Correspondence of Edwin Judson Pickett and G. W. Clinton
P. M. Eckel
Res Botanica
Missouri Botanical Garden
March 17, 2014
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The Correspondence of

Edwin Judson Pickett (1830-1866) and

George William Clinton (1807‑1885)

 

P. M. Eckel, P.O. Box 299, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, 63166‑0299; email: patricia.eckel@mobot.org


People’s College, ca. 1858, at which E. J. Pickett was a professor.

 

Illustration from “Circular of the Peoples’ College of the State of New York

and Act of Incorporation, Passed April 12th, 1853” 1858.


 

Among George W. Clinton’s botanical correspondents exist letters from a man who produced few specimens as a contribution to American herbaria, but who still deserves attention as a member of the group of contemporaries, mostly American, who communicated with Clinton. This group of people formed a small, interconnected sort of village, all of whom shared a botanical interest. Professor Pickett was perhaps one of the more minor participants, yet he touches on some interesting points in the history of New York State education and botanical science within the State.

 

His first claim to fame is the collection of a small plant, a liverwort hitherto unknown to North America. How he found it is perhaps not as interesting as how he managed to identify it. Additions to the State Cabinet during 1864 [in appendix] to the Botany Department: “from Prof. E. J. Pickett, People’s College. Specimens of Duvillea rupestris, Sullivant, a species of Marchantiaceae, not before found in the United States.”

 

EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW-YORK, ON THE CONDITION OF THE STATE CABINET OF NATURAL HISTORY, AND THE HISTORICAL AND ANTIQUARIAN COLLECTION ANNEXED THERETO.

UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW-YORK: OFFICE OF THE REGENTS, ALBANY, MARCH 16, 1865. To the Hon. THOMAS G. ALVORD, Lieutenant-Governor and President of the Senate.

SIR :

 

I HAVE the honor to transmit the Eighteenth Annual Report of the Regents of the University, on the State Cabinet of Natural History and the Historical and Antiquarian Collection annexed thereto. I remain, very respectfully,

 

Your obedient servant,

 

JOHN V. L. PRUYN,

Chancellor of the University

 

The donations, of which Prof. Pickett’s Liverwort formed a part, were due to “The Circular issued last year by the Regents, inviting the aid of the naturalists of the State in supplying the deficiencies of the Cabinet, has produced some fruit, and promises to be productive of much more” (Pruyn in the 18th Annual Report).

 

On June 12, 1865, in the year G. W. Clinton began to preserve the letters his correspondents sent to him, Clinton received and preserved the following note:

 

Vol. 1. 38 I 188

Havana June 12 1865

Dear Sir

    Enclosed I send you two specimens of a floating liverwort which I found on the surface of a stagnant pool near the place I found the fruit mature and immersed in the surface of the fronds near the bifurcations. I suppose it to be a Riccia but am in doubt which one. Is your society at all interested in Hepaticae? If you wish it I can send you specimens of the Duvalia, Reboulia, Preissia, and Marchantia all of them now in fruit. 

    I am also making a collection of the Cyperaceae but do not find time to study them. Have you in your collection the Silene nivea? I

think that I have found it here. 

    Yours truly

    E. J. Pickett

Recd & ansd. June 15. Wrote again 19th

[Silene nivea, Otth. “Penn. to Iowa and Minn; rare.” (Gray, ed 6, p. 84).

 

Reboulia is a liverwort of “wooded ravine banks and hillside grasslands” (Crum 1991) growing on soil. The species is adapted to habitats that may be dry in the heat of summer, when “the thallus protects itself from drying by curling up and exposing its scale-bearing undersurface” (Crum 1991). It does not have to grow in calcareous soils, but Preissia does. Preissia requires more moisture than Reboulia, hence it may be found “on wet, calcareous substrates, on soil, rock, and logs in or near streams and ponds, often in rich fens” (Crum 1991). Marchantia is more conspicuous than the other two liverworts. It is a weed of greenhouses, but “also grows outdoors in wet places, on soil, humus, and logs” (Crum 1991). There are six species of Riccia that grow in southern Michigan ... The species are not commonly found and appear “almost exclusively in the fall of the year, but they can also be expected in early spring before competition from larger plants ... sets in ...in depressions in stubble fields and muddy margins of streams and lakes exposed by lowered water levels” (Crum 1991).

 

Silene nivea (Mutt.) Muhl., the Snowy Campion, flowers in late spring and summer in alluvial woodlands, also where liverworts are likely to be found. It has not been found in New York State, and so Pickett’s conjecture seems to have been unfounded. The center of its range is somewhat south and west of New York and Michigan, although introduced and not persisting in Quebec and Maine (Morton 2005).

 

Mr. Pickett’s liverwort, more correctly reported as Duvalia rupestris Nees, was included in 1866 in the List of Mosses [sic] of the State of New York: “Wet places in rocky ravines, Havana, Schuyler Co. E. G. Pickett” (Peck, 1866).

 

Years later (as Neesiella rupestris (Nees) Schiffn. in Engler & Prantl), the distribution in North America of this species of liverwort “is still very incompletely known” (Evans 1911), with stations from Quebec, Ontario, Ohio and Illinois so far cited in 1911. The species “seems largely if not wholly confined to calcareous regions” (Evans 1911). “In Europe it is known from various localities in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Italy, and it has also been reported from Japan” (Evans 1911).

 

Schuyler County “lies upon both sides of the southern extremity of Seneca Lake” (French 1860). The land rises to 600 to 1,000 feet in bluffs above Seneca Lake “Catharines Creek, flowing into the head of Seneca Lake, is the principal stream. Its course is through a deep, narrow, and winding valley bordered by steep hillsides 400 to 600 ft. high. Upon it are numerous falls ... and near its mouth is a marshy region of considerable extent” (French 1860), affording wonderful opportunities to discover liverworts, which are fond of such places. The bedrock, however, seems to be of thick beds of shale with thin-bedded sandstone separating them, in addition to deposits of glacial drift. Somewhere in these soils and in this topography must lie the calcareous elements on which the Picket’s Duvalia grew.

 

The information on a specimen label curated ten years ago in the collections of the Clinton Herbarium, Buffalo Museum of Science was:

 

Duvalia rupestris (Bisch.) Nees USA New York Schuyler County; Moist rocks in Glen McClure, Havana. [Hand-written label.]  E. J. Pickett s.n. June 1865

 

Glen McClure is now Havana Glen, and the town of Havana is now called Montour Falls in New York State. . Fortunately, the citizens of this area have preserved this glen on McClure Creek as a park in a pristine shaded ravine with beautiful cascades, saving its moss, fern and lichen flora. The village of Montour Falls (renamed in 1890) is today promoted as “the focal point for seven natural glens which radiate from its borders, with more than a score of beautiful waterfalls.” [http://villageofmontourfalls.com/, viewed March 7, 2014]. Eagle Cliff Falls is also on the Creek, a cascade with a 15 foot wide crest and a 41 foot drop into its plunge pool (http://falzguy.com/havana-glen-park.html Viewed March 7, 2014).

 

Havana (now called Montour Falls) is the Schuyler County seat and lies in Catharines township. The surface of the township “is a hilly upland, broken by the deep valleys of the streams ... the soil is principally a gravelly loam mixed with clay” (French 1860). When Pickett wrote his first preserved letter to G. W. Clinton, in 1865, the year of the end of the American Civil War, the county had only been in existence ten years (organized Jan. 1855 (French 1860)).

 

It is rather sad that none of the species offered to Clinton in Pickett’s first letter were sent or preserved, and only three other specimens collected by Pickett are currently curated in the Clinton Herbarium of the Buffalo Museum of Science (see below). Another specimen of Duvalia, apparently, was sent on to the State Cabinet of Natural History in Albany, as noted above.

 

The earliest reference by G. W. Clinton to a correspondence with E. J. Pickett was a note in his Botanical Journal:

 

 “1863. Oct. 1. 'Wrote to E. J. Pickett, Esq., Rochester.'

 

The title “Esq.” or “Esquire” indicates Pickett, like George Clinton, was a member of the legal profession in the United States. This note also indicated Pickett’s residence at this time in 1863 was in Rochester, New York. By June, 1865, as his first preserved letter suggested, he had moved to Havana, Schuyler County, New York. Clinton in this entry gives no reason for his writing to Pickett at this time.

 

Back in 1863, Clinton further wrote in his journal:

 

  “[1863] Oct. 3. 'Wrote to Halliday Jackson, enclosing specimen of Azolla Caroliniana, received from Pickett.'

 

Letters from Halliday Jackson of West Chester, Pennsylvania, only began to be preserved by Clinton many years after 1863, starting at the end of December, 1878. Azolla Caroliniana Willd. was reported from “Pools and lakes, New York to Illinois, and southward” by Asa Gray (Gray’s Manual 1862). By House (1924) it is reported as “Floating on quiet water. Locally abundant in central New York and along Lake Ontario.” Again, Pickett seems to enjoy wetter environments associated with forest pools and shady ravines.

 

In the next year, during the month of April, 1864, Clinton wrote in his botanical journal that he “mailed the circular of the Regents, with the lists of deficiencies of the Cabinet, to Prof. Gray, Dr. Lee, Peekskill, Dr. Sartwell, Dr. Vasey, John A. Paine, Jr., M. S. Bebb, Miss Mary H. Clark, Dr. Dewey, E. J. Pickett, ...'. This is the “The Circular issued last year [1864] by the Regents, inviting the aid of the naturalists of the State” mentioned by John V. L. Pruyn, Chancellor of the University, the 18th Annual Report of the Regents, in 1865.

 

Pickett did respond to this appeal, and his first letter, quoted above, was sent to Clinton after the 18th Annual Report was issued, with Pickett’s Duvalia rupestris noted. Also in that issue, Pruyn noted:

 

“We are glad ... to notice the fact that the venerable Chester Dewey, that excellent gentleman and distinguished caricographer, has contributed a large number of the Carices of the State. This gift imparts to the Herbarium a new and peculiar value.”

 

The Rev. Chester Dewey D. D., LL.D., also lived in Rochester. In 1864, Dewey presented “an invaluable” collection of sedges (Carex) to the Cabinet. Dewey had retired in 1860, but from 1850 he became the first professor of chemistry and natural sciences at the University of Rochester, New York “His outstanding achievement was the preparation of a series of papers, entitled “Caricography,” on carices or sedges, published between 1824 and 1866 in the American Journal of Science” (American Encyclopedia, Vol. 9 p. 46). In the United States of America, the LL.D. is awarded as an honorary degree only. The equivalent academic degree is the Scientiae Juridicae Doctor (S.J.D. or J.S.D.) (Wikipedia, March 5, 2014).

 

It is likely Pickett wrote about his collecting Carex, but at the same time not studying them, as a response to the need of such plants for the State collections.

 

In January, 1865, Clinton wrote in his journal:

 

1865. Jan. 20. while in Albany wrote to Pickett and several other botanists.

 

It is probable that Picket was singled out in this entry due to other reasons than botany, reasons having to do with the People’s College in Havana, where Pickett now taught as Professor of Geology and Mineralogy (Ancestry, n.d.).

.

 

Three days later, Clinton wrote in his Journal:

 

[1865.]    Jan. 23d. Tuesday. Regent's Meeting in the m'g [=morning]. At 3 P.M. attended, at the Agricultural Room, the meeting called to consider the Agricultural College, People's College, & Senator Cornell's offer to endow an Agricultural College &c. at Ithaca, with 300 acres of land & $500,000.

 

The Agricultural College was to be that of New York State’s land grant institution, already designated, however, as the People’s College (see below). The $500,000 endowment was to come from Cornell’s personal fortune, and the site was to be Cornell’s private farm in Ithaca, New York, Tomkins County. Cornell was a president of Western Union (originally, before merging with another company, the New York and Western Union Telegraph Company). He was an associate of William Morse, one of the developers of the electromagnetic telegraph. George Clinton, as a matter of fact, was a correspondent with Joseph Henry, then head of the Smithsonian Institution, who was still disgruntled at the scientific scooping of the technological innovation Morse needed for successful long distance transmission, probably through Leonard Gale, a friend of Henry’s.

 

George Clinton was a Regent of the State University. The annual meeting of the Regents “is held on the first Thursday of January, in the Senate chamber, and is adjourned for short periods during the session of the Legislature. Most colleges report annually to the Regents ... They [i.e. the Colleges] have generally been assisted by grants of land or money from the State” (French 1860). The reason for Clinton’s presence in Albany in January was to attend the Regent’s annual meeting.

 

“By an act passed April 12, 1853, the Regents were required to establish general rules under which colleges, universities, and academies might claim incorporation...” (French 1860). Among the list of acting Regents in 1864-1865 in the Eighteenth Annual Report on the Condition of the State Cabinet of Natural History, published by the Regents and made to the Legislature, March 22, 1865, was George W. Clinton and also Ezra Cornell.

 

Cornell was also President of the New York Agriculture Society, an organization whose antecedents began in the late 1700’s to organize various county agricultural fairs, but the Society of which Cornell was president was formed in 1832 (French 102). “In 1841 the society was re-organized, and measures were adopted for raising funds and holding annual fairs” (French 1860). “The office of the society is kept at the Agricultural Rooms, corner of State and Lodge Sts., Albany, where it has a museum and library” (French 1860).

 

In the previous year (1864) the two founders of what was to become Cornell University “met in the New York State Senate” in January, 1864” - the month when, among other things, the annual meeting of the Regents took place (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Cornell_University; viewed March 7, 2014). The two founders were Andrew Dickson White of Syracuse and Ezra Cornell of Ithaca, and Mr. Cornell was also, apparently, a Regent of the University. A Regent could be created “by the Legislature in the same manner that U. S. Senators are appointed” (French 1860). A Regent is removed for several reasons, one was “by accepting the office of trustee in an incorporated college or academy” (French 1860). The Morrill Land Grant Act only a few years before, in 1862, had been enacted by the Federal Government under Abraham Lincoln as President, for the establishment of Agricultural and Industrial Colleges throughout the various States. The Act “was also critical to the formation of many universities in the post-Civil War era, including Cornell.” (History of Cornell University).

 

As newly elected members of the state senate, Cornell chaired the Committee of Agriculture and White was the chair of the Committee of Literature (which dealt with educational matters). Hence, both chaired committees with jurisdiction over bills allocating the land grant, which was to be used “without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactic, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts.”

 

The Regents apportion of the income of the Literature Fund “among academies, in proportion to the number of students pursuing the classics or the higher English branches; designating such academies as shall receive aid in establishing classes for instructing teachers of common schools” etc. (French 1860). The Fund was managed by the State Comptroller “for investment, - the Legislature appropriating the proceeds annually, and the Regents designating the scale of apportionment.” The Fund, in New York State, was initially “originated with certain tracts of land reserved for literature.”

 

The Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act also provided funding for its execution through the sale of timber land in the mid-western United States. Ezra Cornell managed the portion allocated to New York State, amounting to “$2.5 million (~$43 million in 2008 dollars).” Members of the New York State legislature wanted the funds distributed to the many small state colleges located throughout the State, but White opposed this idea, wishing this money to go to only one university http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Dickson_White.

 

As White was the chair of the Committee of Literature, he probably also assisted in the control of State money accruing to the Literature Fund for New York academies and common schools.

 

“In 1863, the [New York State] legislature had granted the proceeds of the land grant to the People's College in Havana (now Montour Falls), with conditions that would need to be met within a certain time frame” (History of Cornell University).

 

It was also in 1863 Andrew Dickson White was elected a Senator to the New York State legislature, becoming acquainted with Ezra Cornell, also a Senator. Cornell represented Tompkin’s County in the State Assembly in 1862 and 1863, and in the Senate from 1864 to 1867 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ezra_Cornell).

 

In 1863, as noted above, Clinton entered in his botanical journal:

 

 “1863. Oct. 1. 'Wrote to E. J. Pickett, Esq.   Rochester.”

 

but without stating his purpose. In the meantime, between 1863 and 1865, Pickett had achieved a professorship at the People’s College in Havana.

 

French (1860) wrote that the People’s College was located in the postal village of Havana, Catharines Township of Schuyler County. “It is a canal village and a station upon the Chemung R. R. Pop. 1,290 (French 1860). It had an institution called the People's College that had Horace Greeley as a trustee. It was a liberal arts college but with science, agricultural and mechanical training - a precursor in spirit to Cornell University, just to the east at the south end of Cayuga Lake in Tompkins Co. (Van Deusen 1953).  “This institution [i.e. the People’s College] was incorporated April 13, 1854 [French p. 610], and was located at Havana Jan. 8, 1857. The college edifice - the erection of which has been commenced - is to be 320 by 52 feet, 4 stories high, with a basement. At either end is a wing, 206 by 52 ft. -, 4 stories high; and a wing will project rearward from the center, 68 by 64, 3 stories high. above the basement the walls are to be erected of brick; the whole at an estimated cost of $175,000. The institution is to afford instruction in some departments of mechanics and manufactures, and students are to be paid for their services. The trustees have resolved to establish 19 professorships” (French p. 610: Schuyler County).

 

When incorporated in 1854, the People’s College had “Trustees elected for 6 years. Students and teachers expected to labor from 10 to 20 hours each week. Located on a farm of 200 acres” (French 1860, fn. ‘a’).

 

E. J. Pickett, Esq. was one of those professors.

 

The College “was incorporated April 12, 1853 [but see French, above], and fine buildings were erected in 1857. By an Act of May 14, 1863, in and of colleges for teaching agriculture and the mechanic arts, were offered to the People’s College at Havana, but with condition as to endowment and preparation which the trustees of the letter were unable to meet. It was finally, by act of April 27, 1863, granted to the Cornell University, but not without still offering the opportunity to the People’s College, of meeting the conditions within 3 months, which they failed to do. Upon the project being abandoned, it [became] the New York Masonic Orphan Asylum. In 1870 the school was purchased by Elliot W. Cook, brother of the original founder Charles Cook, and opened in 1873 as a private boarding high school. Later it was St. John’s Seminary of Atonement for high school boys and is currently the Fire Academy of Sciences operated by the State of NY.” (http://www2.westminster-mo.edu/wc_users/homepages/staff/brownr/NewYorkCC.htm).

 

The People’s College was also called Cook’s College, or Cook’s Academy. “It was originally going to be developed in to a fine university, but the government funds ended up going to build Cornell University instead.  After Charles Cook died in 1866 it was closed for a few years.  Then it was purchased by the Masons, and used as an orphanage & school (Masons NY State Orphanage), with the academic department opening in 1868.  In 1870 the school was purchased by Col. Elbert W. Cook (brother of original owner Charles) & opened again in 1873” (Dee Watt, http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nyschuyl/cookacad.htm ).

 

It is interesting that the Fire Academy still operates in the village (as the New York Academy of Fire Science) and even uses the same buildings as those of the former People’s College (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montour_Falls). Note that in Schoharie County, at any rate, “Within the last ten years [i.e. the 1850’s], a mania for building large seminaries, far beyond the wants of the people, has spread through the Co. The speculation has proved a ruinous one, and the entire amount of capital invested in the enterprises has been sunk.” In a footnote (no. 5): “Of 9 academies built in this Co., 3 have been burned, 3 are “to let,” and 3 are still open.” (French 1860; cf. Eckel, 2006). It is possible that this ‘mania’ was due to the popular political movement to establish Federal support for Land Grant Colleges and the building of Agricultural or Industrial colleges in the United States in federal bills of the 1850’s antedating the Morrill Act of 1862.

 

After Clinton’s note of January 20, 1865, he wrote a few weeks later:

 

Feb. 5. 'The Regents received the Senate Resolution of inquiry touching the People's College, and committed it to the Com. hearing in [to?] change the former resolution of the Senate Com. in Literature, of which Regent's Com. I was one, intending it to visit the College &c., [=passage confusing].”

 

Feb. 6. 'Tuesday. At 1 P.M. Judge Johnson [x], I & Secretary Woolworth [x], started for Havana. Mr. Downs, Charles Cook's representation here, went with us, reached Canandaigua at 1 A.M. of [????].”

 

As stated above, Charles Cook was the original founder of the People’s College.

 

Feb. 6 [[sic] for the 7th.] “At 8 A.M. took the Elmira R. R. and reached Havana, late in the afternoon, put up at the Morton House, Professors Phin & Pickett called in the evening. Devoted  residue of this day & the 8th to visiting the [People’s] College, taking testimony, &c.”

 

Meanwhile, the 18th Report of the Regents had been circulated, as noted in the beginning of this article, and the focus of Clinton’s and Pickett’s correspondence seems to have been botanical, but with the fate of the People’s College hanging between them.

 

The day after Clinton departed for Havana, White “introduced a bill ‘to establish the Cornell University’ and, on April 27, 1865, after a many month long debate [apparently short of three months], Governor Reuben E. Fenton sighed into law the bill endowing Cornell University as the state’s Land-Grant Institution” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Dickson_White ).

 

Pickett wrote, still from Havana a month after the June 12, 1865, letter transcribed above:

 

Vol. 1. No. 87 [I 134]

    Havana  July 12, 1865

Dear Sir

    For some weeks I have been looking for the Dicentra which you so much desired and I have examined most of the moist rocks and banks in this vicinity with no success.

    Enclosed I send a letter from Dr. Sartwell, from its contents you will see that our best books make a mistake in the locality. Dicentras even of the common species are rare here. Enclosed I send

you two species of liverworts. The Callipogon pulchella grows in the meadow back of the college and last night while botanizing on the marsh I found, for the first time, the Ilysanthes. Gray marks it common. I have also found a solitary specimen of the broom rape. My time is so much occupied that I have no opportunity for studying the mosses although I often find one that interests me: enclosed I send you a specimen which I have growing in my room. Our summer term closes July 21st and I fear that school will not be opened here again.

    Yours truly

        E. J. Pickett

Hon. G. W. Clinton

Recd. July 15

Ansd 17th [ansd 17th]

 

The enclosed letter from the previous June:

 

Vol. 1. No. 88 [I 133]

 PennYan  June 23d  1865

Mr. Pickett

    Dr. Sir,

    Yours of the 22nd inst. came to hand last night. As to the Dicentra eximia I know not where it can be obtained. About 20 years ago I found it in Wayne Co. not far from Lyons, & David Thomas found it in Scipio in Cayuga Co. about the same time or before. I doubt whether it can be had at this time, unless some one has it growing in their garden. I have no duplicate specimen, or I would send you one. It is very rare.

    I am cordially yours

        H. P. Sartwell

Recd. from Mr. Pickett July 15

[Is entered from index as “Prof”]

 

Henry Parker Sartwell, M.D. (1792-1867), resided in PennYan, New York, a postal village in Yates County, New York, Milo Township and the county seat, “an important station on the Elmira, Jefferson & Canandaigua railroad. The name of the village is explained by French (1860) “among the early settlers of the village were a Pennsylvanian and a Yankee, each of whom wished to name the place. The matter was finally compromised by uniting the first syllable of their respective designations, - Penn and Yan.” PennYan is located at the north end of Keuka Lake, just as Pickett, at Havana, was located at the southern end of Seneca Lake (Finger Lakes region of central New York State).

 

Dicentra cucullaria DC. is the Dutchman’s Breeches and D. canadensis DC. is Squirrel-Corn, both of rich woods. The Dicentra eximia DC. is from “Rocks, W. New York, rare (Thomas Sartwell), and Alleghanies of Virginia” (Gray’s Manual 1862) blooming in May through August, right when Pickett wrote his recent letter. It is likely it is the D. eximia that was wanted, as the other two species were not uncommon in the Buffalo area, where Clinton resided.

 

In the 19th Annual Report Clinton wrote:

 

“Dicentra eximia, D. C. On recurring to my correspondence with David Thomas, in 1829, I find that he had not, as I supposed, then found this plant native in Cayuga county. Prof. Pickett kindly communicated to me a letter of my dear friend, Dr. Sartwell, dated June 23, 1865, in which he writes: “As to Dicentra eximia, I know not where it can be found. About twenty years ago, I found it in Wayne county, not far from Lyons; and David Thomas found it in Scipio, Cayuga county, about the same time, or before. I doubt whether it can be had, at this time, unless some one has it in his garden. I have no duplicate specimen.” (Clinton 1886).

 

Calopogon pulchellus R. Brown was common in bogs, flowering in July, with lovely one-inch broad, pink-purple, fragrant flowers, according to Gray (1862). It is in the Orchid family. The Ilysanthes gratioloides, Benth, False Pimpernel, is in the Scrophulariaceae and occurs in “Low grounds, and along rivulets; common. June - Sept.” (Gray 1862). The Broom-Rape family is the Orobanchaceae. The native plant to which Pickett referred is Orobanche uniflora L., the One-flowered Broomrape, Cancer Root, Ghost Pipe and Naked Broomrape, its scientific name according to Gray, was Aphyllon uniflorum, Torrey & Gray. It is a parasitic plant on other species of plants, pale-whitish in color due to its lack of chlorophyll, the ordinary nutrient-producing element in plants that do not parasitize.

 

The Marsh is probably the Catharine Creek Marsh just north of Montour Falls (the old Havana), part of the extensive, marshy lowlands at the southern end of Seneca Lake near Watkins Glen, now preserved within the Catharine Creek Marsh State Wildlife Mangement Area.

 

The People’s College in Havana was closed in July, 1865.

 

Apparently, the day before the College closed, Pickett wrote the following letter to Clinton:

 

Vol. 1. No. 100 [I 120]

    Havana  July 20th 1865

Dear Sir

    Since I do not find it “Chamaelirium luteum” in your catalogue I today take the liberty of forwarding you a staminate and pistillate frond in a newspaper. Also a composite flower [Polymnia Can.'s

written in pencil and careted in] which I have not determined. I found it at Keshong's Landing on Seneca Lake. I never have met with it before.

    Enclosed please find two specimens of the Allosorus which is common here. Many thanks for your more than kind letter of the 17th. The expressions of good will were highly prized coming as they did from one whom I have so much reason to respect and esteem. I am not conscious that I have done anything for you which has laid you under obligations or any thing which it was not a pleasure for me to do. The term here closes tomorrow. I purpose to continue to teach somewhere but have no place fixed upon & at present think of going to New York or Brooklyn. My address after next Tuesday will be Rochester N.Y.

    Yours Truly

 

[Prof.] E. J. Pickett

Hon. G. W. Clinton

Recd July 22

 

Chamaelirium luteum (L.) Gray, Blazing-star, is rare in western New York, and is found in moist meadows and thickets. Polymnia canadensis L., Small-flowered Leaf-cup, is also associated with damp, rich shaded places.  Allosorus p. 683 = Cryptogramme acrostochoides, R. Brown (= Allosorus acrostichoides Springel.) of Gray's 6th = Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott, the Christmas Fern. This fern is common “in woods and on shaded slopes, especially in rocky soil” (House 1924). Allosorus atropurpureus (L.) Kunze ex Presl = Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link in Z.& P. is rare in New York State and grows on rock outcrops. 

 

There is a Keshong Creek (French 1860) that flows into Seneca Lake, in Ontario County (French 1860), and a Kashong Road (two spellings) beside it today in Seneca Township. In the postal village of Geneva, once a popular tourist town before 1860: “A daily line of steamers connects this place with the upper ports upon Seneca Lake” (French 1860) and it is probable that this is the Keshong’s Landing.

 

Not long after the College was closed and Pickett had moved back to Rochester, we find that he had resumed his companionable Rochester relationships in botany, and joined a party of men going out into Irondequoit Bay. In George Clinton’s botanical journal, Clinton wrote:

 

[1865] Aug. 17. 'By 5 A. M. train went to Rochester, with Dr. Grosvenor. With Booth, Fish & Pickett, went to the Irondequoit Bay. ...Rowed about 6 miles down the Bay. Collected some Myriophyllum verticillatum, also, largely, of a Naias, quite prickly, & appropriately, by Pickett, called the water thistle, it may be Naias minor (is N. major).'

 

Both Booth and Fish reported that Myriophyllum verticillatum L., the Whorled water milfoil, was “rare in Irondequoit bay” (House 1924). It was a species of deep or shallow water, in 1924 “occasional or locally frequent across the State northward ... and westward to Monroe county” although now a noxious plant in State waters. Here we find Pickett memorialized by Homer House with a report of Naias major (called by House Naias marina L.) from Irondequoit bay, by E. J. Pickett (House 1924). The attribution of this find to Pickett by Clinton would be gratefully acknowledged in a subsequent letter from Pickett to Clinton (see below). This Naias grows “in subsaline lakes, marshes and springs; central New York” (House 1924) giving rise to the speculation regarding the source of the sodium chloride in these inland stations and the fascinating study of halophytes growing in springwater laced with salt leached out of salty rock beds in the area. In Monroe County the bedrock of the Niagara group of sedimentary rock “yields weak brine springs in several localities. The underlying rocks in the southern part of the county belong to the Onondaga salt group” (French 1860).

 

Joseph Williston Grosvenor, M.D., had just been mustered out of the United States military service in April of 1865, the month when the Union forces captured Richmond, Virginia. Only eleven days later, President Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated (April 14, 1865). On May 10, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy, was captured in Georgia, on his way to Texas. Officially, the American Civil War ended on May 26, when the last Confederate army surrendered at Shreveport, Louisiana. Grosvenor had served in the Rhode Island 11th Infantry, and the Rhode Island 3d Heavy Artillery, stationed in the Department of the South, where he collected plants and sent duplicates to Clinton from Georgia, Florida and South Carolina. He was on a visit to Clinton in Buffalo, New York, after leaving the army.

 

George T. Fish was a botanist associated with the Rochester Academy of Sciences in Rochester, New York. Dr. C. M. Booth, of Rochester, contributed to a Flora of Monroe County, published in 1919 by the Rochester Academy of Sciences.

 

Rochester is a city near the southern shore of Lake Ontario in Monroe County, New York, and located on the Genesee River. Irondequoit Bay “is a narrow, deep body of water, extending inland about 6 miles from the lake shore. From its southern extremity a deep valley extends several miles further south, forming the deepest ravine along the northern border of [New York] State. Some geologists have supposed that Genesee River formerly flowed through this valley” (French 1860).

 

Clinton and Grosvenor probably returned to Buffalo on the train, returning the next day:

 

[1865. Aug.] 18. 'By 5 A.M. train to Rochester, with Dr. Grosvernor, there joined by Fish & Pickett. Boott, who was   to have joined us, failed to connect, and we left in the accommodation train for Bergen, & walked thence to Sackett's. Mr. S. gave us some breakfast, & then we went into the Swamp. ...Pickett showed us one of the Hepaticaceae looking very much like one of the Hypnums, not in fruit, (= Trichocolea tomentella, Pickett says he never found it in fruit but once). ...When we emerged & got to Smith's, found that Boott had come on in a later train, & had gone in to the swamp. We all dined at Mr. Sackett's, and then Pickett & Fish started off for the station, as their train was to leave at 5 P.M.’

 

The liverwort Trichocolia tomentella Nees is “large, regularly 2-3-pinnate, and woolly in appearance owing to the fine dissection of leaves, first into 3-4 narrow lobes divided nearly to the insertion and then into many long, simple, and branched cilia” (Crum 1991). Crum also says that “sporophytes are very rare. The only specimens with shoot calyptrae and sporophytes seen were collected in Bavaria and northern Italy in May. Schuster reported fruiting in New York and Minnesota in late April to late May” (Crum 1991). The species in Michigan is “common in depressions in cedar swamps farther north” than southern Michigan.

 

Bergen Swamp is located in the townships of Bergen and Byron in Genesee County, New York. The general habitat of Bergen Swamp is wet woods. The swamp is underlain with alkaline and acid soils, which promote a richness and diversity of plants which is quite unusual in the area of Western New York. It has evolved into one of numerous nature preserves in Monroe County.

 

A few weeks after the party to Irondequoit Bay and Bergen Swamp, C. M. Booth, who seems to have missed his trains on that occasion, wrote to Clinton:

 

Vol. 1. No. 149 [I 61]

                Rochester  Sept. 15, 1865

Dear Sir,

    “Your favor of the 13th inst. arrived last night. I received it on my return from a visit to the Najas major part of the bay after some of said plant for Prof. Gray. I have this morning sent him a couple of complete plants choosing rather smaller ones than those we found - the water being shallower where I collected them.

    Friend Pickett has gone to Attica,  Indiana to teach school for a year, a pretty good engagement I believe. He left here last Monday....

    I wish you joy of your botanical discoveries - where in the world can you find such “tropical weeds” as Amaranthus spinosus and Lampsana. If all collectors would only follow the industrious example set them by yourself & our friend Paine, and diligently avoid the laziness which seems to be chronic among the Rochester “profession” what a mass of useless knowledge as Pickett calls it would be got together...”.

 

There may have been a reason for Pickett’s rather depressing attitude, for at this time he had a disease that would shortly claim his life.

 

By January of the next year (1866), Pickett had moved west to teach in Indiana:

 

 

Vol. 2. No. 145 [D 80]

                                Attica, Ind. Jan. 13th, 1866

Dear Sir

    A copy of the Regents Report has reached me and in it I see many evidences and much fruit of your industry and devotion to science. Certainly it must be gratifying to see the interest which you have awakened in the much neglected study of Botany. I hope now that you have completed your labors on the State herbarium, that your zeal will remain the same and that the science will be so popularized that you will not be the only judge in the court of the flowers and that so many dear weeds may not ... with their desert “sweetness unseen”. I am a little surprised to see the Duvalia noticed so prominently for all of which it feels under great obligations to you. I am sorry that to me should be given the credit of discovering the Najas in Irondequoit Bay.

    That honor should belong to yourself. You know it was stipulated when we started on that memorable excursion that my sole part was “to add dignity to the occasion.”

    Do you not think that Mr. Paine's theory of brine springs in that bog does great credit to his poetic talent and should be taken with a few grains of salt?

    I find my position here pleasant and geologically interesting. I have already found some fine fossil localities and shall develop them more as soon as the season permits but I arrived here too late to do much botanically. To day I have collected a few mosses some of which look unfamiliar and since my lens was unfortunately left in Rochester, I cannot

analyze them. Enclosed I send you a few specimens. Most of the species of Oak and hickory are found here and form the chief forest growth.

    Next season I hope to make some additions to my botanical collection and I would be glad of any suggestion that you may make.

    One of my pupils has asked me a question in history which she is desirous of being able to answer but I don't think it is an item of recorded history viz. What is the date when the Fourth of July was first celebrated as a National holiday, after the promulgation of the Declaration. Was it the next year or was it after the war and how soon

after?

    I have searched the Wabash for those large Unios but as yet cannot redeem my promise. I have found some specimens that are unknown to me and intend to make further explorations.

                                Yours truly

                                  E. J. Pickett

Hon. G. W. Clinton                Attica

                                  Fountain Co., Ind.

Recd Jan. 17 & inclosed his mosses to Mr. Peck.

ansd 25th.

 

Attica, Fountain County, Indiana, sits along the Wabash River, in what is now Logan Township. As of the 2010 census, there are only a little more than 2,000 people residing there.

 

The copy of the Regents Report to which Pickett refers is the 19th Annual Report, 1866 for the year 1865. In it G. W. Clinton published plants new to the State after the State Flora published by John Torrey (1943). In this catalogue, for species number 21, Clinton wrote (Clinton 1886):

 

Note the misspelling of E. G. [rather than E. J.] Pickett is due to the typesetter not realizing that Clinton’s handwritten “J” can usually be misinterpreted as a “G.”

 

The Buffalo Society of Natural History at this time had an extensive collection of shells to which Pickett had undoubtedly been asked to contribute. At this time the molluscan flora in North America, still relatively pristine and untouched, was of great richness and diversity.

 

At the end of January, Coe Finch Austin, another of Clinton’s correspondents and a specialist in bryophytes,  had written to Clinton:

 

Vol. 2. No. 175 [D 49]

                                Closter, N. J. Jan. 31st 1866

Dear Sir

    Your letter of Jan. 16th was received in due season and I have been so busy with Hepaticae that I have neglected answering it before. In answer to your queries I will say that I have just received a copy of the last report of the Regents. I believe I did furnish a specimen of Callitriche Austinii to the State Cabinet from the top of the [Wier?] on Staten Island when I first detected it in 1861.

    I have not received your Carte de visite but should be most pleased to have it, and shortly I shall get a supply of my own when I will send you one in return.

    Cannot you get me a specimen of Duvalia rupestris? (I see it is “Duvillea rupestris Sullt.” in the Report, but I know of no such genus or species and presume it must be meant for Duvalia rupestris Nees. I should like very much to see a specimen and would return it if desired for I cannot learn that this species was ever found in this country before.

 

                                Very truly yours

                                Coe F. Austin

Recd. Feb. 3 & ansd

 

Duvalia rupestris Nees became Grimaldia rupestris Lindb. by the 6th ed of Gray's Manual: a liverwort.

 

A few days later, Pickett wrote:

 

Vol. 2. No. 176 [D 48]

                                Attica, [Indiana] Feb. 5th, 1866

Dear Sir

    Your pleasant letter and its enclosed summons was received. The order

to “pay up” occasioned me much solicitude for I couldn't see for the life

of me how it was to be done since all of my collections are in Rochester.

Just now while turning the leaves of an old volume a stray specimen and

only one, of the Tricholocolea came to light which you will please find

enclosed. I never have seen it fruited but on one occasion I found it in a

swamp in Mexico, Oswego Co. June 1861.

    Enclosed you will find another specimen of moss from Havana. I think I

have it somewhere named but on doubtful authority I suppose it to be hypnum

of some kind. I do not intend studying mosses very much until I can procure

a lens better adapted for the purpose than the one which I have at present.

In the mean time I want to trouble you with such questions and discoveries

as I may chance to make.

    If I can be of service to you I shall be happy to do so.

    I have recd a letter from Mr. Austin but am unable at present to comply

with his request for a specimen of Duvalia. Did I ever furnish you with

any of them.

                                Yours truly

                                  E. J. Pickett

Hon. G. W. Clinton

 Recd. Feb. 7. The moss is H. Crista-castrensis.

 

The Buffalo Museum of Science has or had the following specimen in its collection, and it probably dated from this trip to Bergen Swamp:

 

Trichocolia tomentella Nees [USA] A. In fruit, from E. G. Pickett

[Clinton's handwriting] Ex Coll. G. W. Clinton, Buffalo, New York.

E. G. Pickett s.n. s.d.

 

Hypnum crista-castrensis Hedw. is a beautiful pleurocarpous moss, the “knight’s plume moss,” “splendidly shiny, forming feathery fronds curved at the tips of stems and branches” (Crum and Anderson 1981). It grows on “humus and old, moss-covered logs in rather dry to swampy coniferous forests.”

 

Mexico was a township in Oswego County. Mexico was also a postal village in the township (French 1860). The town of Mexico is today located on Black Creek and the Little Salmon River in an area surrounded by swamps. Part of Pickett’s interest in being in Mexico was that there was an academy there: “The Mexico Academy was organized in 1826, as the “Rensselaer Oswego Academy” (French 1860). Its name was changed May 19, 1845” to the “Mexico Academy” (Churchill, 1895). Pickett had actually taught for a few years at this academy.

 

It comes as a surprise that the following notice was published in The Naturalists' Directory. Part II. 1866 (F.W. Putnam, ed.). North America and the West Indies. Published by the Essex Institute, Salem (Mass.)

 

“Deceased. 97. (Geology.) Prof. E. J. Pickett, Rochester, N.Y. Died October, 1866.”

 

Between February and October of 1866, E. J. Pickett had died. He began his work in Indiana at the beginning of the year, but returned to Rochester as his illness intensified and died at the residence of his father (Ancestry, n.d.). He was only thirty-six years old.

 

“E. J. Pickett.— Edwin Judson Pickett was born near Rochester, N. Y., in 1830, and from early childhood that city was his home. Graduating from the University of Rochester in 1856, he afterward devoted his life to teaching and to the study of the natural sciences, geology finally becoming his favorite pursuit. In 1861, he received an appointment in the Institute at Mexico, N. Y., and in 1864, was appointed to the Professorship of Natural Science in the People’s College at Havana, N. Y. After the failure of that institution, he took charge of a flourishing Collegiate Institute at Attica, Ind., and continued in the work until consumption, which had long before undermined his health, compelled him to seek his home and there await its lingering termination. He died on the 13th of October, 1866.

 

Mr. Pickett was of an exceedingly modest and retiring disposition, and did not seek society; but none who met him could fail to love him. An enthusiast in science, an indefatigable worker in whatever he put his hand to, and also an earnest Christian, his loss is a great one. With so few devotees, and so much work to be done, science can ill afford to spare one such. B. (Anon. 1867, or “B.”)

 

APPENDIX.

 

Although most of this essay treats of E. J. Pickett as a botanist, his main interest was Geology. The following is an exhibition of Pickett’s contributions to Geology in New York State and in the United States. His promise to Clinton to provide shells of the genus Unio may also be seen in the notice made by a publication of the Unionidae in New York State, below the following:

 

In the 21st Annual Report of the Regents is the following account by James Hall (1868) “Report of the Curator:”

 

Taylor And Pickett Collections.

 

During the summer my attention was called to two collections of fossils which were offered for sale,—one of these, the collection of Mr. G. W. Taylor, of Pulaski, and the other tho collection of the late Prof. Pickett of Rochester. Finding it impossible without neglecting other imperative duties, to visit these places personally, I sent Mr. Whitfield to examine the collections and report to me the contents. The general schedule of fossils in the collection of Mr. Taylor, offered but a moderate addition in number of species to the collections already in the museum, except in the Orthoceratites, of which he had a very fine variety and in considerable numbers; such, indeed, as it would be difficult to obtain without great labor and expense. Since the entire collection was valued at $5,000, and Mr. Taylor declined to part with any portion without disposing of the whole, I could not recommend the purchase at that price.

 

The descriptive schedule of the Pickett collection (Ba) which I append, showed that it contained rare and valuable specimens, which would be an acquisition to the museum, and as there was an offer pending from another quarter, there was no time for delay, and I wrote immediately in order to secure the collection. I have had it carefully packed and sent to Albany, where it has been placed in the Geological Rooms awaiting the action of the Regents.

 

SCHEDULE OF THE CONTENTS OF THE PICKETT COLLECTION, PURCHASED FOR THE MUSEUM

 

1. The Lower Silurian fossils are represented in collections from Cincinnati, Ohio; Pulaski and other places in New York.

2. The Medina Sandstone is represented by a few fossils only.

3. The Clinton Group is largely represented by the characteristic fossils which occur in New York.

4. The Niagara Group is largely represented. There are many fine Corals and Bryozoans, and of the latter some remarkably fine specimens, particularly of the genera Callopora and Trematopora.

There are several specimens of Encalyplocrinus, Stephanocrinus, etc., and a fine series of the Brachiopoda of that Group of rocks.

5. The Lower Helderberg Group is but feebly represented in ollections from Albany and Schoharie counties.

6. The Upper Helderberg Group is mainly represented by Corals.

Many of these have been worked out by acids, so as to be almost entirely free from adhering stone, leaving the silicified corals in fine condition.

There are also a few Brachiopoda and Lamellibranchiala, Cephalopoda, Bryozoa and Crustacea.

7. The Hamilton Group is largely represented by the fossils of Western New York in all the different classes. The most conspicuous and important of these are the Criuoidea, of which there are many fine specimens of several genera and species. Of Aclinocrinus eucharis (of which but one specimen has been seen by me before) there are three or four. There are also specimens of Megistocrinus, Cacabocrinus, Poteriocrinus, and one new species of Rhodocrinus of remarkable character.

8. The Chemung Group is represented in a considerable number of fossils, a few crinoids, which are rare, and some fine slabs of Filicites (fossil ferns).

9. The Burlington Limestone is represented by a considerable number of Crinoidea of the ordinary character.

10. The Keokuk Limstone is represented in the Crinoidea of Crawfordsville, Indiana, of which there is a large box not opened. The specimens were represented by Mr. Pickett and by Mr. Elwood as consisting largely of crinoids collected by Prof. Pickett himself; judging from other parts of the collection made by him, it may be inferred that the specimens are good.

There are some representatives of the other divisions of the carboniferous rocks, and among them a collection of the Spurgeon Hill fossils.

11. The Coal Measures are represented in a good collection of fossils from the shales of Danville, Illinois.

There are also two large boxes which were not examined, but which were said to contain good cabinet specimens.

Besides those enumerated, there are many large slabs and polished blocks of different rocks, showing the condition of the corals, crinoids, etc.

A small collection of European Jurassic and Cretaceous fossils.

Minerals.—The Collection contains some minerals, mostly from Lockport, N. Y. and from New England.

Fresh-water Shells.—There is a considerable collection of Uniones, Anodons, etc., but mostly in a poor condition. Some of them will be useful.

Radiata.—There is a pretty large collection of Starfishes and other Echinoderms in a good condition. These had been obtained mostly from Prof. Agassiz in exchange for fossils. The specimens have labels with them and have been apparently carefully kept as they were received.

 

This part of the collection will supply a want in the Museum, since, as I have had occasion to state, we had previously but one or two Starfishes and one Echinus in the State Collection to represent this large class of organisms. Mr. Pickett at first desired to stipulate that this collection should remain separate, as “'The Pickett Collection in the State Museum; but when the impracticability of such a plan was represented to him, he became willing to have it incorporated in the general collections of the Museum, provided that a catalogue of its contents should be published in some future report on the State Cabinet.—The collection was received in good order at the State Cabinet in November. [Senate, No. 92-1 4].

 

Much later, ten years after George Clinton had died on September 7 in 1885, evidence exists as a testament to Pickett’s faithfulness in contributing to the knowledge of the molluscan flora, particularly the Unionidae, of New York State (Marshall 1895). William Blanchard Marshall was an Aid and Assistant Curator in the Division of Mollusks at the Smithsonian Institution from 1895-1896, and 1903-1934 ( http://siarchives.si.edu/research/ah00024nmnhdm.html ). Note that “Pickett coll.” refers to  James Hall’s report of the “fresh-water shells,” above in the Pickett Collection that served as the source of Marshall’s notices below:

 

Unio alatus Say. Genesee River drainage system. Pickett coll.

Anodonta footiana Lea. a collection was found in Canandaigua Lake. Pickett coll.

Unio luteolus, Lamarck. Seneca River, New York. Pickett coll.

Unio ligamentinus, Lamarck. Olean, New York. Pickett coll.

Margaritana Marginata Say. Allegany River, Olean. Pickett coll.

Unio multiradiatus Lea. Median, Orleans Co. Pickett coll.

 

 

ACKNOWLEGEMENTS

 

I would like to thank Richard Zander for his invaluable help in locating critical information on the Internet pertaining to this article. I would also like to thank him for, as always, preparing text documents and digital illustrations that accompany this article.

 


 

LITERATURE CITED

 

Ancestry.com Community

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~twintiers/deaths2.html ) viewed March 17, 2014.

Anon. or “B.” 1867. “Obituary. pp. 291- 293 of “V. Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence” pp. 288-293. in The American Journal of Science and Arts. Vol. XLIV [Whole Number XCIV. Nos. 130, 131, 132 [sic, presented in number 31]. 1867. New Haven.

Churchill, John C., ed., assisted by H. Perry Smith and W. Stanley Child. 1895. History of Mexico, New York, from Landmarks of Oswego County. D. Mason & Co., Publishers, Syracuse, New York.

Clinton, G. W. 1862 - [...] Botanical Journal. preserved document Buffalo Museum of Science.

Clinton, G. W. 1866. Facts and Observations Touching the Flora of the State of New York. Collected, mainly, in 1865 by One of the Regents. pp. 72-80.  Nineteenth Annual Report on the State Museum of Natural History by the Regents of the University of the State of New York. [1886, for all of 1865].

Crum, H. 1991. Liverworts and Hornworts of Southern Michigan. University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor.

Crum, H. A. and L. E. Anderson. 1981. Vols. I & II. Mosses of Eastern North America. Columbia University Press. New York.

Eckel, P. M. 2006.  Correspondence of Rhoda Waterbury and G. W. Clinton 1865 - 1867. \Hist\CorrAuth\WaterburyClinton\1_Waterbury.htm

Evans, Alexander W. 1911. Notes on North American Hepaticae. II

French, J. H. 1860. Gazetteer of the State of New York: embracing a comprehensive view of the geography, geology, and general history of the state. R. Pearsall Smith, Publisher. Syracuse, New York. [Reprint 1986, Heart of the Lakes Publishing, Interlaken, New York 14847].

Hall, James. 1868. Report of the Curator. in 21st Annual Report of the Regents of the University of the State of New-York on the Condition of the State Cabinet of Natural History. 1868 (for the year 1867), published 1871, Albany, New York.

House, Homer H. 1924. Annotated list of the Ferns and Flowering Plants of New York State. New York State Museum Bulletin no. 254, Albany, New York.

Marshall, W. B. 1895. Geographical Distribution of New York Unionidae. in 48th Annual Report of the Regents. New York State Museum, 1894 (for the year 1893). 1895. University of the State of New York, Albany.

Morton, John K. 2005. Silene, in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, ed., Flora of North America Vol. 5, pp. 166-214.

Peck, Charles Horton. 1866. List of Mosses of the State of New-York. under “Order Hepaticae - Liverworts” NINTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW-YORK, ON THE CONDITION OF THE STATE CABINET OF NATURAL HISTORY, AND THE HISTORICAL AND ANTIQUARIAN COLLECTION ANNEXED THERETO, pp. 7-70.

Torrey, J. 1943. A Flora of the State of New York, comprising full descriptions of all the indigenous and naturalized plants hitherto discovered in the state; with remarks on their economical and medicinal properties. Vols. 1 & 2 of Natural History of New York. Albany

Van Deusen, G. G. 1953. Horace, Greeley, Nineteenth-Century Crusader. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.

 


 

The proper citation of this electronic publication is:

 

Eckel, P. M. 2014. Correspondence of Edwin Judson Pickett (1830–1866) and George William Clinton (1807–1885). Res Botanica, a Missouri Botanical Garden Web site.