Patricia M. Eckel
Res Botanica
A Missouri Botanical Garden Web Site
May 26, 2004






by P.M. Eckel

Clinton Herbarium

Buffalo Museum of Science


[Originally published in Clintonia (Botanical Magazine of the Niagara Frontier Botanical Society) 6(2, Supplement): 1-8. 1991. Reprinted with permission.]


Because of a number of recent proposals to develop the Niagara River gorge and its environment by government and private interests, it was thought important to put together certain information accumulated during work done by the author over the past decade regarding the value of the gorge as a natural resource to the governments of Ontario and New York.

The Niagara River is a strait connecting Lakes Ontario and Erie. The gorge section of the Niagara River extends seven miles from the cataracts of the river, situated beside the cities of Niagara Falls, New York, and Niagara Falls, Ontario, north to the cities of Lewiston, New York, and Queenston, Ontario (Bastedo, in Tesmer, 1981). The Niagara River, including its gorge, forms the international territorial boundary between the United States of America and the Dominion of Canada.

It is not the purpose of this paper to describe in detail the geophysical and biological characteristics of this gorge except in the most general terms. It is oriented generally north-south, with east/west exposures of the steep gorge walls. Gorge depth varies from its shallowest end at the falls, around 167 feet, and is on average around 209 feet from the surface of the river. The caprock is composed of dolomite, with limestone, shales and sandstone in the lower strata.

The preservation of biological species, in an age of diminishing biodiversity, has become a government priority like never before, with a whole range of laws on every level of government intended to protect the natural heritage of areas. This paper is one of a series of papers I hope to write to present general information on the biological and biohistorical significance of the falls of Niagara and the area in its vicinity.

The natural history resources of the Niagara gorge have evolved and exist as a single unit, irrespective of the fact that this geophysical phenomenon is shared by two separate nations. The fact that two governments are involved means that the geo-biological significance of the gorge is obscured by, for example, government sponsored research being limited to only that side of the Niagara River within the boundaries of a government jurisdiction. Important information displayed on government maps, for example, is lost when mapped features stop at the political boundary this is especially true of climatic features influenced by the Great Lakes and the regional distribution of limestone outcrops and vegetational elements.

Again, assessments of rarity and hence government protection of certain species will vary for political, not biological reasons. For example, Deerberry, Vaccinium stamineum, was considered rather frequent in western New York in 1934 by Zenkert, but it is considered rare in Ontario. Elimination of populations of this plant in New York State, because it is not rare, would threaten the viability of plants occurring in Ontario due to increased isolation of populations.

A similar situation exists for Kalm's St. John's Wort (Hypericum kalmianum). The only station known to have occurred in New York State was in the vicinity of the cataracts, yet it is not considered rare In Ontario where stations occur along the north shore of Lake Erie to the westward (Zenkert, 1934). The range of habitats which exist in Ontario differs from those in New York, and this will effect attributions of rarity for various species. International cooperation in preserving habitats in which populations of species considered of importance to one state or province should be considered by those governments in their preservation protocols.

Nowhere is this more apparent than in the government park lands created in the nineteenth century on both sides of the Niagara River, both originally established to preserve Niagara's internationally recognized natural resources. Administrations must pursue a vigorous natural resource preservation policy with mutual benefit toward the protection policies of either country in order to ensure met preservation objectives. Ontario serves as a corridor for rare biological elements in New York State, and New York for Ontario.

My researches into the Niagara Gorge flora, since begun systematically in 1984, recognize the general model, yet to be elaborated and tested, that the Niagara Gorge serves as part of a critical biological boundary between two Interconnected floristic types. The prairie element of species characteristic of areas to the west of Niagara extends through Niagara following the Great Lakes geophysical and climatic influence up at least as far as the St. Lawrence Seaway, or the far eastern end of Lake Ontario (see floristic maps by Kuechler, 1964 for a suggestion of this corridor). A pattern of limestone/dolomite exposures also appears to characterize this general area, further emphasizing edaphically, micro-climatic and geo-chemical characters reminiscent of the Great Plains, a great limestone basin. Rare plants in New York State with a plains affinity appear to favor this regional association with the Great Lakes, within which lies the Niagara gorge.

The second biological boundary influencing the distribution of rarities at Niagara is the contact into Canada of what is known as the Carolinian floristic zone, occupying Ontario generally from the Bruce Peninsula east and south to and along the Great Lakes to the St. Lawrence River, but which is typical of and increasingly well developed south of Canada in the United States (Zenkert, 1934). The biological importance of this Carolinian zone flora, which occurs nowhere else in Canada is comparable to the tropical flora of the State of Florida, which occurs nowhere else in the United States. Deerberry is part of this flora south of Canada, reaching its northern limits in this part of southern Ontario again, most likely due to the moderating influence of the Great Lakes and edaphic characteristics.

There is much more of natural historic significance in the Niagara gorge and adjacent areas than simply the statistical rarity of its plant species elements. It geological strata have formed the basis for paleontological research since the time of Charles Lyell and James Hall and was an important indicator of the extensive periods of slow change through time critical to establishing the immense chronology of geological time, and which was a fundamental precept of Lyell's student Charles Darwin's theory of biological evolution (see Eckel, 1989).

Numerous type localities occur throughout the vicinity of Niagara Falls, including the type locality of a geologic stratum, the Goat Island Dolostone, ("Goat Island at the brink of Niagara Falls," Howell and Sanford, 1947; see also Zenger, 1965. For discussion and description of other strata In the Niagara gorge, see Tesmer, 1981).

One of the syntypes of Satureja glabella var. angustifolia (Torr.) Svenson. as described by Torrey (1843) (as Micromeria) was collected on Goat Island, the other on Table Rock (Ontario). The type of Liatris flexuosa Thorn. was collected on the "east bank of the Niagara river, below the Falls," (Thomas, 1839), now probably a synonym for the rare Blazing Star, Lyatris cylindracea still growing in the gorge today.

At least two bryophyte types derive from Niagara, one in Ontario; Grimmia hookeri Drumm. "On a stone near the falls of Niagara in Upper Canada [= Ptychomitrium incurvum (Schwaegr.) Spruce], and the other in New York: Didymodon diversifolius Austin, No. 115 Musci Appalachiani by Coe F. Austin, 1870, Hab. ... about Niagara Falls, S. T. Oiney [= Didymodon tophaceus].

Fungi types include Peziza hesperidea C. & P. Goat Island is the type locality ("Among fallen leaves. Goat island, where it was first found. Clinton," Peck, 1873). Puccinia clintonii Peck (Leaves of Pedicularis. Goat island. Clinton. October, Peck, 1873. Speira velutina P. et C. "nov. sp." Goat Island. Ex Coil. G. W. Clinton, Buffalo, N.Y., Dec. 18, 1877 (BUF). Thelephora willeyi Clinton ("Goat Island."); correspondence at BUF demonstrates this is the type material of what is now referred to as Stereum diaphanum.

Algae types include Scytonema cataractae H. C. Wood; "This species grows abundantly in Niagara River on the rocks below the great cataract," H. C. Wood (Kellicott in Day, 1883). Niagara Falls is the type locality for this species (Wood, H.C. Prodromus Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society Vol. XI, 1871). Zonotrichia mollis Wood. "In saxis irroratis, "Cave of the Winds," Niagara, Wood. (H. C. Wood, 1872, "A contribution to the history of the fresh-water algae of North America" Smithsonian Contribution to Knowledge 19. 241:1-262. Zonotrichia parcezonata Wood. "In saxis irroratis, "Cave of the Winds," Niagara, Wood (H.C. Wood, 1872, "A contribution to the history of the fresh-water algae of North America" Smithsonian Contribution to Knowledge 19. 241:1-262. Stephanodiscus niagarae was described by Ehrenberg from material collected at Niagara Falls, Ontario (Hakansson & Locker, 1981).

Mollusk types occur in the area, such as Pyrgulopsis letsoni Walker. (= Amnicola letsoni Walker) found on the gravels on Goat Island (Letson 1901). Plant taxa are frequent with "Niagara" as their epithet, indicating their collection near the falls by working systematists, such as the mollusk Gonlobasis niagarensis Lea (Gonlobasis livescens niagarensis (Lea) (Calkin & Brett, 1978), Oenothera niagarensis R. R. Gates, and the rare Potamogeton niagarensis of Tuckerman, found at the falls.

Again, not only plants, but unique animals or animal behavior is in evidence in the Niagara environment, for example, a population of Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger) occurs on Goat island, an island, part of the gorge, situated between the brinks of the cataracts in New York. This squirrel, abundant in the central and west-central United States is so rare in western New York State that it is frequently reported as absent from the State (Collins, 1981).

Not least are the numbers of visitors to the falls of Niagara who have distinguished the history of botany, In whose publications, collections and personal journals the vegetation of Niagara has furthered the development of the science, individuals such as Andre Michaux, Asa Gray and Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, Louis Agassiz and a host of others too numerous to mention here.

Day (1888) recognized that "some of the rarest plants of western New York and Ontario grow in the neighborhood of Niagara river . . .," some of these being Fragrant Sumac (Rhus aromatica) found recently to occur on Goat Island, Upland White Aster (Aster ptarmicoides), Four-leaved Milkweed (Asclepias quadrifolia) and Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) in addition to several ferns, Walking Fern (Camptosorus rhyzophyllus) and Maidenhair Spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes), again, recently found on Goat island.

Nearly all the rare native species on Goat Island and other islands above the cataracts occur on the Island margins, roughly between the land and the river: at the edge of herbaceous mats and dolomite pavement, on the very edge of the cliff and the open air in the spray zone at Terrapin Point, and historically in the old Terrapin Point habitat, now absent, between the river and the mainland, in or near the spray zone, just above the Horseshoe Falls (Hypericum kalmianum, Parnassia glauca, Justicia americana, all now absent from this area).

Both weedy species, alien and native, and rare plants grow where there is unusual opportunity, for example, by reason of recent human disturbance of the typical growing conditions in the region (typical of weeds), or natural disturbance through time, that is, where natural disturbance is characteristic of the environment, and was in effect when the (rare) species first became introduced. Alien species whose establishment is unusual (rare) are also indicative of an unusual environment, and so these are included with the rare plant list below. Note that Niagara Falls was an important point of railroad transit between the two countries in the decade before the turn of the century and later, and is still considerably important in this regard. It is probable that many alien species entered the Niagara flora from this source, and from the considerable horticultural plantings and garden refuse of the government parks.

". . . Marie-Victorin (1938) pointed out that several western plants, when grown in limestone beds at the Montreal Botanical Garden, increased their area and throve vigorously until finally crowded out by weeds. Several botanists, including Griggs (1934, 1940), had already noted that weeds are often found in the same habitat as rare plants. Species of both groups are adapted to survive on such typical rare-plant habitats as unstable seacliffs and river-gravels, but would be eliminated if the erosion cycle were able to reach a stage permitting establishment of the normal forest-flora of the region. The rare plants share the sun-loving character of weeds. The limestone cliffs, because of their splintered and angular type of weathering (with formation of extensive talus slopes at the base), will still bar conquest by the forest for an indefinite period" (Scoggan, 1978).

Most of the rare plants occurring at Niagara, noted by the New York Natural Heritage Program, were well known to New York botanists since Torrey's New York flora of 1843. George Clinton, who provided the first list of the plants of Buffalo and vicinity (1863), relied on Torrey's work for the relocation of plants of interest at Niagara, as had David Day (1888) on to the work of Charles Zenkert in 1934. It was no surprise to find stations of, for example, the Sky-blue Aster (Aster oolentangiensis) at the stations indicated in the literature and elsewhere in similar habitats in the gorge, nor Blazing Star (Liatris cylindracea), White Camus (Zygadenus glaucus), Fringed Gentian (Gentianopsis procera), Four-flowered Loosestrife (Lysimachia quadriflora). Continued systematic search, an consequence of increasing Interest in Niagara's historic flora by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, may yet reveal extant and additional stations of important species in the gorge flora.

Additional stations of New York rare plants which I have found in the field, and for which I have no previous record of occurrence in the gorge flora, include a variety of Ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius var. intermedius) which is considered a rarity in New York State, two Sedge species from the Goat island complex (Carex garberi, for which subsequent gorge stations have been found, and (Carex molesta), a Speedwell (Veronica peregrina var. xalapensis) and Clearweed (Pilea fontana) from Goat Island, and Sylvan Spear-Grass (Poa sylvestris) up near Lewiston, New York. This gives an indication that the flora has many surprises yet to offer.

Smooth Cliff-brake (Pellaea glabella): Up until 1934, the only species of Pellaea reported for western New York State was P. atropurpurea (L.) Link, or Purple Cliff Brake (Zenkert, 1934). Subsequently, the material from the Niagara River Gorge at BUF has been re-identified by Stanley J. Smith, Curator of Botany of the New York State Museum, and later by Richard H. Zander, Curator of the Clinton Herbarium (BUF) to be P. glabella according to the characters detailed by Mitchell & Sheviak, (1981). The present writer has reviewed the relevant specimens at BUF and examined living populations in the Niagara gorge, and concurs with the changes in identification. Day's reference to P. atropurpurea ("Formerly on Goat Island and the Three Sisters. Not lately seen by us. Probably extirpated," Day, 1888) has been referred in this report to Pellaea glabella.

One specimen collected by George Clinton and hence dating prior to 1885, with no locality given (Herb. No. 35310) is Pellaea glabella by most characters, except it has very long stalks on its lower pinnae. It probably derives from the Niagara River gorge, as no other station for the genus occurs in western New York, or was reported from the Niagara Frontier Region before 1934 (Zenkert, 1934). Some doubt may exist whether P. atropurpurea occurs in the Niagara Frontier region at all. Day (1901) mentioned two species of Pellaea growing in the vicinity of Niagara Falls: P. gracilis and P. atropurpurea. Pellaea glabella is rare in New York State (Clemants, 1988), whereas P. atropurpurea is rare in Canada.

Since 1986, I have been maintaining a bibliographic and specimen database of plants known for the Niagara gorge and its vicinity, for areas in both the United States and Canada. The basis for these reports is a study provided to the New York State Department of Parks in January of 1990 by the author, and a report provided to the Niagara Frontier Chapter of the Adirondack Mountain Club in 1986. There are presently 1,272 species, not including varieties nor doubtfully occurring taxa. A crude calculation of the area under study involves a square of the following dimensions;

Length: 16 miles (seven mile gorge, length doubled since both vegetated sides are considered as one linear unit, plus the addition of two miles to include one mile above the cataracts on both sides of the river).

Width: 459 feet (200 feet perpendicular to the rim of the gorge) plus 209 feet average height of the gorge above river level plus 50 feet of the angle of talus slope and flat shelving parallel to the river).

The estimated area is less than two square miles, including such adjacent areas as Devil's Hole, Devaux Woods, Goat Island, Dufferin islands, and Niagara Glen.

The figure 1,272 species for this area is not an indication of the total number of species occurring there at any one time, but the total number of species reported over a century of exploration. The number represents the total flora of the Niagara River gorge and vicinity.

The recently published flora of the entire New York State county of Cattaraugus (Eaton & Schrot, 1987) recorded 1280 species for 1313 square miles. For the Niagara Frontier Region, an area of 7,850 square miles, 1597 species are recorded (Zander & Pierce, 1979). The recorded flora of the Niagara gorge and vicinity is the equivalent of that of a county flora, and constitutes 80 percent of the flora of a region. Admittedly, there is some danger in pushing this interpretation too hard, but an attempt is being made to give a hint of the biological uniqueness of the study area. Although Day (1888) did not draw comparisons, his catalogued total, which roughly followed the same study area described above, represented 70 percent of the same regional area known in 1882. Additional taxa continue to be added to the gorge flora with continued fieldwork.

In another attempt to indicate the extraordinary biological resource value of this area, I have extracted general lists of rare species known to have existed there. A species occurs on a list only if I have a record for its occurrence in New York and/or Ontario, that is, species noted from one side of the river are only noted if rare in the respective state or province in which the stations are recorded. For example, although a species may be rare in both Ontario and New York, if the plant has only been noted for Ontario, I give no indication of its status in New York. The lists are incomplete due to certain nomenclatural issues, specimen and bibliographic problems.

Note that the most intense collecting activity occurred in the decades around the turn of the century, and no indication is given whether populations persist today. The nomenclature follows Zander and Pierce (1979). Although the flora has value to the natural resource calculation for New York State, the value to the entire nation of Canada of populations recorded for the western side of the river is quite spectacular.

Cryptogamous taxa will be treated in another paper in a recently created "New York Rare Bryophytes Newsletter" issued by the New York Botanical Garden, where species of rare mosses and hepatics known to have occurred in the Niagara gorge and which have been recently discovered will be addressed.

Additional published reports on the biological value of the Niagara gorge are expected to be issued soon by the Ontario Department of Natural Resources and the Natural Heritage unit of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.





Rare in Canada

The following species are rare in Canada, except where noted as Ontario only (Argus & White, 1977; Dore & McNeill, 1980). Note: the Argus and White publication has been significantly updated since, but its indications of rarity are adequate for the general purposes of this paper. [Z&P] includes plants rare in the Niagara Frontier Region, as defined below (i.e., usually not considered rare in the whole of New York State).


Agastache scrophulariaefolia (Willd.) Ktze. Purple Giant Hyssop [Z&P]

Agrimonia parviflora Ait. Small-flowered Agrimony

Anemonella thalictroides (L.) Spach. Rue Anemone

Arabis canadensis L. Sickle-pod

Arabis lyrata L. var. lyrata Lyre-leaved Rock Cress

Asclepias exaltata L. Poke Milkweed

Asclepias quadrifolia Jacq. Four-leaf Milkweed (Ontario) [Z&P]

Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes Ebony Spleenwort [Z&P]

Aster divaricatus L. White Wood Aster

Aster prenanthoides Muhl. Crooked-stem Aster

Aster undulatus Mill. Wavey-leaved Aster [Z&P]

Aureolaria flava (L.) Farwell. Smooth False Foxglove

Aureolaria virginica (L.) Pennell. Downy False Foxglove

Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. Lousewort

Azolla caroliniana Wilid. Carolina Azolla

Betula lenta L. Black Birch

Bidens coronata (L.) Britt. Tickseed

Bromus purgans L. Hairy Wood Chess (Ontario)

Campanula americana L. Tall Bellflower

Cardamine douglassii (Torr.) Britt. Purple Spring Cress

Carex oligocarpa Schkuhr. Few-fruited Sedge

Carex prasina Wahl. Drooping Sedge

Carex torta Boott. Twisted Sedge (Ontario)

Carex trichocarpa Muhl. Hairy-fruited Sedge [Z&P]

Carex virescens Muhl. Downy Green Sedge (Ontario) [Z&P]

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet. Pignut Hickory (Ontario)

Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh. Pipsissewa

Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. Black Snakeroot

Cinna arundinacea L. Wood Reed Grass "

Collinsoma canadensis L. Citronella Horsebalm

Conopholis americana (L.) Wallr. Cancerroot

Corallorrhiza odontorhiza (Wilid.) Nutt. Autumn Coral-root [Z&P]

Coreopsis lanceolata Lance-leaved Tickseed (Ontario) [Z&P]

Corispermum hyssopifolium L. Bugseed (Ontario)

Cornus florida L. Flowering Dogwood [Z&P]

Cubelium concolor (Forst.) Raf. Green Violet [Z&P]

Desmodium ciliare (Muhl.) DC. Hairy Smallflowered Tick Trefoil

Desmodium cuspidatum (Muhl.) Loud. Pointedleaved Tick Trefoil

Desmodium rotundifolium (Michx.) DC. Roundleaved Tick Trefoil

Dioscorea villosa L. Wild Yam

Disporum lanuginosum (Michx.) Nichols. Yellow Mandarin

Elymus villosus Muhl. Slender Wild Rye

Erythronium albidum Nutt. White Adder's Tongue

Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq. Wahoo [Z&P]

Eupatorium purpureum L. Bluestemmed Joepye Weed

Floerkea proserpinacoides Wilid. False Mermaid

Galium pilosum Alt. Hairy Bedstraw [Z&P]

Gaura biennis L. Biennial Gaura

Hieracium gronovii L. Hairy Hawkweed [Z&P]

Hieracium paniculatum L. Panicled Hawkweed [Z&P]

Hieracium venosum var. nudicaule (Michx.) Farw. Rattlesmake Weed

Hydrophyllum canadense L. Water Leaf

Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Cov. Star Grass (Ontario) [Z&P]

lpomoea pandurata (L.) G.F. W. Meyer Man-ofthe-earth

Juglans nigra L. Black Walnut

Justicia americana (L.) Vahl. Water-willow [ZAT]

Lespedeza intermedia (S. Wats.) Britt. Wandlike Bush-clover

Liriodendron tulipifera L. Tulip Tree

Lithospermum latifolium Michx. Broad-leaved Gromwell [Z&P]

Lupinus perennis L. Sundial Lupine [Z&P]

Monarda didyma L. Oswego Beebalm

Morus rubra L. Red Mulberry

Muhlenbergia schreberi J.F.Gmelin. Nimble will

Muhlenbergia sylvatica Torr. Woodland Dropseed, Forest Muhly

Muhlenbergia tenuiflora (Wilid.) BSP. Slender Satin Grass [Z&P]

Myosotis verna Nutt. Early Forget-me-not [Z&P]

Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Black Tupelo

Panax quinquefolium L. Ginseng [Z&P]

Panicum dichotomum L. Forked Panicum

Pedicularis lanceolata Michx. Swamp Louse wort

Polanisia dodecandra (L.) DC. Clammyweed

Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. Great Solomon's Seal [Z&P]

Polymnia canadensis L. Small-flowered Leafcup

Polystichum lonchitis (L.) Roth Holly Fern ( Ontario)

Prunus americana Marshall. Wild Plum

Quercus bicolor Wilid. Swamp White Oak

Quercus palustris Muench. Pin Oak

Quercus prinoides Wilid. Dwarf Chestnut Oak

Quercus muhlenbergli Engelm. Yellow Oak

Quercus prinus L. Chestnut Oak

Solidago arguta Ait. Cut-leaf Goldenrod

Solidago patula Muhl. Rough-leaved Goldenrod

Solidago ulmifolia Muhl. Elm-leaved Goldenrod [Z&P]

Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth. Rush-grass [Z&P]

Swertia caroliniensis (Walt.) Ktze. American Columbo [Z&P]

Vicia caroliniana Walt. Carolina Vetch

Spiranthes lucida (H.H.Eat.) Ames Wildleaf Lady's Tresses (Ontario).

Thaspium barbinode (Michx.) Nutt. Hairyjointed Meadow Parsnip

Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. Clasping Venus' Looking Glass (Ontario)

Uvularia perfoliata L. Perfoliate Bellwort (Ontario)

Vaccinium stamineum L. Deerberry

Vaccinium vacillans Kalm ex Torr. Latefruiting Blueberry


Rare in both Canada and New York Status as given by Natural Heritage Trust (DEC), Clemants (1988). Stations of these have been recorded for both sides of the Niagara River.


Agastache nepetoides Yellow Giant-Hyssop

Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl.) Nutt. Putty-root

Asclepias viridiflora Green Milkweed

Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal. Pawpaw.

Astragalus neglectus (T.& G.) Sheldon. Cooper's Milk-vetch.

Carex complanata Torr. & Hook. Northern Hirsute Sedge. Canada, New York

Chamaelirium luteum (L.) Gray. Fairywand

Cornus drummondii C.A.Meyer. Drummond's Dogwood

Hydrastis canadensis L. Golden Seal

Jeffersonia diphylla (L.) Pers. Twinleaf

Pterospora andromedea Nutt. Pine Drops (Ontario)

Solidago ohioensis Riddell. Ohio Goldenrod


Rare in New York (Native)

Status according to the Natural Heritage Trust (DEC), Clemants (1988). Stations recorded in New York State.


Bidens laevis (L.) BSP. Larger Bur Marigold

Carex retroflexa Muhl. Reflexed Sedge

Cynoglossum boreale Fernald. Northern Wild Comfrey

Cyperus odoratus L. Fragrant Cyperus

Lathyrus ochroleucus Hook. Cream-colored Vetchling

Onosmodium virginianum (L.) DC. Virginia False Gromwell

Scutellaria parvula Michx. Small Skullcap

Solidago rigida L. Stiff Goldenrod


Additional rare alien species, cf. Mitchell (1986, no Ontario plants are noted for bibliographic reasons).


Cerastium semidecandrum L. Small or Spring Mouse-ear Chickweed

Cymbalaria muralis Gaertn., Mey. & Scherb. Kenilworth Ivy

Diplotaxis muralis (L.) DC. Sand Rocket

Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. Wall Rocket


Plants rare only in the Niagara Frontier Region

This area encompasses a circle with a fifty-mile radius with its center in Buffalo (Zander & Pierce, 1979), an area of about 7,850 square miles, including much of the eight westernmost counties of New York State, and the Regional Municipality of Niagara, Province of Ontario. Stations recorded for either side of the river or both.


Arabis drummondii Drummond's Rock-cress

Asclepias verticillata Whorled Milkweed

Aster ptarmicoides (Nees) Torr. and Gray. Upland White Aster

Bromus kalmii Gray. Kalm Brome

Callitriche verna L. Water Starwort

Camptosorus rhizophyllus (L.) Link. Walking Leaf

Carex aquatilis Wahl. Northern Water Sedge

Carex rostrata Stokes. Beaked Sedge

Carex straminea Wilid. Straw Sedge

Cassia marylandica L. Wild Senna

Castilleia coccinea Spreng. Painted Cup

Cerastium nutans Raf. Nodding Chickweed

Cinna latifolia (Trev.) Griseb. Drooping Woodreed

Desmodium pauciflorum (Nutt.) DC. Fewflowered Tick Trefoil

Convolvulus spithamaeus L. Hedge Bindweed

Corylus americana Walt. American Hazelnut

Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. Common Hair Grass

Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britt. Dulichium

Equisetum laevigatum A. Br. Smooth Scouringrush

Helianthemum canadense (L.) Michx. Frostweed

Isanthus brachiatus (L.) BSP. False Pennyroyal

Monarda clinopodia L. Basil Beebalm

Polygala senega L. Seneca Snakeroot

Potentilla fruticosa L. Shrubby Cinquefoil

Puccinellia pallida (Torr.) Clausen. Pale Manna-grass

Robinia viscosa Vent. Clammy Locust

Senecio pauperculus Michx. Balsam Groundsel

Sisyrinchium montanum Greene. Mountain Blue-eyed Grass

Solidago uliginosa Nutt. Bog Goldenrod

Spiraea latifolia (Ait.) Borkh. Broad-leaved Meadow-sweet

Sporobolus neglectus Nash. Small Rush Grass

Utricularia cornuta Michx. Horned Bladderwort


Rare alien species:

Butomus umbellatus L. Flowering Rusl

Camelina microcarpa Andrz. Small-fruited False Flax

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz. False Flax

Centauria maculosa Lam. Spotted Centaurea

Cerastium arvense L. Field Chickweed

Cerastium viscosum L. Clammy Mouse-ear Chickweed

Cynanchum nigrum (L.) Pers. Black Swallowroot

Cynosurus cristatus L. Crested Dogtail

Euphorbia peplus L. Petty Spurge

Geranium pusillum L. Small-flowered Cranesbill

Hibiscus trionum L. Flower-of-an-hour

Lamium amplexicaule L. Henbit Dead Nettle

Lolium temulentum L. Bearded Darnel

Lycopsis arvense L. Small Bugloss

Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill. Field Forget-me-not, Mouse-ear

Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertn., Mey. & Scherb. Butterfly Dock

Trifolium arvense L. Rabbit's Foot Clover

Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L. Gamma Grass

Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. Water Speedwell

Veronica chamaedrys L. Bird's-eye Speedwell

Veronica longifolia L. Long-leaved Speedwell



Argus, G. W. & D. J. White. 1977. The Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci., Botany Division, Ottawa.

Bastedo, J. C. 1981. Niagara Statistics, in Tesmer, 1. H. Colossal Cataract. SUNY Press, Albany, pp. 199-200.

Calkin, P.E. & C. E. Brett. 1978. Ancestral Niagara River drainage: Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Setting. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 89; 1140-1154.

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