BFNA Title: Jamesoniella
Marie L. Hicks
Jamesoniellaceae He-Nygrén, Juslen, Ahonen, Glenny & Piippo
Plants forming mats; branches usually replacing ventral half of a leaf [intercalary from underside of stem]; without flagella [ventral flagella present]. Leaves alternate [opposite], succubous, plane, unlobed or retuse, entire; underleaves minute or absent, unlobed. Rhizoids scattered over ventral stem, more frequent near leaves and underleaves. Specialized asexual reproduction absent. Gynoecium terminal on an ordinary leafy branch [on a short ventral branch]. Perianth with or without well-developed subfloral branches, perianth cylindrical, narrowed to mouth; perigynium absent.
Genera five, species ca. 50 (one genus and one species in the flora): North America, Mexico, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Pacific Islands (New Zealand).
Adelanthaceae is a small, mostly tropical family that is sometimes split in two, with the species of the flora falling into the segregate Jamesoniellaceae. Feldberg et al. (2010a, b) gave reasons for keeping a single family.
SELECTED REFERENCES. Feldberg, K., J. Vána, D. G. Long, A. J. Shaw, J. Hentschel, and J. Heinrichs. 2010a. A phylogeny of Adelanthaceae (Jungermanniales, Marchantiophyta) based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers, with comments on classification, cryptic speciation and biogeography. Mol. Phylog. Evol. 55: 293--304. Feldberg, K., J. Vána, J. Hentschel, and J. Heinrichs. 2010b. Currently accepted species and new combinations in Jamesonielloideae (Adelanthaceae, Jungermanniales). Cryptogamie. Bryologie 31: 141--146.
1. SYZYGIELLA Spruce, J. Bot. 14: 234. 1876
Crossogyna (R. M. Schuster) Schljakov; Jamesoniella (Spruce) Carrington
Plants often with deep red or red-brown pigmentation. Branches usually replacing ventral half of a leaf (base of branch paired with a lanceolate half-leaf), seldom intercalary from side of stem. Leaves unlobed and entire; underleaves small or absent. Gynoecium with bracts ciliate-dentate to laciniate [entire]; perianth inflated, distally (3--)4--5(--6)-plicate, mouth ciliate to laciniate [entire]. Capsule wall 4--5 cells thick.
Species ca. 30 (one species in the flora): tropical and temperate areas of North America, Mexico, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, Pacific Islands (New Zealand).
Sterile plants of Syzygiella autumnalis superficially resemble Liochlaena and Jungermannia species, and it has been erroneously placed in Jungermanniacae in the past. It is easily recognized when fruiting by the dentate to laciniate bracts and bracteole, not found in other entire-leaved genera in the flora. Syzygiella autumnalis is morphologically anomalous in the genus---the bulk of the species are tropical, and have ascending, little-branched stems forming deep tufts.
1. Syzygiella autumnalis (De Candolle) K. Feldberg, Váňa, Hentschel & Heinrichs, Cryptog. Bryol. 31: 144. 2010
Jungermannia autumnalis De Candolle, Fl. Franç. (ed. 3) 6: 202. 1815; Jamesoniella autumnalis (De Candolle) Stephani, Crossogyna autumnalis (De Candolle) Schljakov
Plants with shoots 10--30 x 1.5--2.5 mm, prostrate, forming patches or thick mats, green to reddish brown; branches few. Stems stout, ca. 250--300 \um; cortical cells thin-walled, 25--30 \um, medullary cells similar with slightly thicker walls. Leaves imbricate, widely spreading, ovate to rounded-quadrate, 950--1100 x 950--1150 \um, the apex rounded to slightly retuse; leaf cell lumen rounded, sub-quadrate to hexagonal, median cells 25--35 x 28--40 \um; marginal cells slightly smaller, ca. 22--25 \um; cuticle slightly verruculose-striolate near leaf base; cell walls thin, trigones with concave sides, not bulging; oil bodies 7--15 per cell, ovoid to ellipsoidal, 3--5 x 5--9 \um, finely granular. Underleaves absent or occasional and subulate near stem apex. Androecia terminal, spicate, eventually becoming intercalary; bracts in 4--6 pairs, imbricate, slightly smaller than leaves, the dorsal base ampliate with 1--2 inrolled teeth; antheridium one per bract; stalk 2-seriate. Gynoecia terminal on main shoot with 1--2 subfloral innovations; bracts larger than leaves, 1--1.2 x 0.9--1.2 mm, sheathing at base, spreading distally, rounded to retuse with 1--2 laciniate teeth or cilia on lateral margins, the base narrowly connate with bracteole; bracteole large, 0.3--0.4 mm with several laciniate-ciliate lobes; perianth cylindrical to fusiform, 3--3.5 mm, distal portion 4--5 plicate, narrowed to laciniate-ciliate mouth, cilia 5--10 cells long.
Humus-rich soil, rock, logs or tree bases in moist temperate deciduous or Spruce-fir forests; low to high elevations; Alta; B.C. N.B., Nfld., N.S., Ont. Que.; Alaska, Conn, Fla., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa., Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Ore., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Mexico; Europe; Asia.
Two segregates described from single sites in Nova Scotia probably do not merit taxonomic recognition. Jamesoniella heterostipa A. Evans (J. autumnalis var. heterostipa (A. Evans) Frye & L. Clark) was described from a plant with exceptionally large underleaves, growing in a stream,, while J. myriocarpa Brinkman (= J. autumnalis var. myriocarpa (Brinkman) Frye & L. Clark) is inadequately characterized. In addition, the Asian Syzygiella nipponica (S. Hattori) K. Feldberg, Vána, Hentschel & Heinrichs was reported from a site in Virginia by R. M. Schuster (1969) (as J. autumnalis var. nipponica (S. Hattori) S. Hattori). It seems more likely that this was an aberrant plant of S. autumnalis. Syzygiella autumnalis is subject to environmental variation and the differences on which these three variants were based are poorly understood. These plants are most likely environmental variants.
Schuster, R. M. 1969. The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America east of the hundredth meridian. Vol. 2. Columbia University Press, New York.