BFNA Title: Cirriphyllum
XX. Cirriphyllum Grout, Bull. Torrey Bot. Cl. 25: 222. 1898 * [from Latin cirrus, curling lock of hair, and Greek phyllon, leaf].
Michael S. Ignatov
Plants large, in loose, soft tufts, light or whitish green, glossy. Stems prostrate, with central strand, densely to moderately densely terete-foliate, regularly pinnately branched, branches straight, terete-foliate; axillary hairs 3--5-celled. Stem leaves closely imbricate near ends of shoots, loosely imbricate below to somewhat spaced, erect, ovate or elliptic proximally and abruptly contracted into a long, filiform acumen, slightly rounded to base, long and broadly decurrent, strongly concave, not or slightly plicate; margin plane distally, recurved in proximal half of basal part of leaf, serrate to serrulate; costa reaching 0.3--0.6\x leaf length, lacking a terminal spine; juxtacostal basal cells shorter and sometimes broader, thick-walled, not conspicuously delimited; alar cells subquadrate, enlarged, forming a pellucid, triangular group, abruptly delimited from laminal cells and reaching about half way to costa; medial cells linear, thick-walled, and, in proximal part of leaf, sometimes strongly porose. Branch leaves similar to stem leaves but smaller and narrower, or often more gradually tapered and twisted just before apex, more strongly serrate distally. Sexual condition dioicous; perichaetial leaves abruptly contracted to long, reflexed acumens. Seta dark brown, rough. Capsule brown, inclined to horizontal, ovate to elongate, slightly curved; annulus separating by fragments; operculum long-rostrate; peristome xerocastique, perfect. Calyptra naked.
Species 3 (1
in the flora): North America, Eurasia, Africa,
A. J. Grout
(1898) segregated Cirriphyllum from
Eurhynchium, accepting four species
SELECTED REFERENCE: Grout, A. J. 1898. A revision of the North American Eurhynchia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 25: 221--256.
1. Cirriphyllum piliferum (Hedwig) Grout, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 25: 225. 1898
Hypnum piliferum Hedwig, Sp. Musc. Frond., 275. 1801.
Stems to 10 cm, branches to 15 mm. Stem leaves 1.8--2.6 x 1--1.5 mm, laminal cells 50--110 x 6--10 um. Branch leaves to 2 x 0.7 mm. Seta 10--30 mm. Capsule 2--2.5 mm. Spores 12--15 \um.
Capsules mature in winter and early spring, occasionally summer or fall. Soil, humus, duff, decaying wood, occasionally limestone, in mesic to wet forests, ravine slopes, tall-herb vegetation; 0--450 m; N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., Ont.; Alaska, Conn., Maine, Mass., Mich., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Wis.; Europe; Asia; n Africa.
Cirriphyllum piliferum is easy to recognize by its rather
large size, usually pure green and somewhat whitish color, and the regular
pinnate branching. The concave-inflated and closely imbricate distal leaves
are abruptly contracted into filiform acumens, resulting in a peculiar
appearance when they stand at a sharp, broad angle from the upper shoot (when
wet, as it is usually occurs in the field). When a shoot is examined with a
dark background behind it, the acumens are usually easily visible, allowing for
ready field identification. Brachythecium
(Cirriphyllum) cirrosum differs from C.
piliferum (1) in the more abruptly contracted leaves, so the leaves are
more strongly piliferous, and the branch leaves that do not differ much in
this regard from stem leaves, whereas in C.
piliferum, the branch leaves are not or at least less strongly
piliferous, (2) the irregular branching (fairly regular in C. piliferum), (3) the usual yellow
color of the plants (usually green in C.
piliferum), and (4) rather small alar cells (enlarged in C. piliferum). In addition, the
distribution of the two species rarely overlaps in
Ignatov, M. S. and S. Huttunen 2002 . Brachytheciaceae (Bryophyta)---a family of sibling genera. Arctoa 11: 245--296.
Ignatov, M. S., I.A. Milyutina, and V.K. Bobrova 2008 . Problematic groups of the Brachythecium and Eurhynchiastrum (Brachytheciaceae, Bryophyta) and solutions suggested by nrITS sequences. Arctoa 17: 143--164.
Robinson, H. 1962 . Generic revisions of North American Brachytheciaceae. Bryologist 65: 73--146.