BFNA Title: Homalia
Author: Inés Sastre de Jesús 
Date: August 16, 2008
Edit Level: R 
Version: 1

Bryophyte Flora of North America, Provisional Publication
Missouri Botanical Garden

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XX. HOMALIA Bridel, Bryol. Univ. 2: 812. 1827 * [Greek homalos, even or level, alluding to the strongly complanate leaves]


Plants small to robust, flat, shiny green to yellowish green. Stem creeping, somewhat stoloniferous, sparsely branched to irregularly branched. Paraphyllia absent. Pseudoparaphyllia absent [present]. Branch leaves flat, appearing distichous, erect-spreading, smooth, oblong-ovate to oblong-obovate, apex rounded, margins entire to serrulate; costa single or very short and double, cells rounded-hexagonal to linear; smooth or porose. Inner perichaetial leaves ovate [broadly lanceolate], sheathing at base, gradually to abruptly subulate; margins entire proximally, entire [serrate at apex]; costa absent [present, single to short and double]; basal cells rectangular, apical cells and distal median cells linear. Sexual condition autoicous [synoicous or dioicous]. Seta yellow to yellowish brown, 1--1.5[--2] cm. Capsule erect to sub-erect, [oblong-ovoid] oblong-cylindric, neck narrow; exostome teeth lanceolate, dorsally densely cross-striate and papillose basally, vertically papillose and hyaline distally, ventrally smooth, trabeculate; endostome segments lanceolate, keeled, perforated along keel, papillose distally, smooth proximally, basal membrane well developed, cilia present, nodulose. Spores 11--14[--16] \um.


Species 5 (1 in the flora): North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America (Brazil), Europe, Asia.


In the field, Homalia is easily distinguished by the flat stems and glossy plants. 


SELECTED REFERENCES: Crum, H. A., and L. E. Anderson. 1981. Mosses of Eastern North America. Columbia University Press, New York. 2 vols. He, Si. 1997. A revision of Homalia (Musci: Neckeraceae). J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 81: 1--52.



1. Homalia trichomanoides (Hedwig) Schimper, Bryol. Eur. 5: 55. 1850


Leskea trichomanoides Hedwig, Sp. Musc. Frond., 231. 1801


Plants medium sized, forming glossy mats; flagelliform branches or tips present. Primary creeping stem leaves appressed, oblong-ovate, 0.5--1 mm; apex acute; margins entire; costa short-double or single[absent]; apical cells linear; basal cells rectangular, distal median cells linear. Stem and branch leaves widely spreading, asymmetric, obovate, oblong-ovate to oblong-spatulate, 1--2(--3) mm; apex rounded, obtuse to obtuse-apiculate; margins serrulate to serrate at apex, entire proximally; slightly decurrent at insertion; costa single, 1/2 to 3/4 of leaf length; apical cells rounded-hexagonal to rhombic, (5--)6--7.5(--17) \um, sometimes weakly porose; distal median cells long-hexagonal to linear, (13--)20--30(--50) \um, sometimes porose; basal juxtacostal cells oblong-linear, (22--)40--60(--80) \um, slightly porose; alar cells, slightly differentiated, rectangular to quadrate, 10--30 \um.


Varieties 2 (1 in the flora): North America, Mexico, Europe, and Asia.


1a. Homalia trichomanoides (Hedwig) Schimper var. trichomanoides


Plants 3--7 cm. Sexual condition autoicous.


Capsules mature May--Nov. Base of trees, roots, rotten logs, shaded boulders, shady banks, limestone cliffs, soil; 150--1000 m; B.C., N.B., N.F., N.S., Ont., Que.; Ariz., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.Y., N.C., Pa., Tenn., Va., Vt., Wash., Wis.; Mexico; Europe; Asia (China, India, Japan, Korea).


Homalia trichomanoides var. trichomanoides has a wide distribution and can be distinguished from H. trichomanoides var. japonica by sexual condition, which is dioicous in the latter. Also the flora variety is larger than var. japonica and tends to produce less attenuated branch tips or flagelliform branches.