BFNA Title: Calyculariaceae
XX. Calyculariaceae He-Nygren, Juslen, Ahonen, Glenny & Piippo, Cladistics 22: 27. 2006
Nadezhda A. Konstantinova
Yuriy S. Mamontov
Plants thalloid with hemidiscoid apical cell; thallus with distinct midrib, bearing persistent ventral scales, 2--6(--8)-seriate at the base, abruptly tapering into a uniseriate tip with marginal teeth or cilia, in cross- section with one layer of dorsal epidermal cells smaller than medulla; central strands lacking. Sexual condition dioicous. Gametangia dorsal on thallus midrib; perigonial scales transversely inserted, variable in shape and size, each subtending 1--4 subsessile globose antheridia; antheridial stalk quadriseriate; perichaetial scales linear to lanceolate, posterior and lateral to an archegonial cluster, or scattered among them. Caulocalyx (not a pseudoperianth see note) formed after fertilization, infundibulate to campanulate, multistratose at the base, becoming unistratose at the mouth, plicate; mouth with 3--4 massive laciniate or ciliate lobes. Calyptra large, more or less thick at the base. Capsules broadly ovoid to spheroidal, with a basal elaterophore, with 2--4-stratose wall, with outer cells larger than inner cells, with seminanular or spiral thickening bands in all strata, dehiscing by 4--7 irregular valves. Spores brownish black, large (30--80 /mu, ovoid to spheroidal, with long conic or cylindric echinate outgrowths.
Genera 1, species
2 (1 genus, 1 species in the flora): North America; South America, Eurasia,
Calyculariaceae includes only one genus and is segregated in a monotypic suborder Calyculariineae He-Nygren, Juslen, Ahonen, Glenny & Piippo of the Fossombroniales Schljakov.
XX. Calycularia Mitt., J. Proc. Linnean Soc. 5:122. 1861 [Latin calyculus, alluding to bracts simulating a calyx]
Plants thalloid, without a distinct midrib, pale to yellowish or deep green,
often with secondary fuscous to reddish pigmentation, with apical portion of
thallus emarginate or nearly obcordate, sometimes strongly recurved to the
dorsal surface. Branching terminal, less often
ventral, dichotomous. Thallus wings
flat, undivided or deeply lobed, with undulate or crispate 1-stratose
margins. Midrib not distinct, dorsally flat or concave, ventrally
convex, 8--20 cells thick; central strands lacking. Rhizoids
colorless or pale brown, or fuscous.
Ventral scales restricted to costal area and most
abundant towards an apical notch, 2--6(--8)-seriate at base abruptly tapering
into a 1-seriate tip with marginal teeth or cilia. Sexual condition dioicous, gametangia dorsal on thallus; male plants usually smaller than
the female with dorsal scales mostly in several rows along midrib. Androecia
subtended by 1-stratose bracts, these erect or concave, lamelliform,
laciniate-dentate. Archegonia aggregated in
well-defined or diffuse clusters and surrounded by slender scales or
sometimes mixed with them. Female
scales erect, arcuate, or prostrate, linear to lanceolate, with marginal teeth or cilia. Caulocalyx purplish red to red-brown or colorless, large, up to
Species 2 (
references Konstantinova, N.A. and Yu.S. Mamontov.
1. Calycularia laxa Lindb. & Arnell, Kongl. Svenska Vetensk. Acad. Handl., n.s. 23(5): 66. 1889
Capsules very rare, mature July--Sept. Wet and shady places on soil, peat in tundra , on humus covered rocks and in cliffs in
mountains; low elevation in tundra to high elevation in mountains (to
Calycularia laxa is most likely to be mistaken for the second species of the genus, C. crispula, which is restricted to the tropics. However, in C. crispula, the thallus is deeply divided into lobes, the midrib is well defined and often pigmented, the lobes of the caulocalyx mouth bear laciniae that are biseriate almost to the apex, and the cylindric projections of the spores are truncate or emarginate at apex. Sterile plants of C. laxa might be confused with Moerckia or Pellia; C. laxa differs from both in having foliose and usually purplish ventral scales.
OTHER REFERENCES Dauphin, G. 2005. Catalogue of
Costa Rican Hepaticae and Anthocerotae. Tropical Bryology 24:
141--218. Grolle, R. 1980.
Miscellanea hepaticologica 201-210. J.
Bryol. 11: 325--334. Inoue, H. 1976. Illustrations of Japanese
Hepaticae. Vol. 2.