BFNA Title: Herzogiella
Author: R. R. Ireland
Date:September 3, 2003
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Bryophyte Flora of North America, Provisional Publication
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Herzogiella - Hypnaceae

 

XX.  HERZOGIELLA Brotherus in A. Engler, Nat. Pfl. ed. 2, 11: 466. 1925 *  [Theodor Herzog,

a German botanist (1880-1961), and Latin, ella, diminutive]

Robert R. Ireland

 

Dolichotheca Lindberg, 1874, not Dolichotheca Cassini 1827; Isopterygium Mitten subg. Dolichotheca (Lindberg) Lindberg; Sharpiella Z. Iwatsuki

 

Plants medium-sized, in thin to dense, light- to yellow-green or dark green glossy mats. Stems creeping to ascending, simple or sparingly and irregularly branched, epidermal cells large and thin-walled in section, surrounding a few rows of smaller thick-walled cortical cells and large thin-walled central cells, central strand usually absent; rhizoids sparse, papillose, in leaf axils or just below juncture of leaves, often restricted to base of stems; axillary hairs with two brownish short-rectangular basal cells and two hyaline elongate apical cells; pseudoparaphyllia lacking or foliose pseudoparaphyllia present (H. adscendens). Specialized asexual reproduction lacking. Stem and branch leaves similar, rigid, crowded and imbricate to somewhat remote, spreading to squarrose, sometimes tips secund at stem and branch apices, concave, smooth or weakly plicate, symmetric, nondecurrent or 1--3 cells decurrent, ovate or lanceolate, acuminate; margins plane, serrulate to strongly serrate beyond leaf middle, serrate to entire below; costa short and double, rarely lacking; cells thick-walled, linear-fusiform, smooth, cell walls at leaf base usually pitted; alar cells usually clearly differentiated, a few quadrate, rectangular, or abruptly inflated and rounded cells present, 1--4  on margins. Sexual condition autoicous or dioicous. Perigonia and perichaetia near base of stems, perichaetial leaves ovate-lanceolate, gradually acuminate occasionally to a filiform acumen, sometimes plicate, margins plane. Seta smooth, elongate, straight to curved, often twisted, yellow, brown or red. Capsule erect to cernuous, straight to arcuate, yellow, brown or reddish brown, oblong or cylindric, when dry usually striate, sometimes smooth, tapering to a wrinkled neck, often contracted below mouth; operculum conic to short-rostrate; annulus of 2--3 rows of large cells, deciduous; peristome cross-striolate proximally, papillose distally, bordered, interior trabeculate; endostome papillose, consisting of narrow keeled segments from a high basal membrane, cilia 1--3, approximately the length of segments, sometimes lacking. Calyptra cucullate, smooth, naked. Spores spherical to ovoid, minutely papillose.

     Species 7 (4 in the flora): terrestrial habitats at low to high elevations predominately in temperate and boreal regions; North, Central and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa.

 

SELECTED REFERENCES  Ireland, R. R. 1969. A taxonomic revision of the genus Plagiothecium for North America, north of Mexico. Natl. Mus. of Canada, Natl. Mus. Natural Sci., Publ. Bot. 1: 1--118. Ireland, R. R. 1990 (1992). Scanning electron microscopy of spores of Herzogiella. Lindbergia 16: 169--179. Ireland, R. R. 1991 (1993). Synopsis of the genus Herzogiella for North America. Lindbergia 17: 111--115. Iwatsuki, Z. 1965. Notes on the genus Dolichotheca, with special reference to the Japanese species. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 28: 202--208. Iwatsuki, Z. 1970. A revision of Plagiothecium and its related genera from Japan and her adjacent areas, I. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 33: 331--380.

 

l. Leaves with abruptly inflated alar cells, these hyaline or orange to red, often distinctly decurrent.

 

2. Leaves squarrose to squarrose-recurved; margins serrulate to strongly serrate . . . . 1. Herzogiella striatella

2. Leaves imbricate to somewhat spreading; margins entire to serrulate . . . . 4. Herzogiella adscendens

1. Leaves with quadrate to rectangular alar cells, these seldom inflated, not or indistinctly decurrent.

3. Leaves appearing distichous; sometimes weakly plicate; capsule 0.8--2 mm . . . . 2. Herzogiella turfacea

3. Leaves wide-spreading in several rows, smooth; capsule 2--3.5 mm . . . . 3. Herzogiella seligeri

 

1. Herzogiella striatella (Bridel) Z. Iwatsuki, J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 33: 374. 1970

Leskea striatella Bridel, Bryol. Univ. 2: 762. 1827; Dolichotheca striatella (Bridel) Loeske; Hypnum fitzgeraldii Lesquereux & James; Hypnum muehlenbeckii C. Hartman; Isopterygium striatellum (Bridel) Loeske; Plagiothecium muehlenbeckii Schimper; Plagiothecium striatellum (Bridel) Lindberg; Sharpiella striatella (Bridel) Z. Iwatsuki  

 

Plants in thin to dense mats, yellowish to dark-green, brownish green with age, glossy. Stems to 20 × 0.5--2 mm, ascending to erect, pseudoparaphyllia lacking. Leaves loosely imbricate to somewhat spreading, often squarrose, sometimes squarrose-recurved, usually straight at stem and branch apices, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, smooth, distinctly decurrent, 0.6--2 × 0.3--0.8 mm; margins serrulate to serrate; cell walls pitted at leaf base and sometimes pitted to leaf middle or beyond; median cells 24--50 × 4--7 μm; alar cells hyaline or sometimes orange to red, abruptly inflated, rounded to oval, in 2--4 vertical rows of 4--6 cells, 14--65 × 14--24 μm. Sexual condition autoicous. Seta light brown to red, 0.9--2 cm. Capsule light brown, inclined to nearly erect, 1--2 × 0.3--0.5 mm, oblong to cylindric, slightly arcuate to straight, when dry not or little contracted below mouth; operculum conic to conic-apiculate, 0.3--0.4 mm. Spores 10--15 μm.

 

Capsules mature summer.  Shaded soil and humus, often on acidic cliffs and rocks, rotten logs, stumps, bases of trees and exposed tree roots; 0--2000 m; Greenland; B.C., N.B., Nfld., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Alaska, Conn., Del., Ga., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., Tenn., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis.; Europe; Asia.

 

This species is recognized by the close, squarrose to squarrose-recurved leaves with 2--4 rows of abruptly inflated, hyaline or orange to red, decurrent cells extending 4--6 cells down the stem. Herzogiella striatella has a disjunct distribution in North America, occurring commonly in the eastern third of the continent and more rarely in the western part in Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington. Herzogiella striatella may have a closer relationship to H. cylindricarpa (Cardot) Z. Iwatsuki of Mexico, Central and South America, and Africa than to the other North American species as revealed by a scanning electron microscope study of the spore ornamentation (R. R. Ireland 1990). Alabama report by R. R. Ireland (1991) is an error.

 

2. Herzogiella turfacea (Lindberg) Z. Iwatsuki, J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 33: 375. 1970

 

Hypnum turfaceum Lindberg, Bot. Notis. 1857: 142. 1857; Dolichotheca turfacea (Lindberg) Loeske; Hypnum pseudo-silesiacum (Schimper) Lesquereux & James; Isopterygium turfaceum (Lindberg) Lindberg; Plagiothecium sulcatum Cardot & Thériot; Plagiothecium turfaceum (Lindberg) Lindberg; Sharpiella turfacea (Lindberg) Z. Iwatsuki

 

Plants in thin mats, light- to yellowish-green, glossy. Stems to 30 × 1.5--2.5 mm, prostrate, pseudoparaphyllia lacking. Leaves squarrose-spreading, sometimes erect-spreading, usually appearing distichous and complanate due to twisting of leaves to form two rows on opposite sides of stems and branches, sometimes tips secund at stem and branch apices, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, smooth or weakly plicate, nondecurrent or sometimes 1--3 short cells indistinctly decurrent, 1--2 × 0.3-0.7 mm; margins serrulate to serrate; cell walls pitted at leaf base, indistinctly pitted distally, sometimes pits lacking; median cells 43--80 × 3--6 μm; alar cells quadrate to short-rectangular on margin, sometimes one cell at extreme basal angle rounded to oval and inflated, 14--34 × 9--22 μm. Sexual condition autoicous. Seta light brown to red, 1.2--2 cm. Capsule light brown, inclined, 0.8--2 × 0.3--0.6 mm, oblong to cylindric, slightly arcuate, when dry contracted below mouth; operculum conic to conic apiculate, 0.3--0.4 mm. Spores 10--15 μm.

 

Capsules mature summer.  Coniferous woods, sometimes in swamps, humus, bases of trees, rotten logs and stumps, rarely on rock; 30--500 m; Alta., Man., N.B., Nfld., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask.; Conn., Ill., Ind., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Vt., Va., Wis.; Europe; Asia.

 

Herzogiella turfacea is characterized by the often distant, erect- to wide-spreading leaves, sometimes plicate, appearing distichous due to their twisting to opposite sides of the stems and branches, the poorly differentiated alar cells, and the striate capsules. The species is common in northeastern North America between 40--50º N but rare farther south in North and South Carolina and Virginia. It is known from only a few scattered localities in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Illinois, Ohio, Montana, and South Dakota.

 

3. Herzogiella seligeri (Bridel) Z. Iwatsuki, J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 33: 374. 1970

 

Leskea seligeri Bridel, Musc. Rec. 2(2): 47. 1801; Dolichotheca seligeri (Bridel) Loeske; Isopterygium seligeri (Bridel) C. Jensen; Plagiothecium silesianum (Weber & Mohr) Schimper; Plagiothecium seligeri  (Bridel) Lindberg; Sharpiella seligeri (Bridel) Z. Iwatsuki

 

Plants in thin mats, light- to yellowish green, glossy. Stems to 30 × 1.5--3 mm, prostrate to ascending, pseudoparaphyllia lacking. Leaves wide-spreading, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, smooth, nondecurrent or 1--3 cells indistinctly decurrent, 1--2.5 × 0.5--0.9 mm, margins serrulate to serrate; cell walls pitted at leaf base, indistinctly pitted distally, sometimes pits lacking; median cells 30--70 × 5--7 μm; alar cells quadrate to short-rectangular, sometimes rounded to oval and inflated, 17--48 × 12--26 μm. Sexual condition autoicous. Seta light brown to red, 1.5--2.5 cm. Capsule light brown to reddish brown, inclined, 2--3.5 × 0.5--0.8 mm, cylindric, strongly arcuate, when dry contracted below mouth; operculum conic, 0.4--0.6 mm. Spores 12--22 μm.

 

Capsules mature summer.  Coniferous or Alnus-Acer woods, rotten logs, bases of trees; 300--1900 m; Alta., B.C.; Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Wash.; Europe; Asia.

 

This is a species distinctive by its wide-spreading leaves, appearing in several rows, and its long (2--3.5 mm), arcuate capsules. It occurs only in the northwestern part of North America west of the Rocky Mountains at elevations usually below 900 m.

 

4. Herzogiella adscendens (Lindberg) Z. Iwatsuki & Schofield, J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 37: 609. 1973

 

Stereodon adscendens Lindberg, Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 18: 255. 1872; Campylium adscendens (Lindberg) Persson; Campylium stellatum var. adscendens (Lindberg) Persson; Campylium treleasei (Renauld) Brotherus

 

Plants in dense mats, yellowish green, somewhat glossy. Stems to 30 × 1.5--3 mm, prostrate to ascending, pseudoparaphyllia foliose. Leaves imbricate to somewhat spreading, often somewhat falcate when dry, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, long-acuminate, smooth, distinctly but shortly decurrent, 1.5--3 × 0.4--0.6 mm, margins serrulate to entire; cell walls pitted at leaf base, sometimes pitted to leaf middle; median cells 33--85 × 4--7 μm; alar cells hyaline, abruptly inflated, rounded to oblong, 14--70 × 14--28 μm. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta yellowish brown, 1.1--1.5 cm. Capsule light brown, inclined, 2.5--3 × 0.3--0.5 mm, cylindric, slightly arcuate, when dry not or little contracted below mouth; operculum conic to conic apiculate, 0.3--0.4 mm. Spores 17--22 μm.

 

Capsules very rare, mature late summer.  Tree trunks, rotten logs and stumps or humus over acidic cliffs; 0--90 m; B.C.; Alaska; Asia.

 

Herzogiella adscendens, previously included in the genus Campylium, is the most recent addition to Herzogiella (Z. Iwatsuki and W. B. Schofield 1973). It differs from the other North American Herzogiella species by its dioicous condition, serrulate to entire leaves, presence of foliose pseudoparaphyllia (sometimes difficult to find) and perichaetial leaves that are about twice as long as the other leaves.

 

OTHER REFERENCES

Crum, H. A. and L. E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of Eastern North America.  Vol. 2.  Columbia University Press, New York.

 

Iwatsuki, Z. and W. B. Schofield. 1973. The taxonomic position of Campylium adscendens (Lindb.) Mitt. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 37: 609--615.