A), 'entire, without teeth or lobes or notches; whole, undivided, simple, complete, perfect;' also simplex,-icis (adj.B) 'simple, unbranched'; see entire;

    - parte folii basali indivisa latiore, by the undivided basal portion of the leaf broader.

    - bractea intima indivisa integraque, with the innermost bract undivided and entire.


  NOTE: 'indivisus' usually refers to an organ that is expected to be deeply parted or cleft; see divided.


undoubted, without doubt, certain: certe (adv.), sine dubio 'without doubt,' indubitabilis,-e (adj.B); indubitandus,-a,-um (adj.A); indubitatus,-a,-um  (adj.A); nempe (adv.); see certain.


undoubtedly, doubtlessly: indubie (adv.), indubitabiliter (adv.), indubitanter (adv.), indubitate (adv.); see certainly.


undulate, wavy, as characteristic of a margin or surface: undatus,-a,-um (adj.A);


undulatus,-a,-um (adj.A) (applied to edges waved upwards and downwards and also inward and out (Stearn); repandus,-a,-um (adj.A), repand, somewhat sinuose; having a slightly uneven and waved margin; sinuate, q.v. is more deeply and pronouncedly wavy; cf. rugosus,-a,-um (adj.A).

  Rhizinia undulata Fr., a fungus, from the undulating, crustlike fuiting body.


undulato-striatus,-a,-um (adj.A): having wavy elevated lines.


unequal, asymmetric: (most adjectives indicating equality or inequality are followed by the dative case (i.e. the thing to which something is equal or unequal);

  inaequabilis,-e (adj.B), inaequalis,-e (adj.B); impar (adj.B + dat.) 'uneven, unequal;'  dispar,-paris (adj.B + dat.) 'unlike, different, dissimilar, unequal;'

  heterogeneus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'heterogeneous, dissimilar, not uniform in  structure;' heteromorphus,-a,-um (adj.A), heteromorphicus,-a,-um (adj.A);

  inaequimagnus,-a,-um (adj.A), not of the same size; cf. dissimilis,-e (adj.B), 'unlike, dissimilar;' see asymmetricus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. differentiated; cf. dimorphicus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - foliis disparibus, inferiore grandiusculo reliquis multo minoribus, with leaves unequal, the lower one rather large, the rest much smaller (Stearn (1983)

    - achenia in eodem capitulo inaequalia, achenes in the same head unequal. 


unequal-, uneven-, asymmetrical-: in L. comp. impari-; inaequi-; opp. of aequi-, equal, even, symmetrical;

    - imparilaterus, unequally sided; inaequipes,-pedis (adj.B) (see -footed)

    - inaequilateralis, with unequal sides; inaequimagnus, not of the same size.


unequally: inaequaliter (adv.), inaeque (adv.), impariter (adv.);

    - imparipinnatus, unequally pinnate.

    - calyx inaequaliter 5-6-fidus v. 0, calyx unequally 5-6-divided or not.


unequally pinnate, odd-pinnate, pinnately compound with a terminal leaflet rather than a pair of leaflets or a tendril, leaving an odd number of leaflets:

  imparipinnatus,-a,-um (adj.A); opp. even-pinnate: paripinnatus,-a,-um (adj.A).


unequal-sided: inaequilaterus,-a,-um (adj.A), irregularis,-e (adj.B);

    - foliola valde inaequilatera, latere altero quam alterum multo breviore, leaflets very unequal-sided, with one side than the other much shorter (Stearn 1983).


uneven: (of ground) asper, aspera, asperum (adj.A) 'of uneven places;'

  inaequalis,-e (adj.B), inaequus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'uneven;' asper, aspera, asperum (adj.A) 'rough' used of uneven places.

  iniquus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'rough, uneven' as of ground; see unequal; see rough.


uneven, rough place: asperum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. aspero.


Unevenness: iniquitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. iniquitate;

    - iniquitas loci, unevenness of place.


unexamined: inexplicatus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'not explained;' inexploratus, -a,-um (adj.A): unexplored, not examined, unknown; cf. inexplorate (adv.) 'without examining beforehand.'


unexpected: inopinatus,-a,-um (adj.A), inexpectatus,-a,-um (adj.A).


unexplained: inexplicatus,-a,-um (adj.A).


unexplored: inexploratus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'unexamined, unexplored, unknown.'


unfavorable: iniquus,-a,-um (adj.A), adversus,-a,-um (adj.A).


unfinished: inchoatus,-a,-um (part.A), imperfectus,-a,-um (adj.A).


unfolded, expanded, spread apart: expansus,-a,-um (part.B), explicatus,-a,-um (part.A).


unfolding: expandens,-entis (part.B) 'spreading out, spreading apart, expanding;'

  explicans,-antis (part.B) 'unfolding, uncoiling, unrolling, opening.'


Unfolding, an; an expansion: explicatio,-onis (s.f.III), q.v. abl. sg. explicatione.


unformed: informis,-e (adj.B) 'that has no form, that has not a proper form, unformed, shapeless, misshapen, deformed' (Lewis & Short); see ugly. 


unfortunate: see unhappy.


unfruitful: infecundus,-a,-um (adj.A), sterilis,-e (adj.B).


unfurled, expanded, spread out: expansus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.,

  explicatus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.; see open.


unfurling: expandens,-entis (part.B).


unguicularis,-e (adj.B), unguiculatus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.; clawed, hoofed, taloned; ungulatus,-a,-um (adj.A), unguliformis,-e (adj.B) also mean hoof-shaped, shaped like a (horse's) hoof.


unguicularis,-e (adj.B):

1. 1/2 inch (1.3 cm.) long.

2. clawed. unguiculatus,-a,-um (adj.A): clawed.

  Barbula unguiculata Hedw. (Musci), the apiculate apex, or excurrent costa into a apiculus is implied, the leaf seems to be 'toothed' or taloned as though a claw. 


unguiculatus,-a,-um (adj.A): unguiculate, clawed, ending in a point similar to a small, animal's claw; also, contracted at the base into a claw [> L. dim. of unguis,-is (s.f.III) claw]. 

  Barbula unguiculata Hedw., referring to the appearance of the stout excurrent costa (apiculate leaf). 


unguis,-is (s.f.III), abl. sg. ungue, nom.& acc. pl. ungues, gen. pl. unguium, dat. & abl. pl. unguibus:

1. a claw, talon or hoof.

2. claw, narrowed basal part of a petal;

    - corolla vexillo ad basem in unguem angustum diminuato, corolla with a standard at the base diminished into a narrow claw.

  3. fingernail; the length of a fingernail, 1/2 inch, 1.3 cm. (an i-stem noun);


Unguiculus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. unguiculo: a finger-nail; a small claw or talon.


Ungula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. ungula: a hoof, talon, claw, as of horses, oxen, hens.


unhappy, unfortunate, sad: aerumnosus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'full of trouble or misery; suffering, miserable;' afflictus,-a,-um (part.A), full of distress, vexed;' infelix,-icis (adj.B), 'unfortunate, unhappy;' infortunatus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'unfortunate;' miser, misera, miserum (adj.A), 'unhappy, unfortunate, wretched;'


unhappily (adv.), unfortunately (adv.): infeliciter (adv.)


Unharmed, uninjured, unhurt: salvus,-a,-um (part.A), incolumis,-e (adj.B), inviolatus,-a,-um (adj.A).



1. liable to ill health, weak, feeble: debilis,-e (adj.B), q.v., infirmus,-a,-um (adj.A), imbecilus,-a,-um (adj.A)

2. unwholesome: gravis,-e (adj.B) q.v., of disease, virulent, 'grave,' unwholesome, noxious; sick; miser, misera, miserum (adj.A), miserable sad; sick, ill; pestilens,-entis (adj.B), pestilentus,-a,-um (adj.A), pestilentiosus,-a,-um (adj.A), pestifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.A), pestilis,-e (adj.B): all = 'pestilential, infected, unwholesome, unhealthy;' see diseased.


uni-: in L. comp., one-; in Gk. comp. see mon-, mono-, one-; 

    - uniaperturatus, with one aperture or opening; uniaristatus, with one awn; unibracteatus, with one bract; unicapsularis, with all the carpels united into one capsule; unicaulis, with a single stalk or stem; unicellularis, one-celled; unicolor,-oris, with one color; unifarius, in one row; uniglumis, with one glume; unijugus, with one pair of leaflets; unilabiatus, one-lipped; unilateralis, one-sided; unilocularis, one-chambered; uninervis, univervius, one-nerved; uniovulatus, with the ovule solitary; unipolaris,-e, with one pole; unipapillosus, with a single papilla per cell; uniseptatus, with one septum; uniserialis, uniseriatus, in one row; univalvis, one-valved; univerticillatus, with one verticil or whorl; univittatus, one-banded.

  NOTE: in Greek compounds the prefix is mono- or mon-, hence  monoverticillate is incorrect as this is a mix of Greek + Latin: = univerticillate.


uniaxialis,-e (adj.B): with one unbranched stem terminating in a flower.


unice (adv.): singularly, expecially, in an extraordinary degree, alone, solely.


unicus,-a,-um (adj.A): one and no more, single, solitary, growing singly; alone of its kind, singular, uncommon, unparalleled, unique; cf. singularis; see one;

    - appendice saccata unica differt, it differs by a single saccate  appendage.

    - zoosporae typice globulis aureis duobus, interdum unico vel tribus, zoospores typically with globules golden two, sometimes one or three.

    - species 5, unica in Asiam maxime boreali-orientalem vagans, species 5, a single one ranging into Asia, mostly north-eastern.

    - Novae Granatae septentrionali species unica endemica D. bitterianae affinis, a single species endemic to northern Colombia related to D. bitteriana.

    - in cellulam unicam terminans, terminating in a single cell.


unidentified: see undetermined; see unnamed.


unifacialis,-e (adj.B): a structure with two opposite surfaces essentially similar in appearance; cf. bifacialis,-e (adj.B).


unifariam (adv.), unifarius,-a,-um (adj.A): in one row. 


uniform (adj.): aequabilis,-e (adj.B), aequus,-a,-um (adj.A), constans, -antis (part.B) 'firm, constant, uniform, stable, invariable, unchangeable;' uniformis,-e (adj.B) 'uniform, simple;' see even, level; uniform in structure: homogeneus,-a,-um (adj.A); see undifferentiated; see variable;

    - pedicellis elongatis, aequabilibus, with the pedicels elongate, uniform.

    - corporibus laevibus homogeneis, with the bodies smooth, homogeneous.

    - theca aequalis, cum vel absque annulo, theca uniform, with or without an annulus.


Uniformity: aequabilitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. aequabilitate; aequalitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. aequalitate; constantia,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. constantia.


uniformly: uniformiter (adv.), aeque (adv.), aequabiliter (adv.), aequaliter (adv.); constanter (adv.), 'evenly, uniformly, consistently;'

   - protoplasma uniformiter granulosum, protoplasm uniformly granular.

   - glandibus secus sulcas caulis aequaliter dispositis, with glands along the stem grooves uniformly spaced.


unijugate: having one pair of leaflets, used of a pinnately compound leaf. 


unilateral, of or relating to one side: unilateralis,-e (adj.B): cf. secund.


unilateraliter (adv.): pertaining or relating to one side;

    - flores cymosi, unilateraliter racemosi, flowers cymose or racemose on one side.


uninjured: see unharmed.


uninterrupted: assiduus,-a,-um (part.A), 'continually in one place; constant, persistent;' continuus,-a,-um (adj.A), perpetuus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. contiguus,-a,-um (part.A): contiguous, near, that which touches another; see continual.


uninterruptedly, continually: assidue (adv.), continenter (adv.), perpetuo (adv.).


Unio,-onis (s.f.III), unione: union, society, club [> L. unio,-onis (s.f.m. III) the number one, oneness, unity; a unity; a single large pearl]; see association;

    - unio itineraria, society to promote exploration and travel. 


Unio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. unione, 'a kind of onion.'

   Uniola L., Spikegrass, the 'ancient name of some plant mentioned by Apuleius' (Fernald 1950), the dimin. of unio.


Union, a uniting: combinatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. comginatione, 'a uniting two by two;' junctio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. junctione 'a joining, uniting, union;' conjunctio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. conjunctione 'binding, joining together; union;' junctura,-ae (s.f.I) 'a joining, uniting;' cf. conjugation, copulation.


unipolaris,-e (adj.B): at one end only (as a bacterial cell).


unique, singular, one-of-a-kind: unicus,-a,-um (adj.A), singularis,-e (adj.B); cf. peculiaris,-e (adj.B) 'special, particular, not held in common with others;'

    -  discrimine singulari inter congeneres novozelandicos coloris tubi corollini flavi differt, it differs by the singular distinction among New Zealand congeners of the yellow color of the corolline tube.


uniquely, alone of its kind: singulariter (adv.), unice (adv.).


unisexual, of one sex, i.e. having only an androecium or a gynoecium, a perichaetium or perigonium, but not both together in one plant or flower, either staminate or pistillate only; bearing stamens or pistils but not both; diclinous, imperfect (flower): unisexualis,-e (adj.B), diclinis,-e (adj.B), q.v.; cf. bisexual = perfect;

    -flores unisexuales, flowers unisexual, i.e. having male organs in one flower, female in another.

    NOTE: monoecious (q.v.) plants have imperfect flowers, but both sexes grow separately on the same plant; dioecious (q.v.) plants have imperfect flowers that grow on separate plants.   


unistratose: unistratosus,-a,-um (adj.A); see layer.


Unit: monas,-adis (s.f.III), abl. sg. monade, nom.& acc. pl. monades, dat. & monadibus; see piece, fragmentum, frustillum; pars.


Unitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. unitate: the condition of being one, oneness, unity; sameness, uniformity; agreement, concord, unity of concept or sentiment;

    - specimina multa typica unitatem speciei confirmare videntur (B&H), many typical specimens seem to confirm the unity of the species.


united, combined: combinatus,-a,-um (part.A); coadunatus,-a,-um (part.A), 'several united into one, joined together;' conjunctus,-a,-um (part.A), connatus,-a,-um (part.A); connexus,-a,-um (part.A); junctus,-a,-um (part.A); unitus,-a,-um (part.A);' cf. concretus,-a,-um (part.A), 'grown together, concrete, compound, condensed, hardened, thick, hard, stiff, curdled, congealed, clotted;' see joined;

    - glomeruli e multitudine sporarum firmiter unitarum compositi, glomerules from a multitude of firmly united spores composed.

    - lamina haptero parvo discoideo connexa, lamina connected by a small discoid hapteron.


united by growth, fused: see fused.


united compactly: concretus,-a,-um (part.A), of soft substances grown hard, 'grown together, concrete, compound, condensed, hardened, thick, hard, stiff, curdled, congealed, clotted.'


United States of America: Americae Respublica Foederata, see state, res.


uniting, combining: combinans,-antis (part.B), concrescens,-entibus (part.B); conjungens,-entis (part.B), jungens,-entis (part.B);

   - fructus sepalis concrescentibus reliquias stigmatis gerentibus subtentus, fruit subtended by the grown-together sepals bearing the remnants of the stigma.


Uniting: concretio,-onis (s.f.III): a compacting, uniting, condensing, congealing (opp. liquor) matter (Lewis & Short).


uniuscujusque: see unusquisque.


universalis,-e (adj.B): general, of or belong to the whole;

    - involucrum universale, general involucre.

    - volva universalis, universal veil or volva. Stearn.


universe (adv.): in general, generally.

  in universum (adv. phrase): as a whole.


University: universitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. universitate, academia,-ae (s.f.I), academia (used only of the older European universities);

    - delectus seminum ex Horto Cantabrigiensis Academiae, a selection of seeds from the Cambridge University Garden

    - Hortus publicus Academiae Lugduno-Batavae, Botanic Garden of Leiden University (Stearn 1983).


unknown: ignotus,-a,-um (adj.A), incognitus,-a,-um (part.A); inexploratus, -a,-um (adj.A) 'unexplored, unexamined, unknown;' see unexamined;

    - cystidia hymenialia ignota, hymenial cystidia unknown.


unlawful: illegitimus,-a,-um (adj.A), non ligitimus,-a,-um (adj.A); inlicitus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'not allowed;' vetitus,-a,-um (part.A) 'banned, prohibited;'

    - nomen illegitimum, name contrary to the rules of nomenclature, illegitimate name (Stearn).


unlawfully, illegally: contra legem (singular) or leges (plural).


unless: nisi (adv.), q.v.;

   - ostiolum nisi in cultura non distinctum, ostiole unless in culture not distinct.


unlike: disparilis,-e (adj.B); dissimilis,-e (adj.B), with gen. or dat. of noun compared), diversus,-a,-um (part.A); 

    - species H. excelsae habitu dissimilis, species unlike H. excelsa in habit (Stearn 1983)

    - bracteis subfloralibus disparilibus, exterioribus brevioribus, with the subfloral bracts different, the exterior ones shorter.

    - flores Rosacearum dispariles, the flowers of the Rosaceae are different.


unlimited, boundless: infinitus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.


unmixed: purus,-a,-um (adj.A); see pure.


unnamed, indetermined, unidentified: innominatus,-a,-um (part.A);

    - pigmenta Y.P.-1, Y.P.-2, et G.P.-1 innominata continens, containing unidentified pigments Y.P.-1, Y.P.-2, G.P.-1 (Stearn 1983). 


unnatural, beyond nature: extranaturalis,-e (adj.B); in Gk. comp. mix-, mixo-, 'as in  unnatural mixtures resulting in monstrosities;' see abnormal.


unnecessary: see superfluous.


unnecessarily: see superfluously.


unobservable, that cannot be observed: inobservabilis,-e (adj.B).


unobserved, unperceived: inobservatus,-a,-um (adj.A); non visus,-a,-um (part.A): not seen, not perceived or observed; see unknown; see unexamined;

    - specimina ab auctore inobservata, specimens not observed by the author.

    - species a nobis non visa, species by us not seen.


unpleasant, disagreeable: incommodus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'disagreeable, unpleasant, inconvenient, troublesome;' ingratus,-a,-um (adj.A), molestus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'annoying, irksome, troublesome;' odiosus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'troublesome, hateful, odious;' opp. pleasant, q.v.; cf. stinking.


unpleasantly, disagreeably: incommode (adv.), ingrate (adv.), graviter (adv.), moleste (adv.).


unpolished: impolitus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. matt, dull.


unprovided with, unprepared: imparatus,-a,-um (in and paratus; part.A + abl.);

    - cellulis foliorum aqua imparatis, with the cells of the leaves not provided with water. 

    - fructibus pro aetate imparatis, with the fruits unprepared for summer.


unquam (adv.): see umquam.


unquestionable, certain: see certain.


unquestionably: certe (adv.); sine dubio, without a doubt; see certainly.


unreliable, untrustworthy: infidelis,-e (adj.B), infidus,-a,-um (adj.A).


unremarkable: see insignificant.


unripe: immaturus,-a,-um (adj.A); crudus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'crude, immature, undeveloped; raw, uncooked.'


unspotted: astictus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'unspotted, spotless;' immaculatus,-a,-um (adj.A); see spotless.


unstable, that does not stand fast, unsteady, changeable, not firm: incertus,-a,-um (adj.A), inconstans,-antis (part.B); instabilis,-e (adj.B); mutabilis,-e (adj.B); vagus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'wandering, unfixed, unsettled; inconstant;' variabilis,-e (adj.B), 'variable,  changeable;' opp. immutabilis,-e (adj.B);

    - numero loborum variabili, inconstanti, with the number of lobes variable, not constant.


instabiliter (adv.): unsteadily.


Unsteadiness, instability: instabilitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. instabilitate; inconstantia,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. inconstantia.


until, up to (a point in time):

1. ad + acc.

    - ad aetatem capsula operculata, capsule uperculate until summer.

    - ad summam senectutem plantae pilosae, plants pilose until extreme old age.

    - flores ad meridiem expansi, flowers unfurled until midday.

2. in + acc.

    - ex hoc die ad alium diem, from this day until another day.

    - ramus ex hieme in aetatem efoliatum, the branch from winter until (into) summer without leaves.

3. dum (conj.) until, up to the time at which;

    - operculum dum seta elongata remanens, operculum, until seta elongated, remaining.

    - seminibus dum primo vere induratis, seeds indurate until the onset of spring.

    - mense novembri dum maius fructificans, fruiting in the month of November until May.

4. donec (conj.), until, up to the time at which;

    - genus quondam late diffusum donec peste exterminatum, the genus once widely distributed until by disease exterminated.

    - ineunte hieme florens donec hiems exacta, flowering with the onset of winter until winter is passed.

5. quoad (adv.), until, up to the time that;

    - capsula integra quoad sporae dimissae, capsule entire until spores discharged.

    - mense novembri quoad maius fructificans, fruiting in the month of November until May.


untouched: intactus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'untouched, intact, entire, whole.'


untrue: falsus,-a,-um (adj.A), mendosus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Ununbium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. Ununbio: (chem.) an element, abbrev. Uub; Ununhexium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. Ununhexio: (chem.) an element, abbrev. Uuh; Uun Ununnilium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. Ununnilio, (chem.) an element, abbrev. Uun; Ununoctium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. Ununoctio, (chem.) an element, abbrev. Uuo; Ununpentium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. Ununpentio, (chem.) an element, abbrev. Uup; Ununquadium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. Ununquadio, (chem.) an element, abbrev. Uuq; Ununseptium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. Ununseptio, (chem.) an element, abbrev. Uus; Ununtrium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. Ununtrio, (chem.) an element, abbrev. Uut; Ununumium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. Ununumio, (chem.) an element, abbrev. Uuu.


unus, una, unum (irregular adj.A): one, a single, alone;


        singular                            plural

      m.    f.   n.                    m.      f.     n.

Nom. unus  una  unum                  uni     unae   una

Gen.      unius                      unorum unarum unorum

Acc. unum  unam unum                  unos    unas   una

Dat.      uni                                 unis

Abl. uno  una   uno                           unis


  NOTE: the plural may be used with nouns considered to be only in the plural,  such as (the ancient Rome) the agri decumates, lands on which tithes or land-taxes were paid (the decumates,-ium, relating to tithes), nouns known only in the plural, such as nuptiae,-arum (pl.f.I): marriage, nuptials; gemini,-orum (pl.m.II), twins; quadrijugi,-orum (pl.m.II): a team of four horses;

    - uni gemini, individual twins; unae nuptiae, individual marriages, etc.

    - tria Graecorum genera sunt, quorum uni sunt Athenienses (Cicero), there are three kinds of Greeks, some of whom are Athenians.

    - unus de magistratibus, one of the magistrates.

    - flores in umbella saepius pauci, rarius ad unum reducti, flowers few more often in an umbel, more rarely reduced to one (sc. flower, s.m.III)).

    - species ad 15, Africae australis incolae, cum una ex Africa tropica, species to 15, inhabitants of southern Africa, with one (sc. species) from tropical Africa.

    - una e cotyledonibus in folium unicum plantae evolvitur, one of the cotyledons is developed in a single leaf of the plant ('una' is feminine as it modifies a fem. noun (cotyledon)).

    - formae speciei unius polymorphae, forms of a single polymorphic species.

    - species 2, una Tasmanica, 3 (vel unius varietates) Novo-Zelandicae, species 2, one Tasmanian, 3 (or varieties of one) of New Zealand (B&H).

    - in unum 'into one, to one place, together.

    - species 2 quarum una per Archipelagum Malayanum dispersa, species 2, of which one is dispersed throughout the Malayan Archipelago.

    - unus tantum, one alone (i.e. only).

    - una sola per Americam australem late diffusa, only one throughout South America broadly distributed (B&H).

    NOTE: these are irregular A adjectives because the genitive sg. ends in -ius and the dative sg. in -i in all genders. 


unus-quisque (m.), unaquaeque (f.), unumquidque (n.) = substantive (indefinite pronoun).


unusquique (m.) unaquaeque (f.), unumquodque (n.)   = adjective  each single one, each one singly, every single one, each (of a number of objects, in contrast to uterque which refers to each one of a pair); see quisque, quaeque, quidque (and adj. quodque) (indefinite pronoun): each, each one, each person;

    - dentes triangulares, nervo ex uniuscujusque apice decurrente, teeth triangular, with the nerve from the apex of each single one decurrent (Stearn)

    - in unaquaque valva, in each valve. 

    - 'est unusquisque faber ipsae suae fortunae,' every man is the creator of his own destiny.

  NOTE: this word, as (pro)noun or adjective preceeds the regular noun: unusquique pileus, each single pileus.

  NOTE: this is a compound word composed of unus, una, unum and quisque (quique), quaeque and quidque (quodque). Note that both parts of the compound are declined:



             m.             f.               n.    

Nom.     unusquisque   unaquaeque        unumquidque    (indefinite pronoun)

          unusquique   unaquaeque        unumquodque (indefinite adjective)

Gen.                   uniuscuiusque                    

Dat.                   unicuique                       

Acc.      unumquemque  unamquamque       unumquidque   

Abl.        unoquoque  unaquaque         unoquoque 



            m.              f.               n.          

Nom.    uniquique      unaequaeque       unaquaeque

Gen.  unorumquorumque  unarumquarumque   unorumquorumque 

Dat.                   unisquibusque

Acc.    unosquosque    unasquasque       unaquaeque   

Abl.                   unisquibusque


  NOTE: for all practical purposes, quis- and qui- in the masculine singular, and quid- and quod- in the neuter singular may be used as adjectives with the noun modified: unusquisque pileus = unusquique pileus, each single pileus, each and every single pileus.


unusual: infrequens,-entis (adj.B), insolens,-entis (part.B) 'unusual, unaccustomed; unfamiliar, unused to, bizarre, not in use;' insolitus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'unusual, not habitual;' singularis,-e (adj.B), egregius,-a,-um (adj.A) 'outstanding;' insuetus,-a,-um (adj.A); extraordinarius,-a,-um (adj.A), inusitatus,-a,-um (part.A) 'unusual, not habitual;' rarus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'rare, uncommon;' irregularis,-e (adj.B) 'not regular;' see abnormal, bizarre, irregular, opp. usual, q.v.; opp. common, q.v.


unusually: insolenter (adv.), egregie (adv.), raro (adv.), inusitate (adv.); raro (adv.), rarenter (adv.) 'rarely, seldom;' irregulariter (adv.), irregulatim (adv.) 'irregularly;' opp. usually, q.v.; opp. commonly, q.v.


unwearied: indefessus,-a,-um (adj.A).


unwilling: see reluctant.


unwillingly: see reluctantly.


up; see ascendng, upwards; opp. down, q.v.;

1. sursum (adv.) = upwards, opp. deorsum 'downwards;'

       - capsulae valvulis sursum dehiscentes, capsules by valvules from below upwards dehiscing.

       - up the river, upriver: adverso flumine; opp. down the river, downriver: secundo flumine

       - in flumine averso, upstream; opp. in flumine secundo, downstream.

    2. superne (adv.): from above, above, upwards, on the upper side; opp. of inferne (adv.): below, beneath, in lower part, on the lower side;

       - folium obovatum inferne glaber superne papillosum, leaf obovate below laeve above papillose.

    3. a Greek prefix ana-, an-, ano-, q.v.;

       - anapetalus,-a,-um (adj.A): with petals erect or ascending.


up and down: sursum deorsum (adv. phrase).


up-: opp. down, q.v.

1. in L. comb.; opp. de-, q.v., down;

  ad-: a(d)scendere, to go up

  e-, ex-: extorrere, to burn up; exarescens to dry up; effodere, to dig up.

  in-: inaedificere, to build up, block up, barricade; incendere, to light up, incite.

  sub-: subigere, to work through, to work up.

  trans-: transcendere, to climb over, climb up, transcend.

2. in Gk. comb. ana-, an-, ano-, q.v.; opp. cata-, q.v., down.


upcurved, spreading at the base, then curving upward or forward: ascendens,-entis (part.B), assurgens,-entis (part. B); see descending.


uper-: sometimes an alternative spelling to hyper-, in Gk. comp. 'over, above;' see hyper-.


up high, high, elevated: sublime (adv.), sublimiter(adv.): loftily, on high, up high, high; compar. sublimius (adv.). 



1. adv. adverso colle, adversus collem;

2. adj.; acclivis,-e (adj.B), uphill, sloping upwards; opp. declivis,-e (q.v.).

3. up the hill, uphill (opposing the mountain): in adversum montem; opp. down the hill, downhill (following the mountain): in secundum montem.


upholding: sustinens,-entis (part.B).


upland (adj.): collinus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'pertaining to hills, hilly;' editus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.; montanus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Upland: collis,-is (s.m.III), colle, 'a hill, high ground;' editum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. adito: height, peak; editorum (pl.n.II), of high places; see mountain.

  Leucothoe editorum Fernald & B.G.Schub.; Sida editorum Gand.; Stipa editorum E.Fourn. ex Hemsl.; Rosa editorum Ripart ex Déségl.


uplifted, elevated, upturned: elevatus,-a,-um (part.A), sublimis,-e (adj.B), borne up, uplifted, raised; see elevated, raised;

    - pileus margine et elevata et undulata instructus, pileus provided with a margin both uplifted and undulate.


up to, as far as:

1. tenus (prep.) + abl., tenus is often placed after the word in the ablative; see tenus;

    - per totum Americam septentrionalem tenus Canada boreali habitat, it grows throughout North America as far as boreal Canada.

2. ad (prep. + acc.);

    - a base ad apicem, from base to apex [with 'apex' as the (upper) limit].

3. per (prep. + acc.) of numbers;

    - per angulum 20* deflexus, deflexed through an angle of 20* (Stearn).

4. in (prep. + abl.) of time;

    - in sex diebus, in the course of (up to) six days;

5.  usque ad (+ acc.) (of space, time or other relations); see usque;

    - marginibus ubique recurvis vel semel revolutis prope apicem tenus, with the margins throughout recurved or once revolute up to near the apex.

    - ala dorsali a folii medio ad apicem usque continua, dorsal wing from the middle of the leaf to the apex continuous.


up to, all the way to, continuously, as far as: usque (adv.; usually followed by ad with object in acc.); see usque.



1. in (prep. + abl.), on, upon;

    - in foliis vivis, raro in cortice crescens, on living leaves, rarely on bark growing.

    - folia in rhizomate conferta, leaves on the rhizome crowded together.

  2. ad (prep. + acc.), at, on;

    - folia ad margine papillosa, leaves on the margin papillose.

    - valvae ad nervos pubescentes, valves on the margins pubescent.

    - folia ad ramos ramulosque densa, leaves dense on branches and branchlets.

  3. super (prep. with acc. if motion is implied; + abl. if rest) on the top of, above, over, upon; opp. sub (prep. + abl.), q.v.;

    - folia super ramos ramulosque densiora, leaves upon the branches and branchlets denser.

  4. supra (adv.; prep. + acc.) on the upper side, above, beyond, over;

    - valvae supra nervos pubescentes, valves upon the nerves pubescent.


upon-; opp. under, q.v.

  in L. comp.

    super-: over, above, in addition; situated or placed above, on, at the top of; on the dorsal or upper side of; in excessive degree; supra-: above, higher than, situated on the dorsal or upper side of, on top, beyond, over, upon; opp. sub-, q.v., under.

    - suprafoliaris,-e (adj.A): arranged directly above and near the point of leaf insertion upon the stem.

    - superimpositus,-a,-um (part.A): placed upon, overlapping, superimposed.

    - superfluus,-a,-um (adj.A), overabundant, superfluous, excessive.


  in Gk. comp.

    epi-, q.v., upon, over, on top of, added to; q.v.; opp. hyp-, hypo-, q.v. 'below, under;' hyper-: in Gk. comp. over, above; of motion, over, across, beyond; of measure, over, above, exceeding, beyond, excessive, intensified; opp. hyp-, hypo-, q.v. 'under;' see under-.

    - epiphyton,-i (s.n.II), a plant growing on top of another plant, but not parasitic, such as an air-plant; epidermis,-idis (s.f.III), the superficial layer of cells; 

    - Epifagus Nutt., Beech-drops, from Gk. epi, upon, and phagos, the Beech 'because it grows on the roots of that tree' Fernald 1950.

    - hyperchromaticus,-a,-um: suited for color, susceptible of intensified coloration.

    - hypertrophicus,-a,-um (adj.A): abnormally or morbidly enlarged.


upper, above, on the upper side (adv.): supra (adv.) 'on the upper side, above, beyond, over;' insuper (adv.), 'above, on top, from above;' superne (adv.),'from above, upwards, above';

    - cirrhi superne volubiles, the tendrils upwardly spiraling.

    - petalis insuper lavandulaceis subter albis, with petals lavander above, white below.

    - laminis supra minus pubescentibus, with the blades on the upper side less pubescent.

    - herbae superne crescentes, herbs growing upwards.


upper, above (prep.):  super (prep. + abl. and acc.) 'above, on top of; abl. with verbs of or the idea of rest, acc. with verbs of motion;' supra (prep. + acc.): 'on the upper side, above, beyond, over; more than;' opp. under, underneath, q.v.;

    - caulis supra erecta stem in the upper part erect; caulis inferne erecta, stem in the lower part erect.

    - laminis supra minus pubescentibus, with the blades on the upper side less pubescent.

    - insuper subterque terram crescit, it grows above and below the soil.

    - supra millia viginti [more than 20 thousand]

    - semina supra montem vecta, seeds carried over the mountain.

    - nervo medio super medium attingenti, with the middle nerve reaching above the middle.

    - petalis super petala dispositis, with bracts above the petals arranged.

    - super solo habitans, dwelling above the soil.  


upper, above (adj.A): superus,-a,-um (adj.A), supernus,-a,-um (adj.A), superior,-ius (adj.compar.B), compar. of superus,-a,-um (adj.A); opp. inferus, 'below, lower;' cf. distalis,-e (adj.B), ventralis,-e (adj.B), adaxialis,-e (adj.B); opp. infernus,-a,-um (adj.A); opp. inferior,-ius (adj.compar.B);

    - caulibus infernis pubescentibus supernis glabris, with stems in the lower part pubescent, in the upper part glabrous.

    - filia superiora, upper leaves.

    - in pagina superiore, on the upper surface (side).

    - glomeruli florum inferiores remoti, superiores approximati, omnes folio suffulti, glomerules of flowers lower remote, upper close together, all by a leaf subtended (Stearn 1983).

    - caulibus infernis pubescentibus supernis glabris, with stems in the lower part pubescent, in the upper part glabrous.


upper-: in L. comp: super-, supra-, over, above; of motion, over, across, beyond; of measure, over, above, exceeding, beyond, excessive; opp. sub-, q.v.; see super-.

  in Gk. comp. hyper-, over, above; of motion, over, across, beyond; of measure, over, above, exceeding, beyond, excessive; opp. hyp-, hypo-, q.v.


uppermost: extimus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'outermost;' extremus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'outermost, extreme, last, farthest;

  of degree or quality;' maximus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'biggest, greatest, largest:' (superl. of magnus, 'large, big'); plurimus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'a lot of, very much, most' (superl. of multus, 'many, much');  postremus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'last, final;' summus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'uppermost, highest; greatest, most important, topmost' one of the superlatives of superus,-a,-um 'situated above, upper, higher;' supremus,-a,-um (adj.A), ' highest, topmost, loftiest, supreme; last, latest, final, extreme, also a superl. of superus; ultimus,-a,-um (adj.A): ultimate, farthest, most distant, last; the final section or division of a structure; opp. infimus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.; opp. intimus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'innermost, deepest;'

     - bracteae infimae folia suprema simulantes, lowest bracts resembling the highest leaves.

     - ab imo ad summum, from bottom to top.

     - paniculae e foliorum summorum axillis ortae, panicles from the axils of the upper leaves arising (Stearn 1983).

     - foliis in parte summa denticulatis, leaves in the uppermost part denticulate.

     - foliis summis unifoliolatis bracteiformibus deminutis, the uppermost leaves unifoliolate, bracteiform, reduced.

  NOTE: also 'in apical part:' in parte apicali.


upper side, on the; upwards, from above, above: superne (adv.); opp. of inferne (adv.): below, beneath, in lower part, on the lower side;

    - folium obovatum inferne glaber superne papillosum, leaf obovate below laeve above papillose.


Upperside, upper surface; cf. venter,-tris (s.m.III) 'front;' cf. frons (s.f.III), frontis (s.f.III), in the sense of 'face,' rather than 'front;'

    - facies,-ei (s.f.V), faciei, abl. sg. facie: 'face,' facet;'

    - in facie foliari adaxiali, on the adaxial leaf-face.

    - pagina,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. pagina: side of a leaf.

    - in pagina foliari adaxiali, on the adaxial side of the leaf.

    - pars, partis (s.f.III), abl. sg. parte: part, portion, piece, section, sector, division, subdivision: pars, partis (s.f.III), abl. sg. parte;

    - in parte foliari adaxiali, on the adaxial part of the leaf.

    - superficies,-ei (s.f.V), dat. sg. superficiei, abl. sg. superficie

    - in superficie foliari adaxiali, on the adaxial leaf surface.

  + adaxialis,-e (adj.B), the side of an organ, such as a leaf, that faces toward the stem  

  + adversus,-a,-um (part.A): turned to or toward a thing, with the face or front toward, in front of (opp. aversus);

    - pagina adversa, front or upper side (of leaf).

    - in parte adversa, on the part in front (said of cultures in agar, as Aspergillus). 

  + superus,-a,-um (adj.A): upper, higher, placed above, superior in position.

  + superior,-ius (adj.B), compar. of superus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'upper.'

  + ventralis,-e (abj.B): ventral, i.e. on the inner face or the one towards the axis, the adaxial surface of a leaf.

    NOTE: ventral refers to the LOWER surface of a prostrate plant or structure.

    NOTE: dorsalis,-e (adj.B), dorsualis,-e (adj.B): dorsal is the UPPER surface of a flattened plant body.


    - nervis secundariis in pagina foliari adaxiali planis, with the secondary nerves on the adaxial leaf surface plane.

    - pagina adversa, upper side (of leaf).

    - margine basis pinnarum acroscopica ad paginam adaxialem versus saepe subplicata, with the margin of the base of the pinnae acroscopic, often subplicate on the adaxial side.

    - in facie dorsali et ventrali, on the dorsal and ventral face.


upright: directus,-a,-um (part.A), q.v.;  erectus,-a,-um (part.A); rectus,-a,-um (part.A): 'led straight along, drawn in a straight line (horizontal or vertical), straight, upright;' verticalis,-e (adj.B); strictus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'drawn close together, very upright, very straight;' in Gk. comp. orth-, ortho-, q.v., 'straight, erect;' see perpendicular.


upriver, up the river:

    - up the river, upriver: adverso flumine; opp. down the river, downriver: secundo flumine.

    - in flumine averso, upstream; opp. in flumine secundo, downstream.


upside down: inversus,-a,-um (part.A) 'turned upside down, transposed.'


upturned: see uplifted.


upwards: sursum (adv.), sursum versus, upwards (from below); (opp. deorsum (adv.), desuper (adv.), q.v.; sublime (adv.) 'up high, loftily'; superne (adv.), from above, above, upwards, on the upper side; opp. of inferne (adv.): below, beneath, in lower part, on the lower side; cf. adaxialis,-e (adj.B), ventralis,-e (adj.B);

    - pinnis in apice sursum curvis, with pinnae in the apex curved upwards.

    - apicem versus, toward the apex, 'upwards' (versus, prep. + acc. follows the noun in the accusative).


ur-, ureo-, uro-: in Gk. comb.: this prefix (or, with modifications, a suffix) may derive from a number of Greek nouns beginning in 'our-' but from various declensions, with various accents;

  - oura (s.f.I): the tail; Latin cauda,-ae (s.f.I).

  - ouron (s.n.II): urine; Latin urina,-ae (s.f.I).

  - ouron (s.n.II): also ouros (s.m.II): a boundary

  - ouros (s.m.II): a fair wind, right astern

  - ouros (s.m.II): a watcher, warder, guard.

  - ouros, (s.m.III): a mountain

  - ouros (s.m.II): a wild bull; Latin urus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. uro.


ur- or uro-: in Gk. comb. urine [ > Gk. ouron (s.n.II), urine; Latin urina,-ae (s.f.I), q.v.];

    - uric acid: uroxanicum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. uroxanico.

    - urogenus,-a,-um (adj.A): urogenous, derived from or occurring in urine.


ur-, uro-; -uris,-idis (s.f.III), -uros,-i (s.m.II), -urus,-i (s.m.II);  -urus,-a,-um (adj.A): in Gk. comp. tail-, -tailed, i.e. with an elongated or tail-like appendage, such as a spike [> Gk. our-, ouro-, from oura (s.f.I): the tail, the hinder or after part(s) of anything, the rear, the stern of a ship; L. cauda,-ae (s.f.I)];

    - uromorphus,-a,-um (adj.A): tail-shaped; urophyllus, tail-leaved,  i.e. with leaves having an elongated tip; urosepalus, with tailed or appendaged sepals.

    - brachyurus,-a,-um (adj.A), with a short tail; macrurus, with a large tail [note elision here of the -o- connecting vowel]; myosurus, like or with the tail of a mouse, q.v.;

    - myuros,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. myuro, mouse-tail. 

  The epithet myuros (adj.A), 'mouse-tail,' in Vulpia myuros, appears to be a noun in apposition. 

  Hippuris > [s.f.III] -uris Mare's-tail > Gk. "meaning horse-tailed, from hippos, a horse, and oura, a tail, applied to a water plant" Fernald 1950; Leonurus,-i (s.m.II), Lion's-tail, leon, a lion, and oura, tail; Lepturus,

  -i (s.m.II), Slender-tail, leptos, slender + oura, a tail or spike a grass;  Myosurus,-i (s.m.II), Myosuro, Mousetail, the achenes "crowded on a very long and slender spike-like receptacle (whence the name ..." > Gk.

  myos, of a mouse, and oura, a tail (Fernald 1950); Myurium Schp. myouros (myouros + Gk. dim. -ium) mouse-tailed, alluding to the julaceous branches (of a moss); Pholiurus,-i (s.m.II), pholis, scale and oura, tail or spike;

  Saururus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. Saururo, from the flowers "crowded in a slender

  virgate and naked-peduncled terminal spike or raceme" > Gk. sauros, a lizard + oura, a tail (Fernald 1950).

  Myurella B. & S. "diminutive of Latin myurus, a mouse-tail, from the form of the branches" Dixon (1924); Myurocladium,-ii (s.n.II), from the mousetail-like appearance of leafy stems and branches.

  Sciurus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. sciuro: the squirrel from Greek skiouros (s.m.II) > skia, shadow + oura tail.

  Family: Hippuridaceae.


-ura,-ae (s.f.I), -ura: Latin substantive suffix: "indicates   the result of an action; verb base; e.g. incisura, incision (from   incidere, to cut into) (Stearn);

    - commissura,-ae (s.f.I) (from committo,-misi,-missum, 3., to unite, connect, combine) cultura,-ae (s.f.I) (from colo, colui, cultum, 3, to cultivate); laesura,-ae (s.f.I) laesura (from laedo, laesi, laesum, 3. to hurt, injure); plicatura,-ae (s.f.I), plication (from plico,-ui,-atus,

      1. to fold, double up, fold together); structura,-ae (s.f.I), structure (from struo, struxi, structum, 3. to pile up, construct); tinctura,-ae (s.f.I), a dyeing (from tingo, tinxi, tinctum, 3. to dye, color]; textura,-ae (s.f.I), a web, weaving [> L. texo, texui, textum, 3., to weave, intertwine, plait, build] vestitura,-ae (s.f.I), vestiture, covering (from vestio,-ivi, -itum, r., to cover with a garment, clothe.  [prefecture: praefectura,-ae (s.f.I), from prae and facio: praeficio, 3. to set over, appoint as superintendent, overseer]. 

    - nervatura,-ae (s.f.I) condition of nerves (> L. nervus, nerve) and nomenclatura,-ae (s.f.I) nomenclature (> L. nomen,-inis (s.n.III) appear to derive from nouns.


-ura,-ae (s.f.I); pl. -ura,-urorum (pl.n.II): from fem. sg. and neut. plural of -urus,-a,-um (adj.A): one having a specific tail (Chelura,-ae (s.f.I)); ones having such a tail (Anoura,-ourorum [also Anura,-urorum], syn. of Salientia,-tiorum, an order of Amphibia including frogs, toads that have no tail as adults;

  Brachyura,-urorum (pl.n.II), Xiphosura,-urorum (pl.n.III); generic name Xiphosurus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. Xiphosuro, sword-tail; in taxonomic names in zoology, creatures having a certain or specified kind of tail or posterior (caudal) appendage (WIII)[> Gk. our-, ouro-, from oura (s.f.I): the tail, the hinder part of anything, the rear; L. cauda,-ae (s.f.I)].


uraeus,-a,-um (adj.A): of or belonging to the tail [> L. uraeus > Gk. ouraios, of the tail]. 


urbanus,-a,-um (adj.A): pertaining to towns and cities as distinct from the country. 

Urbs (s.f.III), urbis, urbe: city.

  NOTE: urbs is for city, oppidum or municipium is for a town; pagus and vicus for a village or hamlet (i.e. small town), although pagus can also mean the larger district or province.  As an i-stem noun, the gen. pl. is urbium. 


urceolatus,-a,-um (adj.A): pitcher-, vase- or urn-shaped, i.e. hollow, more or less rounded and distinctly contracted at the mouth, with the limb small; 'descriptive of a gamopetalous corolla somewhat contracted at the throat and lacking a prominent limb' (Gleason 1952); constricted below a wide mouth and abruptly narrowed at the base, as in a moss capsule; see ascidiform. 

Urceolus,-i (s.m.II), urceolo: urceole; cf. ascidium,-i (s.n.II).

Urceus,-i (s.n.II), urceo; in classical Latin, a small jug or pitcher, water pot, ewer.


-ure (Eng. noun ending): see -ura,-ae (s.f.I).


uredicole, uredicolous, growing on rusts (fungi): uredicola,-ae (s.c.I), abl. sg. uredicola; uredinicola,-ae (s.c.I), abl. sg. uredinicola.


Uredinium: see uredium.


uredinoid: uredinoideus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Urediosorus: see uredium.


Urediospore: urediospora,-ae (s.f.I), urediospora.


Uredium (-inium,-osorus), a sorus producing the summer spores (urediospores) of fungi of the Uredinales: uredium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. uredio; uredinium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. uredinio, uredosorus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. uredosoro: "the crowded usually yellow or brownish aggregation of spore-bearing hyphae and urediospores of a rust forming pustules or sori that become exposed by rupture of the host's cuticle or epidermis beneath which they develop" (WIII).


Uredo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. uredine: the uredostage of a rust, formerly regarded as a distinct genus.


Uredo,-inis Pers. (s.f.III), abl. sg. Uredine: a genus of fungi; a form genus of rusts including forms having either a uredostage only or having a uredostage together with pycnial and aecial stages (WIII) [> L. uredo,-inis (s.f.III) a blast, blight of plants; a burning itch > uro, ussi, ustum 3. to burn, to burn up, destroy by fire, to sting or pain acutely]

  Uredinales, the Rust Fungi or Rusts: obligate parasites of seed plants and ferns, a number of which are very important pathogens; Uredinaria,-ae Chev.(s.f.I), Uredinella,-ae Couch (s.f.I), Uredinopsis,is (s.f.III) Magn.,

  Uredinaria,-ae Chev., Uredinula,-ae Speg. (s.f.I), Uredopeltis,-is (s.f.III) P. Henn., Uredinopsis Magn.


uredo-: in Gk. comb. note that often the stem, uredin- + -o- is reduced to ured- + -o- as used in (English) word combinations, but in taxonomic names the full stem (uredin-) is generally used (cf. Uredopeltis).


Uredoconidium, associated with the fungus genus Cumminsiella: uredoconidium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. uredoconidio.

Uredosorus: uredosorus,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. uredosoro; see uredinium,-ii (s.n.II).


Uredospore, a summer spore of fungi in the Rust Fungi (Uredinales): urediospora,-ae (s.f.I), urediospora; uredospora,-ae (s.f.I), uredospora; urediniospora,-ae (s.f.I), urediniospora.

uredospore-bearing: uredo- (uredinio-)sporifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.A).


urens,-entis (part. B): stinging, burning [ > uro, ussi, ustum 3. to burn, to burn up, destroy by fire, to sting or pain acutely];

    - folia pilis interdum appressis urentibus, leaves with hairs sometimes appressed, stinging.

    - herbae pilis urentibus armatae, herbs armed with stinging hairs.

    - arena (-ae, s.f.I) urens, abl. sg. arena urente, lava, 'burning sand.'

  Urtica urens L. Burning Nettle.


Urina,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. urina: urine; see ur- or uro-: in Gk. comb. urine.

urinalis,-e (adj.B): of or belonging to urine, urinary, urinative.


-uris,-idis (s.f.III): see ur-, uro-.


Urna,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. urna: urn, the spore-bearing part of a bryophyte capsule, often in contrast to the sterile neck or apophysis, 'a vessel for drawing water, a water-pot, water-jar.'


urniformis,-e (adj.B): urn-shaped.

Urnulla,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. urnulla, a small urn, small pot or vessel.



uro-: prefix, see ur-.


uromorphus,-a,-um (adj.A): tail-shaped.


ursinus,-a,-um (adj.A): like or pertaining to a bear.

  Lentinellus ursinus, a mushroom, perhaps in allusion to the densely hairy cap, like a bear.


Ursus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. urso: a bear, of the family Ursidae.


Urtica,-ae L. (s.f.I), abl. sg. urtica: the genus of Nettles, > L. uro, to burn.

  Urtica urens L., Burning Nettle


-us,-a,-um (adj.A):

    1. the Latin endings for adjectives of the first and second declension, the equivalent of the "Adjective A" of Stearn (1983) as is used throughout the present dictionary.

    -us corresponds to a masculine noun, -a to a feminine, and -um to a neuter;


    crassus,-a,-um (adj.A): thick


            singular                      plural

        m.      f.       n.         m.       f.        n.


Nom. crassus  crassa   crassum    crassi   crassae   crassa

Gen. crassi   crassae  crassi    crassorum crassarum crassorum

Dat. crasso   crassae  crasso              crassis

Acc. crassum  crassam  crassum    crassos  crassas   crassa

Abl. crasso   crassa   crasso              crassis


    2. a). translation of Greek adjective endings -os,-a(-E),-on. These are the       simplest Greek adjective endings that are added to a root or stem:  morph-E (s.f.I), shape, form > morph-os,-a(-E),-on.

  According to the chart of Greek characters given by Stearn (1983, p. 262), final 'on' (omicron nu) > -on (Latin) and -um (Latin transliteration); final 'os' (omicron sigma) > -os (Latin) and -us or -os (Latin transliteration) English (-ous);

        -morphos,-a,-on (adj.A) > -morphus,-a,-um    [morphous]

         polymorphos,-a,-on (adj.A) > polymorphus,-a,-on [polymorphous]

      b)-ios,-ia(-E),-ion, indicating belonging or relating to a person or thing (noun stem) > ios,-ia,-ion (English -ious)

      c) -ikos,-ika(E),-ikon, indicating relation and belonging (like -ios) with a noun stem > icos,-ica,-icon > icus,-ica,-icum [English -icous]


    3. translation into English of Greek and Latin adjectives regularly employ the English adjective suffix -ous: L. fuscus > Eng. fuscous; L. luteus > Engl. luteous; Gk. morphos > Eng. morphous; Gk. morphicos > Engl.



-us,-eris (s.n.III)


      genus,-eris (s.n.III), 'genus'

      singular     plural

Nom.  genus       genera

Gen.  generis     generum

Dat.  generi      generibus

Acc.  genus       genera

Abl.  genere      generibus


    - latus,-eris (s.n.III), abl. sg. latere, 'side, flank.'


-us,-odis (s.m.III); see


  -pus,-podis (s.m.III): -footed, -based, -stalked, -pedicelled,

  -peduncled, - setaed;


       singular          plural

Nom.    -pus            -podes

Gen.    -podis          -podum

Dat.    -podi           -podibus

Acc.    -podem          -podes 

Abl.    -pode           -podibus


-us,-oris (s.n.III) note the neuter, hence all accusatives are the same as the nominatives;


  corpus,-oris (s.n.III), body.


     singular       plural

Nom.  corpus        corpora

Gen.  corporis      corporum

Dat.  corpori       corporibus

Acc.  corpus        corpora

Abl.  corpore       corporibus


    - decus,-oris (s.n.III), ornament; litus,-oris (s.n.III), seashore, beach.


-us,-udis (s.f.III);


  palus,-udis (s.f.III), marsh, swamp, bog. NOTE: a feminine noun.


     singular       plural  

Nom.  palus         paludes

Gen.  paludis       paludum

Dat.  paludi        paludibus

Acc.  paludem       paludes

Abl.  palude        paludibus


-us,-uris (s.n.III);


  crus,-uris (s.n.III), leg


     singular       plural  

Nom.  crus          crura

Gen.  cruris        crurum

Dat.  cruri         cruribus

Acc.  crus          crura

Abl.  crure         cruribus


-us,-us (s.m.IV), abl. sg. -u; nouns of the fourth declension, q.v.;


     singular       plural            singular       plural   

         m. (and f.)                           n.

Nom.  fructus       fructus     Nom.  cornu         cornua   

Gen.  fructus       fructuum    Gen.  cornus        cornuum

Dat.  fructui       fructibus   Dat.  cornui        cornibus

Acc.  fructum       fructus     Acc.  cornu         cornua 

Abl.  fructu        fructibus   Abl.  cornu         cornibus 


  NOTE: The dative and ablative plurals of lacus (m.), lake, and tribus (f.), tribe, are lacubus and tribubus. 


  1. the following are all masculine:

     ambitus,-us (s.m.IV), outline; aspectus,-us (s.m.IV), comitatus,-us (s.m.IV), county; conspectus,-us (s.m.IV), survey; contentus,-us (s.m.IV), contents; contextus,-us (s.m.IV), context (of fungi);

     crepitus,-us (s.m.IV), a rattling; cursus,-us (s.m.IV), a course, direction; defectus,-us (s.m.IV), a failure, lack; delectus,-us (s.m.IV), selection; ducatus,-us (s.m.IV), a duchy; ductus,-us (s.m.IV): a leading, conducting, as of water; habitus,-us (s.m.IV), habit; see Fourth Declension for more.

  2. The major exception to the general rule that nouns of this declension are masculine is the feminine noun: manus,-us (s.f.IV), hand, tribus,-us (s.f.IV), tribe and the Latin noun and genus name Quercus,-us (s.f.IV).

      NOTE: any legitimate or valid generic name whose epithets have feminine endings is most likely feminine.

    - tribus,-us (s.f.IV), tribe.

    - Quercus,-us (s.f.IV), oak; Q. alba L.; Q. coccinea Muenchh.; Q. macrocarpa Michx.; Q. velutina Lam.; Q. borealis Michx.f.

    - Ficus,-us may, according to Stearn (1983) be declined as either a second or a fourth declension noun. It appears from the feminine epithets that the generic name, whatever the classical may have been, is a feminine noun of the fourth declension: Ficus cunia Hamilt.; F. conglomerata Roxb.; Ficus crassinervia (Desf.; F. cotinifolia H. B. K. 

  NOTE: Nouns ending in -u in the nominative and accusative singular are neuter nouns of this declension. Cornu,-us (s.n.IV), abl. sg. cornu: horn. As a neuter the accusative form in both singular and plural is the same as the nominative singular and plural: cornu (nom. & acc. sg.) and cornua (nom. & acc. pl.)


Usage, use, custom, manner: mos, moris (s.m.III), more; see mos, gen. sg. moris;

   - more Phomatis, in the manner of Phoma.


Use (noun): usus,-us (s.m.IV), abl. sg. usu.


useful: utilis,-e (adj.B); usualis,-e (adj.B), q.v.; see usitatus,-a,-um (part.A).

usefully: utiliter (adv.)

Usefulness: utilitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. utilitate.

useless: inutilis,-e (adj.B); see superfluous.

uselessly: inutiliter (adv.); see superfluously.


usitate (adv.): in the usual manner.

usitatus,-a,-um (part.A): used; useful; in the passive sense: usual, customary, habitual, common, familiar, everyday, ordinary; comparative usitatior,-ius (more common); superl. usitatissimus,-a,-um, most common, most familiar [> L. usitor,-atus, 1. to use often, be in the habit of using]. 

  Linum usitatissimum L. 'most useful,' Common Flax


usneic: usneicus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - acidum usneicum, usnic acid.


usque (adv.): at every point, through and through, from (a place or position) ... to, (in space or time) up to, all the way to, continuously, as far as (usually followed by ad with object in acc.). The position of usque is usually before the preposition, but sometimes is placed after the noun; see 'ad,''to'; cf. tenus (prep. with abl): up to, as far as, reaching to;

   - ala dorsali a folii medio ad apicem usque continua, dorsal wing from the middle of the leaf to the apex continuous;

   - usque adhuc, up to now, until now

   - usque ad apicem, up to the tip

   - usque ad Floridam, as far as Florida

  As listed by Glare (2006) the functions of the Latin word 'usque' include:

  1. an adverb used with a variety of prepositions, of which the most common is 'ad' + acc. With the ablative preps. 'ab, ex' it means 'all the way from, all the way out of);

     - costa usque ab base ad apicem robusta, with a costa robust all the way from the base to the apex.

     - ex apice usque ad basem, from tip to base.

     - costa cellulis adaxialibus ex apice usque ad insertionem quadratis praedita, costa provided with adaxial cells quadrate from the apex all the way to the insertion. 

     - lamina e basi sinus dorsalis usque ad basem folii plicata, lamina plicate from the base of the dorsal sinus to the base of the leaf.

     - una specie usque ad Europam et Asiam extensa (B&H), with one species extended to Europe and Asia.

     NOTE: the use of 'ad' with numerals under 'ad (prep. + acc.)'.


  2. a preposition + acc. of place to which, up to, as far as;

     - usque apicem, as far as the apex.


  3. with limits in time, ab + abl. 'from,' ad + acc. 'to';

     - pileus flavus usque ab juventute ad vetustatem, the pileus yellow from youth right up until old age.


  4. up to a specified amount, limit, or total;

    - numeri usque a quattuor ad centum.

    - ab ovo usque ad mala, from egg to apples, 'from beginning to end,' that is, from the beginning of a Roman meal, to the end.


  5. as an adverb, usque may modify verbs and other adverbs, but Glare gives no single instance where 'usque' is used in conjunction with an adjective, hence the word 'usque' does not appear to be used with adjectives. For example 'pileis cupreis usque brunneis' 'with pilei copper-colored to brown' is not appropriate, it seems, as Glare gives no instance of adjectives modified in this way by 'usque' as an adverb. In every instance where 'usque' is used with a preposition or as a preposition, a noun in the accusative case is required.


  6. NOTE: 'usque' used with numerals.

     All numerals are adjectives and hence modify nouns. Cardinal numerals are indeclineable adjectives (excepting the numerical adjectives 'one, two, three,' and 'thousands' which are declined) and hence are unaffected in case and gender and not affected by prepositions; see 'numeral;' note that all the numerals modify centimetrum, millemetrum, metrum;

    - folia usque ad 14 cm attingentes, leaves up to 14 cm attaining.

    - cellulis usque ad 8 um diametro, with cells up to 8 um in diameter.

    - capitulis usque 4 cm longis, with heads up to 4 cm. long

    - arbores usque 15 m, trees to 15 meters.


     NOTE: all the numerical adjectives (Arabic numerals 14, 8, 4, 15) in these examples modify the neuter nouns cm (centimetrum), um (millimetrum) and m (metrum), which as objects of the prepositions 'ad' and 'usque,' are all in the acc. case.

     NOTE: fractions are also adjectives modifying nouns;

     - amphigastria saepe usque plus quam 0.25 partes longitudinis divisa, amphigastria often to more than 0.25 part of the length divided.

     - petiolis comparate longioribus, 1/8 usque ad 1/3 partem longitudinis foliaris (non usque ad 1/10 partem), by the petioles comparatively longer, 1/8 up to 1/3 part of the leaf length (not to 1/10 part). 


     NOTE: other units of length as points of reference may be used other than inches, centimeters, etc., such as the length of something (teeth, hairs) in reference to the cells of which it is composed:

    - ciliis usque ad longitudinem 4(5) cellularum longis, with cilia as far as the length of 4(5) cells long. 

    - ciliis per longitudinem 4-5 cellularum longis, with cilia long through the length of 4-5 cells

     NOTE: neither 'usque' nor 'ad' is used in phrases such as 'flavus ad ruber' or rubrum, 'yellow to red' - botanical convention routinely uses two conventions:


     1. 'vel,' = or; 'vel' in Latin ordinarily suggests a choice between two discrete things, either one or the other, but in botanical prose convention 'vel' expresses the end members of a range of variation; 

    - petalis rubris vel flavis, with petals red to (i.e. or) yellow.

    - foliis lanceolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis, with leaves lanceolate to (i.e. or) ovate-lanceolate.


     2. in terms of color or other qualifiers (non numerical adjectives), use of the preposion 'e', 'ex' + abl. 'indicative of change of state' (Stearn 1983) with the adjective of the modifying color in the ablative.

    - pileus ex olivaceo brunneus, pileus brown (from olivaceous).

         The advice given by Stearn, however, does not indicate what gender or number to which the ablative ending should relate. I suggest the quality 'from' which there is a gradation should modify the word 'status' (s.m.IV), hence there is only one gender (masculine) and one number (singular), hence the adjective occurring after the preposition e, or ex, ends in only -o or -i;

    - petala ex [sc. statu] rubro alba, petals from red to white

    - lamina ex ovato deltoidea, with the lamina deltoid from ovate; lamina ovata vel deltoid

    - petalis e [sc. statu] pallide luteo dilute aurantiacis, with petals dilute orange from a pale yellow.

    - foliis e brevi longiusculis, with the leaves from short to rather long.

    - arboribus e suffrutescenti dendroideis, with trees from suffrutescent, dendroid.

    - capsula e rotundo cylindrica, capsule roundish cylindric..


      3. also use adverbs (laeviter lanceolatus); also the hyphen: ovatis vel ovato-ellipticis.


usual: ordinarius,-a,-um (adj.A), 'ordinary, usual, customary, regular;'

  usitatus,-a,-um (part.A) 'usual, customary, habitual, common, familiar, ordinary;' solitus,-a,-um (part.A), 'usual, habitual, ordinary;' usualis,-e (adj.B) 'usual, common, ordinary;' frequens,-entis (adj.B) 'frequent;'

  vulgaris,-e (adj.B) 'common;' opp. rarus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'rare, q.v., uncommon;'

  see common, normal, typical.


usualis,-e (adj.B): that which is fit for use, useful; usual, common, ordinary.

usualiter (adv.): in the usual manner, usually.


usually, very often, commonly: plerumque (adv.) 'mostly, usually, very often;' vulgo (adv.) 'commonly;' saepe (adv.) 'often', q.v.; saepius (adv.) more often; saepissime (adv.) most often; usitate (adv.) 'in the usual manner;' usualiter (adv.) 'in the usual manner, usually;' see commonly, generally, normally, typically; see mostly; opp. nunquam (adv.), numquam (adv.) 'never;' opp. raro (adv.), rarenter (adv.) 'rarely, seldom;'

    - chloroplasti plerumque lumen cellulare cingentes, chloroplasts usually surrounding the cellular lumen.

    - achaenia stipitata saepius 2-alata, achenes stiped very often 2-winged.

    - folia alterna, plerumque parva raro ampliata, leaves alternate, usually small rarely enlarged.

  NOTE: perpetuo (adv.), semper (adv.) 'always;' nonnumquam (adv.), interdum (adv.) 'sometimes;' 'nearly always:' persaepe (adv.), saepissime (adv.) 'nearly always;'

    - ramificans saepissime laterali- atque ventrali-intercalariter, branching nearly always lateral- and ventral-intercalary.


usurped, improperly taken or used, unlawfully used, inappropriately or improperly used:

  usurpatus,-a,-um (part.A); see improper.

usurpative (adv.): in an improper way, wrongly, inappropriately; see improperly.

usurpativus,-a,-um (adj.A): wrongly used, unusual in the sense of improper, against the rules;

    - sub nomine usurpativo, under the misapplied name (Stearn). 


Usus,-us (s.m.IV), usu: use, q.v.


ut (adv.), uti (adv.): as, in the manner that or of, answering the question: 'how?', in what manner;

    - pili glanduliferi pallide virides (non purpureo-virides ut ei typi), glanduliferous hairs pale green (not purple-green as those of the type (pili = ei, both in same case: nom. pl.).

    - apicibus truncatis ut in Amblachaenio, with the apices truncate as in Amblachaenium.

    - truncus corticem relinquens ut amnis, the trunk shedding its bark in the manner of a snake (i.e. in the way that a snake does).

    - ut capsula collapsus ita seta marcidus, as the capsule has fallen so the seta is withered.


ut, uti (conj.): as, like, as for example, so that, to introduce an explanation (sometimes without a verb); when used with indicative verb forms: to indicate comparison or example: 'as, as well as, thus, so;'

    - species uti supra 2, species as [sc. noted] above 2 (in reference to a previous statement).

    - stipulae ut videtus nullae, stipules as it seems none;

    - foliis et bracteis ut in typo, with leaves and bracts as in the type

    - ut e statu sicco apparet, as from the dried state it appears

    - ut auctores generi attribuunt, as authors attribute to the genus

    - ut in diagnose descripta, as described in the diagnosis (Stearn 1983)

    - species ut in Rosa blanda sed foliis pilosis differt, species as in Rosa blanda but differs by the pilose leaves.

    - stigmata, capsula, embryo, uti corolla et androecium, omnia ab illis Primulacearum longe distant, the stigmas, capsule, embryo, like (=as are) the corolla and androecium, all are far distant from those of the Primulaceae.

    - vestem relinquere ut anguis, to shed a covering as a snake [sc. does].

    - stigmata, capsula, embryo, uti corolla et androecium, omnia ab illis Primulacearum longe distant, the stigmas, capsule, embryo, like the corolla and androecium, all are far distant from those of the Primulaceae.

    - aliquid specierum generis utriculiferum, uti in Utriculariae laxae, some of  the species of the genus are utriculiferous, as in Utricularia laxa.

NOTE: ut is used with the subjunctive form of verbs to indicate purpose or result, 'in order that, that, so that; also subjunctive with concession or condition, 'although, in spite of, granted that' the subjunctive is also used with ut so, 'as it'. Consult a Latin grammar for use of the subjunctive mood of verbs.


ut (adv.), uti (adv.) 'as, like, as for example, so that': used with the adverbs

   'sic', 'ita', 'item' meaning 'so, thus, in this manner';

    - omnia generum sic constituenda ut auctor denotavit,  all of the genera are to be so set up, as the author specified (to be set up in the manner specified by the author).

    - ut petala purpurascentia, ita flores colorem transientes, as the petals are turning purple, so are the flowers changing color.

    - ut cum floribus, ita cum fructibus, as with the flowers, so with the fruits.

    - ut cum Titanis, ita cum Gigantibus, as (is or was) with the Titans, so (it is or was) with the Giants.

    - ut cum petallis Rosae ita cum sepalis Rubi, as with the petals of the Rose, so with the sepals of the Raspberry.


ut (adv.), uti (adv.): temporal, 'as,' 'when,' 'while,' 'since;'

    - specimina ut deposita, specimens when deposited

    - foliis ut madefacta explicatis, with leaves when moistened (made moist) unfurled.

    - ovula ut flores expansi evolventia, the ovules when the flowers have expanded developing.

    - pileus ut stipes productus incrassatus, pileus expanded while the stipe lengthened.

    - semen ut primum germinatum rotundum, the seed when first germinated round.


ut (adv.), uti (adv.): of place, 'where';

    - folium ut tabe infestatum prolificans, the leaf where infested by a disease proliferating.

    - stipe ut contusus purpurascens, the stipe where bruised turning purple.


ut (adv.), uti (adv.): before an appositive noun, 'as, the same as, like;' 

    - foliis ut fistula involutis, with leaves involute like a pipe.

    - petala ut charta tenuia, petals thin like paper.

    - species generis non ut eae Rosacearum sed ut eae Brassicacearum oleraceae, the species of the genus not like those of the Rosaceae but as those of the Brassicaceae edible.

    - insectis petalas et sepalas ut alimentum manducariantibus, with insects chewing petals and sepals as though it was food.

    - semine sarcotesta ut charta tenui praedito, with a seed provided with a sarcotesta thin as paper.

    - plantae sarcophagae, ut pisces in flumine Amazonae, plants sarcophagus, as fishes (are) in the Amazon river.


  NOTE: the word following 'ut' is in the same case as the word compared (although  the number may be consistent with the sense: 'sepalas ut alimentum' are both in the accusative, but one is plural, the other singular).


ut (adv.) + videtur or videntur, 'it appears as': see video.


ut minimum (adv. phrase): at least.


utcunque (adv.): however.


uter, utra, utrum (indefinite relative pron.): whichsoever of two, the one (of two) which; either of the two, one or the other, one of two; see uterque, utraque, utrumque to which the grammatical points apply;


             singular                            plural

         m.     f.     n.                   m.        f.        n.

Nom.    uter   utra  utrum                 utri     utrae      utra

Gen.          utrius                     utrorum    utrarum    utrorum

Dat.           utri                                 utris

Acc.    utrum utram  utrum                 utros    utras      utra

Abl.    utro   utra  utro                           utris


    - utram harum capsularum maiorem, whichsoever (one) of these (two) capsules is the larger.

    - uter florum fertilis, hieme caducus, either one of the (two) fertile flowers, in winter is caducous.

    - utra superficierum aetate purpurascens, either (one) of the surfaces with age becomes purple.


Uterculus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. uterculo: a small belly, paunch or womb, a small fertile cavity [> L. dim. uterus,-i (s.m.II)].


uterque, utraque, utrumque (pronoun): either, each of two, each member of a  pair, both (considered  separately), used in the singular to consider each one of two things 'applied to two subjects regarded severally, while [ambo, ambae, ambo, numerical adj. 'both'] regards the two as a pair' (Lewis & Short); see utroque (adv.).

  NOTE: the plural is used when

  a) two pluralities are indicated:

    - utrique latera et margines bistratosi, both the sides and margines bistratose.

  b) also to express two individuals together;

    - capsulae duae, utraeque sub maturitate dehiscentes, capsules two, each in age dehiscing.

    - India utraque, both East Indies and West Indies.


             singular                            plural

         m.     f.           n.          m.        f.        n.

Nom.  uterque utraque   utrumque      utrique,  utraeque   utraque

Gen.        utriusque               utrorumque utrarumque utrorumque

Dat.        utrique                             utrisque

Acc. utrumque, utramque utrumque     utrosque   utrasque   utraque

Abl.  utroque, utraque, utroque                 utrisque


    - in utroque latere costae, on each side of the costa

    - ad arborum corticem in Carolinis utrisque; on the bark of trees in both Carolinas [North and South Carolina]. 

    - in regionibus utriusque hemisphaerii, in regions of either hemisphere (utr. hemi. both in genitive singular neuter). 

    - ab specie utraque valde distincta, from each species strongly distinct.

    - testa duplex, utraque saepissime membranacea, test (outer seed coat) double, each one most often membranaceous. 

    - flores utriusque sexus capitati, the flowers of both sexes capitate.

    - antheris glandulis baseos ad utrumque latus saepe stipitates, with anthers with often stipitate glandules at the bases at each side.

    - species in utroque orbe inter tropicos diu culta, originis incertae, species on both sides of the globe in tropical [regions] long cultivated, of uncertain origin.

    - genus a Glycine differt imprimis inflorescentia nodoso-racemosa, a Galactia calyce, ab utroque habitu. The genus differs from Glycine primarily by the nodose-racemose inflorescence, from Galactia by the calyx, from both by the habit.

    - cellulae chlorophylliferae utroque latere foliorum liberae, chlorophyll-bearing cells free on each side of the leaves.

    - amphigastria anguste in latere altero vel utrisque connata, underleaves narrowly on one side or both connate.

    - superficies folii abaxialis atque adaxialis utraque papillosa, abaxial and adaxial surface of the leaf each papillose.

    - species per regiones calidiores utriusque orbis dispersae, the species throughout the warmer regions of each (half or hemisphere) of the world.


  NOTE: - superficies folii abaxialis atque adaxialis ambae papillosa, both abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaf papillose.

        - superficies folii abaxialis atque adaxialis utraque papillosa, abaxial and adaxial surface of the leaf each papillose.

  NOTE: utroque (adv.),q.v.: to both sides, in both directions.


Uterus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. utero: uterus, the womb, matrix; syn. volva; belly, paunch, udder; a cavity out of which springs life, such as the Trojan Horse [> L. related to uter, gen. sg. uteris, gen. pl. uterium, a bag or bottle made of an animal's hide, wine-, oil-, water-skin].


uti (adv.) = ut (adv.), q.v.


utilis,-e (adj.B): useful, beneficial.

Utilitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. utilitate: usefulness.

utiliter (adv.): usefully.


utique (adv.): in any case, certainly, at any rate, at least;

    - papillae foliorum illis petalorum similes, utique in superficie adaxiali, the papillae of the leaves are similar to those of the petals, at least on the adaxial surface.

    - flores flavi utique   


utmost: see extremus,-a,-um (adj.A), summus,-a,-um (adj.A), ultimus,-a,-um (adj.A).


utpote (adv.): inasmuch as, seeing that, since;

    - sporae numerosae, utpote sporophyton parvum est, the spores are numerous, seeing that the sporophyte is small.

    - utpote species rara, notis multis ignotis, inasmuch as the species is rare, with many characters unknown.


Utricle, a vesicle or bladderlike structure; small bladders or vescicles, as in species of carnivorous Utricularia possessing underground or underwater vesiculae that trap and digest small invertebrates; 'a small, thin-walled, one-seeded, more or less inflated fruit' (Gleason 1952); in mosses sometimes referring to the enlarged empty cortical cells of Sphagnum: utriculus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. utriculo, nom. pl. utriculi, acc. pl. utriculos, dat.& abl. pl. utriculis [> L. utriculus (s.m.II) a small bag, dim. of uter, gen. sg. uteris (s.m.III) leather bag, bottle made of hide]; see ampulla,-ae(s.f.I), bladder, vesicula,-ae (s.f.I);

    - utriculi anguste ovati compressi, c. 3-5 mm. longi, inferiores, squamis breviores, superiores squamis longiores, omnes squamis multo latiores, membranei glabri papillosi apicem versus pluricostati in rostrum breve sensim desinentes, utricles narrowly ovate compressed about 3.5 cm. long, the lower ones shorter than the scales, the upper ones longer than the scales, all much broader than the scales, membranous glabrous papillose towards the tip many-ribbed in a short beak gradually ending. (Stearn 1983).

    - utriculi numerosi, ex  stolonibus et rhizoideis orti, subglobosi vel ellipsoidei, stipitibus longitudinis variabilis, ore obliquo appendiculis 2 deltoideis capillaribus instructo, utriculi numerous arisen from stolons and rhizoids subglobose or ellipsoid, provided with stipes of variable length, with the mouth oblique with appendages 2 deltoid capillary (Stearn 1983).

    - ramulis capillaceis utriculos varie dispositos ferentibus, with capillaceous branchlets bearing utricles variously arranged.

  Utricularia,-ae L. (s.f.I), from the A adjective utricularius.

Primordial utricle: utriculus primordialis (adj.B), abl. sg. utriculo primordiali, nom. & acc. pl. utriculi primordiales.


utricularis,-e (adj.B), utriculatus,-a,-um (adj.A), utriculosus,-a,-um  (adj.A): bladder-like, bladdery, possessing bladders, inflated; see bladdery.


utriculifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.A): utriculiferous, bearing utricles;

    - ramis capillaceis utriculiferis inter folia oriundis, with branches capillaceous utriculiferous arising among the leaves.


utriculiformis,-e (adj.B): utriculiform, shaped like little utricles or bladders.


utriformis,-e (adj.B): utriform, "having the form of a leather bottle; bladder-shaped; (of cystidia), ventricose below and thick above, but almost isodiametric, and typically with a slight constriction below a large rounded head (S&D) [> L uter, utris (s.m.III), skin bag + formis,-e]; cf. lageniformis,-e (adj.B), ventricose-rostrate, ampullaceus,-a,-um (adj.A)


utrinque (adv.), utrimque (adv.), utrinsecus (adv.): on both sides, above and below, on the one side and on the other;

    - conidia cylindracea, utrinque rotundata, dilute olivacea, conidia cylindric, rounded at each end, light olive-green.

    - lamina utrinsecus glabrata, blade glabrate on both sides.

    - sori impressi, utrinque ad costulam 4-6, margini approximati, sori impressed, on both sides at the costule 4-6, near to the margin.

    - amphigastria utrinsecus libera, underleaves on both sides free.

    - lamina utrinque glabra, the lamina glabrous on both sides


utriusque: see uterque, utraque, utrumque.


utroque (adv.): to or on both sides, places or parts, in both directions; both ways, in either point of view;  

    - folia nervis apicem versus atque basim versus utroque radiantia, leaves with nerves toward the apex and also toward the base in both directions radiating.

    - capsulae utroque dehiscentes, nunc irregulariter nunc per zonas tenuitatis, capsules dehiscing in both ways, sometimes irregularly, sometimes through zones of thinness.

  NOTE: see uterque, utraque, utrumque, either (pronoun), each of two, both (considered separately), used in the singular to consider each of two. Care must be taken to remember utroque as an adverb, e.g. modifying a verb, such as 'radiantia,' and is not to be used as a pronoun, which may, e.g. take an object or be modified by and adjective, etc. See uterque, utraque, utrumque (pronoun).


Uub: (abbrev.) the element Ununbium,-ii (s.n.II), q.v., abl. sg. Ununbio; Uuh Ununhexium; Uun Ununnilium; Uuo Ununoctium; Uup Ununpentium; Uuq Ununquadium; Uus Ununseptium; Uut Ununtrium; Uuu Ununumium.


Uva,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. uva: the fruit of the grape vine, a grape; grapes; a cluster or bunch of grapes; a bunch or cluster of fruit, such as but not exclusively grapes.

uvarius,-a,-um (adj.A), uviformis,-e (adj.B): like a bunch of grapes, i.e. with clustered rounded parts; cf. botry-; see bunched.


Uviditas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. uviditate: moisture, wetness.

uvens,-entis (part.B): humid, dank, moist, wet.

uvescens,-entis (part.B): growing or becoming moist [> L. uvesco,-ere: to grow or become moist, wet, damp, dank or humid; to moisten].


uvidulus,-a,-um (adj.A): somewhat wet, rather damp.

uvidus,-a,-um (adj.A): moist, wet, humid [> L. related to uva,-ae (s.f.I).

  Lactarius uvidus, a mushroom with a viscid cap.


uvifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.A): cluster-bearing, bearing or producing grapes.


Uvor,-oris (s.m.III), abl. sg. uvore: moistness, moisture, wetness, humidity.