BFNA Title: Lindbergia
Author: P. L. Redfearn, Jr.
Date: Nov. 2000
Edit Level: R
Brum+ December 14, 2001
Version: 1

Bryophyte Flora of North America, Provisional Publication
Buffalo Museum of Science
1020 Humboldt Parkway
Buffalo, NY 14211 USA


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XXX. LINDBERGIA Kindberg, Eur. N. Amer. Bryin. 1: 13. 1897 for Sextus Otto Lindberg, 1835--1889, Scandinavian bryologist

Paul L. Redfearn, Jr.

Plants slender, irregularly branched, in loose mats, dull, dark-green to yellowish or brownish. Pseudoparaphyllia foliose, few or lacking. Leaves of stems and branches similar, crowded, imbricate when dry, wide-spreading to squarrose when moist, concave, ovate, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, not plicate; margins decurrent, entire or faintly serrulate near apex; costa strong, ending below the leaf apex; cells rounded-hexagonal or rhombic, cell walls firm or thickened, smooth or 1-papillose over lumen. Sexual condition autoicous. Perichaetial leaves pale, erect, long acuminate from a sheathing base; margins entire or finely toothed; costa short; cells long and smooth. Seta 6--8 mm, yellow-brown. Capsule erect, symmetric, oblong-cylindric or weakly curved, narrower at mouth, brownish; annulus sometimes differentiated; operculum conic, blunt; peristome inserted below mouth, teeth lanceolate, blunt, fused at base, pale or yellow, papillose, not striolate, with low trabeculae at back at base; endostome a low, finely papillose membrane. Calyptra smooth, naked. Spores 18-24 m, smooth to roughened.

Species ca. 18 (2 in the flora); temperate, tropical, North America, Eurasia, Africa, Asia, Pacific Islands (New Zealand).

Lindbergia is distinguished from other members of the Leskeaceae by leaves that are wide-spreading to squarrose when moist, short leaf cells, and more or less erect capsules with the endostome reduced to a low membrane.

SELECTED REFERENCES: Crum, H. A. 1956. Lindbergia in North America. Bryologist 59: 203--212. Crum, H. and L. E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of Eastern North America. 2 vols. New York. Vol. 2, pp. 854--856. Crum, H. A. and W. R. Buck. 1994. Lindbergia. In A. J. Sharp et al., eds. 1994. The Moss Flora of Mexico. 2 vols. Bronx. Vol. 2, pp. 853--857.


1. Branches subjulaceous when dry, often curved, brood branches absent; costa broad, extending nearly to apex; leaf cells indistinctly papillose . . . . . . . . . . 1. Lindbergia mexicana

2. Branches not subjulaceous when dry, more or less straight, dense clusters of brood branches often present in leaf axils, costa slender, 1/2--2/3 length of leaf; leaf cells bluntly 1-papillose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Lindbergia brachyptera

1. Lindbergia mexicana (Bescherelle) Cardot, Rev. Bryol. 37: 51. 1910

Leskea mexicana Bescherelle, Mém. Natl. Sci. Soc. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 233. 1872

Plants dark green, branches often curved, subjulaceous when dry, brood branches absent. Leaves appressed when dry, wide-spreading when moist, ca. 1 mm, broadly ovate-lanceolate, gradually narrowed to an acute to short-acuminate, apex concolorous, margins entire, costa broad, ending just below apex; median leaf cells 3--7 m long, 1--2:1, oval, thick-walled, indistinctly 1-papillose, basal cells in several rows, subquadrate, wider than long, apical cells elongate, smooth. Seta ca. 8 mm. Capsule 1.5--2 mm. Spores 20--24 m, smooth.

Capsules mature May--Dec. Bark of trees, shrubs, and on rotten wood; 1700--3000 m; N. Mex., Tex.; Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Tamaulipas); Central America (Guatemala).

Lindbergia mexicana is included in the genus because of its reduced peristome and leaves widely spreading when moist. It differs from the genus in a strict sense in having leaves with less distinctly papillose cells (H. A. Crum and W. R. Buck 1994). Lindbergia mexicana is distinguished from L. brachyptera by branches that are subjulaceous when dry, leaves that are acute to short acuminate, a broad costa extending nearly to apex, and indistinctly 1-papillose leaf cells.

2. Lindbergia brachyptera (Mitten) Kindberg, Eur. N. Amer. Bryin. 1: 13. 1897

Pterogonium brachypterum Mitten, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 8. 37. 1864; Leskea austinii Sullivant; Lindbergia brachyptera var. austini (Sullivant) A. J. GroutPlants dark-green, yellowish, or brownish, branches not julaceous when dry; more or less straight, dense clusters of brood branches often present in leaf axils. Leaves with apices often wide-spreading to squarrose when dry, wide-spreading to squarrose when moist, 0.9--1.4 mm, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, gradually to abruptly narrowed to short acumen that is often pale or yellowish and almost a hair point; margins entire or faintly serrate above; costa slender, 1/2--2/3 length of leaf; median leaf cells 8--10 m long, 1--2:1, oval, rounded to rhombic, thick-walled, bluntly 1-papillose over the lumen on both surfaces, papillae occasionally 2--3-forked, basal leaf cells often oblate, apical cells oblong, smooth. Seta 6--8 mm. Capsule 1.5 mm. Spores 18--23 m, very minutely roughened.

Capsules mature Mar.--Dec. Trunks of trees, particularly roadside maples and elms, almost always confined to deciduous trees, rarely on cedar, pine, logs, or various types of rocks; 30--2800 m; Man., Ont., Que.; Ariz., Ark., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.Mex., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Va., Vt., Wis.; Mexico; Asia (Caucasus, Himalayas, Siberia, China, Japan).

In New Mexico and western Texas the ranges of Lindbergia mexicana and L. brachyptera overlap. However, in L. brachyptera, non-julaceous branches, leaves widely spreading when moist, with abruptly narrowed acumens often pale or yellowish, slender costa 1/2--2/3 the leaf length, and strongly 1-papillose leaf cells combine to distinguish it from L. mexicana.

In the northwestern part of the range of Lindbergia brachyptera plants form rather large dense mats on the bark of trees. This is not true in the eastern part of its range where plants seldom form mats of various sizes, and colonies often consist of a single to very few scattered strands growing in crevices of bark or among other mosses. Consequently, this species is easily overlooked and probably under-collected in the eastern part of its range. This may explain the absence of collections from West Virginia and only scattered collections from Kentucky and Tennessee. Lindbergia brachyptera is very common in eastern Kansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin. H. A. Crum (1956) suggested that this may be the result of collectors in these states having a particular interest in corticolous species or of a deliberate search for this species in mixed collections. He also provided an excellent discussion of the ecology and geography of L. brachyptera.

Version 1: November, 2000