BFNA Title: Conardia
Author: H. H. Crum & L. Hedenäs
Date: April 12, 2010
Edit Level: R
Version: 2

Bryophyte Flora of North America, Provisional Publication
Missouri Botanical Garden
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Conardia - Amblystegiaceae


CONARDIA H. Robinson, Phytologia 33: 294. 1976 * [For Henry S. Conard, bryologist of Grinnell College, Iowa, 1874--1971]


Howard A. Crum

Lars Hedenäs


Plants small, occasionally minute, light green or yellow. Stems irregularly branched ± in one plane, with central strand and without a hyalodermis; paraphyllia absent; rhizoids or rhizoid initials on stem and on back of leaf costa or on lamina near leaf apex, warty-papillose, strongly branched (often forming tomentum); axillary hairs with 1--4 distal hyaline cells. Stem leaves erect to spreading, straight or slightly falcate, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, gradually narrowed upwards, apex acuminate, not plicate, slightly concave; marginal lamina cells unistratose, margin plane or partly slightly incurved or recurved, finely, or near base often coarsely denticulate; costa single, ending in acumen, sometimes percurrent; median lamina cells linear or short-linear, smooth; differentiated alar cells usually numerous, quadrate or more often rectangular, not inflated, forming a distinct transversely triangular group, reaching from leaf margin to leaf middle at insertion or almost so, decurrent. Sexual condition autoicous (dioicous in Europe); inner perichaetial leaves ± suddenly narrowed to acuminate apex, not plicate, margin irregularly denticulate above, lamina cells smooth. Capsule cylindrical, slightly curved, inclined; peristome slightly reduced; exostome margin indistinctly dentate above. Spores 14.0--18.5 \um.


Species 1 (1 in the flora): temperate North America, Central America, Greenland, Europe; widespread.


Conardia has the appearance of a small Amblystegium, but can be distinguished by its warty-papillose, much branched rhizoids that are frequently inserted on the back of the costa or near the leaf apex. Rhizoids can mostly be found in the basal portions of at least some shoots. In addition, the distal parts of the axillary hairs consist of 1--4 cells that are shorter and broader rather than the 1--2 narrow and delicate ones found in Amblystegium. The capsule is only slightly arcuate rather than curved throughout as in Amblystegium species.


SELECTED REFERENCE Hedenäs, L. 1989. On the taxonomic position of Conardia Robins. J. Bryol. 15: 779--783.


1. Conardia compacta (Müller Hal.) H. Robinson, Phytologia 33: 295. 1976


Hypnum compactum Müller Hal., Syn. Musc. Frond. 2: 408. 1851; Amblystegium americanum Grout; A. compactum (Müller Hal.) Austin; A. dissitifolium Macoun & Kindberg; A. holzingeri (Grout) Grout; A. subcompactum Macoun & Kindberg; Brachythecium collinum var. holzingeri Grout; Rhynchostegiella compacta (Müller Hal.) Loeske; R. compacta subsp. americana (Grout) Wijk & Margadant


Plants in dense, more or less loose mats. Stems erect-ascending or creeping; pseudoparaphyllia foliose or filamentose. Stem leaves usually crowded, often homomallous when dry, 0.6--1.2 mm, decurrent; costa commonly bearing cylindric, papillose gemmae or rhizoids abaxially; laminal cells, 5--9:1, shorter and broader at base and quadrate or rectangular in alar groups. Seta 8--14 mm, orange-yellow or at base reddish. Capsule annulus of 1-2 rows of separating cells; operculum conical to shortly rostrate; exostome teeth lanceolate, brownish yellow, at base reticulate or reticulate-striate or with portions cross-striolate; endostome cilia mostly 1—2, up to half as long as segments. Spores finely papillose.


Damp cliffs, especially limestone, swamps on logs, stumps, humus, bark at base of trees; low to high elevantion; Greenland; Alta., B.C., Man., N.S., Ont., Que., Sask., Nfld., N.W.T., Nunavut, Yukon; Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Ind., Iowa, Kans., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.Mex., N.Y., N.Dak., Ohio, Penn., S.Dak., Tex., Utah., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Va.; Mexico (Baja California, Puebla); Central America (Guatemala);. n, c Europe; Asia (Kashmir); Atlantic Islands (Iceland). Reports from New Brunswick are incorrect.