Correspondence of Charles Peck and G. W. Clinton
Edited by P. M. Eckel
Res Botanica
Missouri Botanical Garden
October 13, 2005
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The Correspondence of

Charles Peck (1833-1917) and

George William Clinton (1807-1885)


1865 Part 1



Vol 1. (1) [I 227]


[Letterhead: University of the State of New York, Secretary's Office. Albany, May 10, 1865


My dear Doctor,


I had hoped to see you at the meeting, but alas! how liable are human hopes to disappointment!! The printing of the Cabinet Report has commenced. I enclose you the proof of the Report proper. Please to look it over, correct as you see fit. I also enclose the table of contents & Paine's title to his article. Is it all right as it stands in the table. His paper seems not to correspond with that. Where is your paper. Please return answer  & paper at the earliest moment. 


Hon. S. B. Woolworth


[written in left margin:] Is "Rev. L. Holzer, Rochester," right?


Received May 11 & answered


In 1865 John Paine Jr. would publish a "Catalogue of the Plants of Oneida County and Vicinity", which was "virtually a flora of the entire [New York] State north of the Hudson highland" (Homer House, 1924, New York flora, p. 6). The manuscript (Mss.) mentioned here is that being prepared for press: Catalogue of Plants Found in Oneida County and Vicinity. 18th Annual Report of the Regents of the State of New York, pp. 53-192. Albany, 1865.


Since the Chancellor's introduction to the 18th report is dated March 22, 1865 and Woolworth's letter is dated May of that year, one might presume that the actual issue date was in the second half of 1865. S. B. Woolworth was Secretary of the Regents of the State University of New York. Clinton was a Regent as well.


In the same volume as Paine's Oneida flora would be Charles Peck's first publication, his "Catalogue of Mosses presented to the State of New-York" pp. 193-196 representing 144 species. "Your paper" refers to another paper in the 18th annual report: "Facts and Observations touching the flora of the State of New-York" by "one of the Regents." Although the paper is anonymous, Woolworth's letter rather confirms that Clinton was the author. In the previous year (1864) Clinton had published his "Preliminary List of the plants of Buffalo and its Vicinity." in the 17th Annual Report.


Earlier in the year (1865), on January 25, after a visit with Asa Gray in Cambridge, Clinton wrote in his journal: "    My time, at Albany, since my return from Cambridge, was taken up with matters concerning the Herbarium belonging to the State, & in collecting matter for and drafting the Annual Report on the State of the Cabinet.

    Charles F. Peck, the muscologist, spent some time with me in the Curator's Room, & so did Henry B. Lord & his wife." This appears to have been Clinton's first introduction to Peck. Before meeting Clinton, Peck had been working at the State Museum with James Hall while teaching at the State Street High School in Albany (Cass' Institute). It was during this time that Peck prepared his bryological work for the 18th Report of 1865.

    Peck's botanical responsibilities were more inclusive than just mosses and liverworts. On January 27 Clinton wrote that he was in communication with Peck regarding making collections of Onosmodium in the plains area in and around the city of Buffalo, New York, where Clinton resided.

  On March 31, Clinton wrote that he "Walked to White's Grove (an area in or near Forest Lawn Cemetery]. 2 Ranunculus fascicularis, had put forth each an opening flowerbud. Gathered 2 or 3 mosses, and mailed one of them (capsule sessile) to Charles H. Peck of Albany."


On May 1: " To date, this spring, have collected & had identified by Mr. Peck 15 mosses & one Liverwort."




Vol 1. (4) [I 224]


Albany, May 16th, 1865


My Dear Sir,


Your letter of the 15th inst. [=instant] was just received. The moss is Physcomitrium pyriforme Br. & Sch. It is much smaller than Funaria hygrometrica and has the capsule more erect and differently shaped. The liverwort is Marchantia polymorpha. The part you allude to is not fruit but a growth which is mentioned in the description as "lentil‑shaped gemmae in cup‑like receptacles on the back of the frond."


Mr. Pratt presented to me, the other day, your suggestion to make a Catalogue of the mosses hitherto found in our state, for the present Report of the Regents. Will it not be better to defer this Catalogue till the next Report? I am under the impression that the Report is issued every year and that the present one is already nearly printed. I can make the Catalogue much more complete then than I can now. In it I would give the habitat of all the species, the locality of the less common ones and the time of maturing the fruit so far as is practicable. This last item is uncertain in my mind yet, in several species, but I can determine it in the course of the season by observation.


Besides I shall doubtless add several new species to the list already known, during the summer. I found one not hitherto detected in the state, on Saturday last, on the Helderberg Mts. ‑ Barbula convoluta.


Mr. Adee has already sent me another, ‑ Funaria flavicans. He gave no locality but I suppose he found it within our liimits. I have sent for the locality and more specimens.


I think perhaps in view of the much greater completeness of the Catalogue we had better not try to hurry it into the present Report. By next winter I will have it ready and as correct as possible.


I send a bit of Funaria hygrometrica picked up yesterday. The capsules are not yet entirely ripe.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Recieved May 17 [1865]


In the next year, Peck was to publish his checklist: Peck, Charles H. 1866. "List of Mosses of the State of New-York" pp. 42-70 (musci and hepaticae).19th Annual Report of the Regents of the University of the State of New York, on the Condition of the State Cabinet of Natural History, and the Historical and Antiquarian Collection Annexed Thereto. State of New York Senate document no. 89.


It appears that Clinton was anxious to have Peck produce a manuscript for the 1865  annual Regents' report in which Paine's Oneida flora would appear as well as his anonymous "Observations." Peck protested, noting, as in Woolworth's letter above that the report was already in proof. Apparently Peck would be rushed into preparing his donation list as a publication to have a presence in the 18th report. At this point, Peck was more of a protégée of James Hall than Clinton's, having worked for Hall for some years prior to 1865, at the end of which (actually early January 1866) Hall would be appointed Curator of the State Cabinet and in a position to put Peck forward as custodian of its herbarium. As Paine would be applying for this job as well, with fine qualifications as the Oneida flora was a suberb work, it was important for Peck to come forward with a rival proposal, a circumstance that neither Peck nor Paine understood at this time.


The Physcomitrium is probably the moss referred to above by Clinton for March 31. Alvey Augustus Adee (1842-1924), born in New York State, ended up being an American diplomat for 50 years in the State Department, being made chief of the Diplomatic Bureau in 1878 when W. M. Evarts served as Secretary of State. During Adee's correspondence with Clinton, he lived at, or received his correspondence at 42 & 44 Nassau St., New York, then 54 Exchange Place, New York. The Exchange Place address was the office of Adee's brother.

Vol. 1. 78. I 143. Peck was to acknowledge a specimen of Funaria flavicans "Damp clayey soil in woods. Staten Island, A. A. Adee" ; also Hypnum microcarpum, C. Mull. (= Sematophyllum adnatum (Michx.) Britt.) "Rotten tree-roots in woods, Staten Island, A. A. Adee." (Peck 1866).


The first letter in Clinton's correspondence with Adee is as follows and indicates his initial relationship with Peck as well as the talent for diplomacy he exhibits:


[In a very elegant hand.]

42 & 44 Nassau St.

New York, July 18, 1865

My dear Sir,

    Many thanks for your consideration and kindness in sending me the paper containing an account of your 4th of July oration. Its receipt gave me great pleasure and I was much pleased in reading it to notice the agreement of the views you express with the humble opinions I had formed on the same subjects.

    I write this in haste, for I have been confined to Staten Island for three or four days by a slight illness, and on my return to my brother's office I find a small pile of correspondence awaiting my attention which I lack the determination and indeed the strength to attack. I have not made much progress in botany this year, though I have collected, pressed and counted nearly a hundred plants. Desiring [to] make hay while the sun shines, my brother and myself have resumed our search for a country place which was suspended last year by the advent of a most inclement winter. For a month past we have been looking most assiduously, and are now engaged in making the preliminary negotiations for a place at Plainfield, N.J. What will come of it I do not know. I sincerely hope that our search will end in success, for I sadly need a place of deposit for the countless etceteras that accumulate around me daily.   

    I have enjoyed a very pleasant and instructive correspondence with Mr. Peck, thanks to your kind introduction to him. He has been untiring in his efforts to render me assistance in the cloudy paths of bryology. I have found that he is an adept in the science of entomology, a branch of study in which I have taken some interest, and this has served to make a still stronger bond of friendship between us.

    I presume you can inform me whether the Report of the Regents for this year has been yet issued. I wrote to Dr. Woolworth two months since, and he promised to send me a copy as soon as issued.

    I hope that you now have many opportunities to enjoy your favorite study in these warm months. The summer vacations of the courts and the stagnation of business in the heated terms probably give you a great increase of leisure. I hope you may be fortunate enough to come across Salvia natans in one of your rambles and thus restore it to the place Pursh assigned to it in our Flora.

    Hoping that you will excuse the rambling and hasty character of this note, I remain, with best wishes, for your welfare.

    Very truly your young friend

    Alvey Augustus Adee.

Recd. July 11 ansd 17th




Vol 1. (5) [I 223]



Albany, May 17th, 1865


Judge Clinton


My Dear Sir,


Your specimen from Grand Island is the same species as the one in the previous letter i.e. Physcomitrium pyriforme Br. & Sch. This however is of larger growth than the other.


It is a species common in rather damp or clayey soil and is now in excellent condition for collecting ‑ the fruit being nearly ripe.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Recieved May 28



Physcomitrium pyriforme Note: this species requires the capsule to be identified satisfactorily. It is past due by the end of May and must be found just after the snows melt during the season of the vascular spring ephemerals . On May 15 Clinton visited Grand Island by rowing there (downstream) and then hitching a ride, or tow, back upstream to Buffalo by the ferry, a steam boat named the Undine. No mention of mosses was made in Clinton's collecting journal for the day.



Vol 1. (6) [I 222]


Albany, May 18th, 1865


My Dear Sir,


Yours of the 17th is at hand. The Polytrichum is Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. It differs from P. commune in its more glaucous color and its entire leaves (in that species they are serrate). 


The tree‑like moss is Climacium Americanum Brid. We have another species, C. dendroides, but it is very rare. The others are,


No. 1 Hypnum orthocladon Beauv.


No. 2 Hypnum hispidulum Brid.


No. 3 Bryum bimum Schreb.


No. 4 Hypnum rutabulum L.


No. 5 Barbula caespitosa Schwaegr.


No. 6 Barbula tortuosa Web. & Mohr


No. 7 Hypnum radicale Brid.


No. 8 Fegetella conica Cord. (Liverwort)


No. 3 and 6 I have never found. Mr. Lesquereux found No. 3 near Saratoga and No. 6 on rocks on Goat Island, where you locate yours. I wish you could find a good supply of both and send me. I return these two specimens that there may be no mistake in them. They will both be in better condition for collecting in two or three weeks.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


P.S. Nos 1 and 7 are both very variable and seem to almost if not quite run into each other. 1 is most often found on wet rocks or moist ground, 7, on decaying wood or roots of trees.


Received May 19


Peck's correspondence with Leo Lesquereux of Columbus, Ohio, where he was the student of William Starling Sullivant, preceeded that with Clinton.


The correspondence of Leo Lesquereux to George Clinton for the year 1865 is posted on line with the present letters of Peck.


On May 13, Clinton took the train north from Buffalo to the village of Suspension Bridge, now in the City of Niagara Falls in the neighborhood that faces the Lower Arch Suspension Bridge and botanized in the wood (Whirlpool Wood). Clinton made no mention in his collecting journal that this wood was in Canada, so it is presumed he collected these in the wood facing the Whirlpool on the American side, reached by the stone steps to the north of DeVeaux College down which one would descend to the water's edge in the Niagara River Gorge. At the base of the steps, one would turn left (facing upstream) to approach the Whirlpool.



Vol 1. (10) [I 218]


Albany, May 23d 1865


My Dear Sir,


Yours of the 19th inst was received yesterday. I would name the specimens as follows:


1 Sphagnum cymbifolium Dill. Probably S. latifolium is a synonym, but I do not know certainly.


2 Hypnum Crista‑Castrensis L. Rather more slender than usual, as if it had grown cramped among other mosses.


3 Leucobryum vulgare Hampe L. glaucum is a synonym


4 & 5 Both are Hypnum splendens Hedw.


It is a common species in hilly wooded districts growing abundantly on the ground and on rocks. It is in good fruiting condition in June when it may be obtained with the operculum on the fruit. 


6 Dicranum montanum Hedw. 


This is a beauty and a prize. I have never before seen it, and it is quite rare. It is credited in the manual to Goat Island near Niagara Falls where Mr. Lesquereux found it growing on dead trunks of trees. Probably you collected it yourself in this locality. I wish you could get more of it and send some. It probably fruits in July and August as do most of the Dicrana of its section. Mr. James of Phila. Pa. found it on the White Mts., also near Andover Mass.


7 Dicranum undulatum Turn.


8 Neckera pennata Hedw.


9 Hypnum delicatulum L.


10 Same as 8 but not so large


11 Mnium spinulosum Br. Eur.


12 Mnium punctatum Hedw and Mnium affine Bland. I return the two in separate papers. The latter may be distinguished at once by the color of the pedicels which are red below, pale yellow above. I also send a bit of this species with more than one pedicel.


13 Polytrichum juniperinum as you supposed. We have two species with entire leaves ‑ this one and P. piliferum which is smaller and has a long colorless hairpoint to the leaves, this hair point giving the plant a hoary appearance. It grows in more mountainous places usually.


14 Marchantia polymorpha as you say. The fringed disk belongs to the fertile or female flowers, the one with entire or crenate margin to the male.


Thanks for the correction of my error in the use of the interrogation (?) I have observed it in both positions in printed Catalogues but reason affirms that the one you assign is the correct one.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received May 24.



On May 22, Clinton wrote in his journal that he visited Smoke's Creek, a lovely stream that flows west into Lake Erie just south of Buffalo: "?!, This season, until today, I have collected very little. I have enjoyed grabbing mosses & sending them to Mr. Charles H. Peck, for determination."



Vol 1. (14) [I 214]


Albany, May 27th 1865


My Dear Sir,


Yours of the 26th inst. I just received. Do not hesitate to send me a sample of all the mosses you find, for I am as anxious to receive them as you possibly can be to send them. You have already sent me 2 or 3 which I had not found here and will doubtless find several more new ones.


I did not receive the specimens 1 ‑ 8 from Squaw Island May 18th. Send them on by all means; also the 2 remaining ones mentioned.


I did receive the Hepatica of the 22nd. It is Radula complanata Dum. Pardon me for not answering it.  I thought, as it was a singly specimen and had been sent before, I would give you its name with the next installment, which I hoped to receive in a few days. There is not much difference in the form of the capsules of Mnium affine and Mnium punctatum after they have discharged their contents and are old. But those of Mnium punctatum are more inclined to an oval or oblong oval shape before they are deoperculated. I send you good specimens of both species with the operculum yet on the capsules. The leaves of Mnium punctatum are entire on the margin, those of Mnium affine are serrated with spine like teeth, but this can only be seen when moistened and viewed with a microscope or pretty good lens.


I am sorry you have lost our Fissidens minutulus, as it is late now to find it good. It is good late in autumn or in early spring. I will look up the specimen you sent me and return it. It was a good one and I laid it one side so carefully that I can not now put my hand on it and I must hurry to the cars as I am going out ot town to day.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received May 28


On March 18 Clinton visited Squaw Island at the foot of Ferry Street in the city of Buffalo, one of several islands close to the mainland shore in the Niagara River, elongated parallel to the river channel and usually at the mouth of a mainland creek that flows oddly perpendicularly as a tributary into the main stem river.


The hepatica of the 22d may have derived from Smoke's Creek.


Vol 1. (15) [I 213]


Albany, May 29th /65


Judge Clinton.


My Dear Sir,


I wrote in such haste on Saturday that I had not time to look up the specimen of Fissidens minutulus which you sent me. I now return it, as you have lost yours and desire one for reference. This species is rather common but not abundant. I have found it in several places but always in limited quantity. It grows on stones or the ground in shaded ravines. Fissidens bryoides, which resembles it, but has an excurrent costa to the leaves, is sometimes found growing in and around flower pots in conservatories. I have a specimen from such a habitat in New York City.


I went out to Center, a station midway between Albany and Schenectady, on Saturday and found, in a wet place by the side of the Rail Road, Bryum bimum. You therefore need not take pains to look after that species for me, but do not forget Barbula tortuosa. I think it will be good early in June.


Of flowering plants I found, for the first time Moehringia lateriflora and Smilacina stellata. Viola lanceolata grows in a swamp near the station and Trillium cernuum, also close by. Your Catalogue I believe calls only for the S. stellata of these species, and that in fruit.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Received May 30



Vol 1. (23) [I 205]


Albany, June 2nd 1865


My Dear Sir,


Your letter of May 18th with mosses from Squaw Island was not received till this morning, through some carelessness or neglect of U. S. officials as it was post marked "May 18".


1 Hypnum orthocladon Beauv.


2 is the same mixed with sterile Bryum


3 Barbula unguiculata Hedw.


4 Bryum intermedium Brid.


I detected this species in this vicinity, the first time, May 27th. Mr. Adee has also sent me a bit of it. I can scarcely distinguish it from Bryum caespiticium except by examination with the microscope which reveals hermaphrodite  inflorescence in B. intermedium and dioecious, in B. caespiticium. Bryum bimum also has the inflorescence hermaphrodite but it is larger, coarser and more "lurid‑green" than B. intermedium and usually grows in more wet places.


5 Hypnum orthocladon Beauv.


6 Bryum bimum Schreb.


7 Funaria hygrometrica as you say. There is some sterile Bryum intermixed, but the fruiting specimens are all as you give.


8 Hypnum orthocladon.


This you see is a very variable species. I believe Mr. Sullivant in his "Icones" writes H. orthocladon, H. radicale and one or two other species all under one name, they appear to be so closely connected by intermediate forms.


I am collecting a good supply of duplicate specimens of mosses, and also duplicates of many of my flowering plants with a view to future exchanges, so that at the end of the season I shall be prepared to exchange. I am much pleased with my new correspondent, Mr. Adee; and any more like him, whose acquaintance you may aid me in forming, will be duly appreciated.


Do not fear to send mosses, lest you should occupy too much of my time. These things are interesting to me, and I would gladly examine and name them for you, to the best of my ability, were it only for the sake of exercising that kind and generous spirit which has so often been extended to me and which all students of nature ought to possess; but aside from all this I am thereby only benefitting myself by extending my knowledge of and acquaintance with these interesting little plants.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received June 3




Vol 1. (24) [I 204]


Albany, June 5th 1865


My Dear Sir,


The mosses from Squaw Island, Goat Island, Smokes Creek &c. were received this morning. Those from Squaw Island it seems you have sent twice, through their delay in reaching me; but I will repeat their names.


1 Hypnum orthocladon Beauv.


2 Hypnum orthocladon Beauv. as you suspected


3 Barbula unquiculata Hedw.


4 Bryum intermedium Brid.


5 same as 1


6 Bryum bimum Schreb.


7 Funaria hygrometrica Hedw.


8 same as 1


9 Hypnum hispidulum Brid.


The 2 tall ones with pendulous capsules are Bryum caespiticium L.


10 Ceratodon purpureus Brid.


11 Aulacomnion heterostichum Br. & Sch. 12 Atrichum undulatum Beauv.


13 Mnium cuspidatum Hedw.


14 Hypnum rutabulum L.


15 Hypnum hispidulum Brid. in fruit


Hypnum strigosum Hoffm. sterile but larger and most conspicuously leafy.


16 same as 13


17 Aulacomnion heterostichum Br. & Sch.




18 Hypnum radicale Brid.


19 Hypnum laetum Brid. both [18 and 19] small forms


20 Ceratodon purpureus Brid.


21 Hypnum curvifolium Hedw.


22 Hypnum radicale Scarcely separate from small forms of H. orthocladon


23 Hypnum orthocladon There is some Bryum with it, easily known by its nodding capsules.


24 The capsules belong to a single stem of Hypnum curvifolium. The rest is sterils Hypnum delicatulum.


25 Same as 23


26 Physcomitrium pyriforme Br. & Sch.


27 Same as 21


28 Bryum bimum in fruit, but the most abundant stems are sterile Leskea rostrata




29 Gymnostomum curvirosrum Hedw. ? I am not quite positive about this. I have two different forms of Gymnostomum, one found near Albany the other near the Caaterskill  Falls of Catskill Mts., neither of which is like yours, but both of which I supposed to be G. curvirostrum from the oblique beak of the operculum. I had some doubts concerning them and sent both to Mr. Lesqx. some weeks ago but have not yet heard from him. They will probably prove to be G. rupestre and yours as I have provisionally given it, although the description says "with an erect elongated‑conical operculum" for G. rupestre, which does not agree with mine. The species are both variable and both are said to grow on rocks about Niagara Falls ‑ G. curvirostrum, abundantly. I wish you might get me a few specimens of it now and some more when the new crop of capsules are good which will probably be in Aug. In the mean time, I hope with the aid of Mr. Lesqx. to settle the species definitely.


30 I shall not make you indignant by calling this Mar. polym'a. It certainly is not that. It appears to be Reboulia hemispherica. va. Raddi.


31 Mnium serratum Brid.


32 Hypnum orthocladon Beauv.


33 Anomodon attenuatum Hub. sterile


34 Hedwigia ciliata Ehrh.


35 This old friend is almost fit for harvesting. Any time next week or the week after, he will be suitable for me.


36 Same as 28


37 Hypnum delicatulum L.


38 Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw.




40 Tetraphis pellucida Hedw. this is one of the two mosses we have in the U.S. with only 4 teeth to the peristome. The other one is rare ‑ found on the White Mts.


41 Hypnum imponens Hedw.


42 Orthotrichum strangulatum Beauv.


43 Hypnum orthocladon Beauv.


*39 Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh. I have found 4 species of Sphagna in this part of the state, all of them fruit from the middle of July to the middle of August


There is a Kaaters Kil Creek, the principal tributary into Catskill Creek in mountainous Greene County. Narrow, rocky ravines formed by these streams "form passes locally known as "cloves." of which one is the Kaaters Kil "opening westward from the Hudson into the valley of Schoharie Creek," a tributary of the Mohawk River (French, 1860 Gazetteer of New York State p. 329.


Note that Clinton repeated some of the words of this letter in his handwriting on the left because they were otherwise hidden under the tape used to glue the letter in Clinton's binder. Gymnostomum rupestre Schleich. is now considered to be a synonym of Gymnostomum aeruginosum Sm. Gymnostomum recurvirostrum Hedw. is transferred to a different genus: Hymenostylium recurvirostrum (Hedw.) Dixon. Both species occur at Niagara Falls, the latter forming great masses in calcareous seepage and which, together with Didymodon tophaceus, form calcified basal stems from photosynthetic processes, bases that are stoney, yet preserve the morphology of the leafy stems.




50 Sphagnum cymbifolium Dill. (Much branched)


51 Hypnum cordifolium Hedw. Male plant. Now is the time to find it in fruit. Grows in swamps.


52 Hypnum curvifolium Hedw. Swamps.


53 Has the appearance of Hypnum hispidulum but the areolation of the leaves are different. I suspect it is another species and will examine it further. Have you much of it?


54 Hypnum triquetrum L. (Sterile)


55 Bryum intermedium Brid. I cannot distinguish this species from Bryum caespititium with certainty except by the inflorescence viewed with a microscope


56 Hypnum denticulatum L.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


P. S. I find Alopecurus geniculatus, between Albany and Kenwood, also Dirca palustris near Bath. Do you remember the locality of Azalea viscosa? Received June 7




Vol 1. (29) [I 199]


Albany, June 10th 1865


My Dear Sir,


Your further examination of "No. 53 N.Y. E. RailRoad Woods", I find that there are two species mixed together; one is Hypnum hispidulum; the other, Hypnum radicale. They fruit at the same time, grow in the same places and so closely resemble each other that it is difficult to separate them with the naked eye. Under a microscope the leaves of H. hispidulum are very shortly bicostate at base with a narrow areolation; those of H. radicale are with a single costa extending through or nearly through the leaf with a more rhomboidal areolation. I send a bit of each that you may compare them. The H. hispidulus has a little more of the bristly appearance.


Mosses last sent as follows;


1. Sphagnum cymbifolium Dill.


2 Bartramia Oederi Swartz The specimen is fine and in excellent conditon.


It is not common unless in the mountains. I have found it on the Catskills, Helderbergs and Adirondacks, no other place.


3 Anomodon apiculatus Br. & Sch. This grows in great plenty on the Helderberg Mts. but does not fruit. Your specimen has flowers which indicates fruit, probably in Oct. or Nov. There is another species, Anomodon viticulosus, which has only been found within the U.S. on wet rocks, Goat Island, sterile. It much resembles the one you send, but is perhaps a little larger.


I hope you may meet with it in some of your rambles.


4 Same as 2


5 Hypnum radicale Brid. (In fruit) The leaves and branches of another species, however, are more conspicuous


6 I shall be obliged to call this Polytrichum juniperinum


7 Hypnum curvifolium Hedw.


8 Mnium serratum Brid. (A beautiful specimen)


9 Polytrichum formosum Hedw. By looking carefully at the leaves with an eyeglass you will see the margin is toothed, especially toward the apex.


10 Tetraphis pellucida Hedw. You have sent I think but once before. Easily known when ripe by the 4 reddish teeth of the peristome.


I shall look for Azalea viscosa in a few days. I suppose it will soon be in flower.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


June 12


On June 3, after breakfast, Clinton walked down Seneca Street in Buffalo to the Erie Railroad (earlier called the Lake Shore Railroad - the track one takes when riding south from Buffalo to the Pennsylvania State line along the eastern shore of Lake Erie (parallel to US Rte. 5). These woods are adjacent to Buffalo Creek, or the Buffalo River.



Vol 1. (36) [I 191]


Albany, June 12th /65


My Dear Sir:


The moss from wet perpendicular rocks, Niagara Falls is Fissidens grandifrons Brid. The manual gives it the same habitat and locality as you and I believe it has not been found elsewhere in the U.S. It hears female flowers but the manual gives "male flower and fruit unknown". I would like it, if in some of your rambles to the Falls you would collect me some of it.


The other paper contains Bartramia muhlenbergii Schwaegr. and Tetraphis pellucida Hedw; the latter I return, and also a good specimen of this species sent previously. The operculum has not yet fallen so that the 4 teeth of the peristome are not clearly visible.


I have just come in from a jaunt in which I found a fine lot of Riccia natans in good fruiting condition.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received June 14


Clinton, during the previous year, had collected Riccia fluitans from Burnt Ship Creek on Grand Island where it may still be observed: this station is in Buckhorn Island State Park at the northern tip of Grand Island. Bartramia muhlenbergii Schwaegr. = Philonotis muhlenbergii (Schwaegr.) Brid.



Vol 1. (41) [I 185]


Albany, June 14th /65


My Dear Sir.


My report on the last batch of specimens is as follows:


1 Gymnostomum curvirostrum Hedw. ? I have scarcely any doubt of this but prefer to leave it thus until I hear from Mr. Lesqx. We have two species of Gymnostomum which closely resemble each other and there are marked varieties of both. The specimen is fine.


2 Orthotrichum Hutchinsiae Smith


3 Hedwigia ciliata Ehrh. (In fruit)


4 This appears to be new. I wish to examine it further.


5 Madotheca platyphylla Dumort. (Hepat.)


Leucodon brachypus Brid. (Sterile)


6 Hedwigia ciliata Ehrh. (In fruit)


7 Bryum intermedium Brid.


8 Hypnum abietinum L. (Sterile) This grows abundantly on the Helderberg Mts. but I have not found it in fruit.


9 Barbula tortuosa Web. & Mohr


10 Hypnum orthocladon Brid.


11 Barbula unguiculata probably (Sterile)


The two capsules are of a little Hypnum adnatum, intermixed.


12 Bryum intermedium Brid.


12 a Bartramia Oederi Swartz.


13, 14 and 15 I think are all forms of Bryum caespiticium L. 15 is remarkable for its slender habit and the leaves Not reflexed on the margins, but I think it only a variety of B. caespiticium.


The method you adopt of taking the same thing from different stations is the only one by which to detect all the forms and species. Some species can scarcely be distinguished, in their more obscure forms, by the naked eye. I did not detect Bryum intermedium until this season although I have probably seen it a dozen times before. It is often confounded with B. caespiticium and I can not now separate the two satisfactorily without examining the inflorescence with the microscope.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received June 16



Vol 1. (42) [I 184]


Albany, June 15th 1865


My Dear Sir,


Yours of the 14th inst. was received this morning. I return "No. 10 June 10th"; also the Bartramia mentioned but regret that through my carelessness in leaving it exposed the roaches got at it and devoured all the capsules. I send a specimen to supply its place so far as possible.


The specimens from Miss Rhoda Waterbury are Dicranum undulatum Brid., Bryum roseum Schreb. and Hypnum delicatulum L.


Of the remainder of her specimens mentioned none are new to me except Mastigobryum deflexum. This I have never met with, although Mastigobryum trilobatum is very common here. If you will send it, I will look at it and return it.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received June 16


P.S. Upon further examination of "No. 4 Whirlpool Woods June 10" I find it to be Hypnum subtile Hoffm. It is a rare species. I have found it on the Helderberg Mts. only.


(Liverworts in Marchantiaceae:) Mastigobryum deflexum (Mart.) Ångstr = Bazzania tricrenata (Wahlenb.) Lindb.; Mastigobryum trilobatum (L.) Nees = Bazzania trilobata (L.) Gray; see 1865 letters of Rhoda Waterbury to Clinton.


On June 10: " Saturday. By 9 A. M. train to Suspension Bridge, walked down to R. R.  nearly to opposite the Devil's Hole, & then, in a deep rock cutting, collected some mosses. Rosa blanda in flower. Descended, at the Devil's Hole. Collected some mosses & Carex platyphylla & C. plantaginea, the latter over ripe. Walked along the bank to the Whirlpool, & along the chasm above, through Niagara City, & along the R. R. to the American Ferry Staircase. Went half way down, & walked under the cliff to the American Fall, & down to the front of the Staircase, nil, except below the staircase, Carex Oederii frolicksome as usual, & what if it be C.  granularis, looks green to me. Up the staircase to the top of the talus, & down along the top of it, where springs trickle down.  Collected more Pressia commutata & also, not in fruit, a green leaved plant growing on the rock in the water (Fissidens grandifrons). Over to Goat Island and collected Barbula tortuosa var. Home by the 6* train. The day has been very pleasant." 




Vol 1. (46) [I 180]


Albany, June 17th /65


My Dear Sir,


The specimens of Barbula tortuosa arrived to day. They are splendid and in perfect condition. Accept my most hearty thanks for such a generous supply.


I have at last heard from Mr. Lesquereux. The two specimens sent by you, and named "Gymnostomum curvirostrum Hedw.?" by me are that species. So you may remove the interrogation mark. As I partly suspected, my specimens from the Catskills are G. rupestre. He sends me characters by which in the future I expect to be able to separate the two species unerringly.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received June 19



Vol 1. (50) [I175]


Albany, June 20th /65


My Dear Sir.


The specimens from "Caledonia June 15" are received


1 Hypnum recurvans Schwaegr.


2 Hypnum delicatulum L.


3 Reboulia microcephala Taylor ? (Hepatica)


The Reboulia sent some time since and called R. hemisphaerica may be the same thing as this. I cannot satisfactorily separate the two. The Manual says R. microcephala may be a form of R. hemisphaerica, and only gives as distinguishing characters for R. microcephala = "more delicate texture; smaller size, except the peduncle which is very long with broader palae at base and apex." I recently sent the same thing as yours to Mr. Lesquereux for identification but he only says "it appears to be Reboulia microcephala which I have found more common in Pennsylvania than R. hemisphaerica." I think our Hepaticae need a little more investigation than they have hitherto had. Mr. C. F. Austin of Closter, N. J. is making a speciality of that Order.


4 I do not recognize this and wish to examine it again. 5 Bryum caespiticium L.


6 Dicranum scoparium var. pallidum


7 Hypnum Muhlenbeckii Bry. Europ.


8 Radula complanata (Dumort. (Hepatica)


9 Hedwigia ciliata Ehrh.


10 Polytrichum formosum Hedw.


I fear you will not find Fissidens grandifrons in fruit. The Manual gives it "fruit unknown" and the 1st edition of Musci exsiccati also gives it as "sterile." If it fruits it will probably do so in Autumn, Oct. or Nov. Bryum turbinatum is given as growing on wet rocks below Niagara Falls. Please look after it a little some time when you happen around there. It ought to be good now.


The " Bryum deflexum" is M. trilobatum Nees. The leaves and especially the amphigastria will distinguish it.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received June 21


Note that again the last one or two words on the right is written on the left by Clinton to accommodate the glueing‑tape used on the rightback, left front margins.


Mastigobryum trilobatum (L.) Nees = Bazzania trilobata (L.) Gray (Marchantiaceae), a liverwort.


Caledonia  by 5* A.M. Train. Breakfasted at Shaw's [Tavern] & walked down to Seth Green's. Explored the wood & a small tamarack swamp on the opposite side of the creek. Took the common Eleocharis of the stream, Carex flava, one caespitosa & some mosses, an Eriophorum, gone out already, Cypripedium spectabile. Went on the streams with Mr. G., in his boat, & collected some of a small crustacean, which he called a fresh water shrimp.  It is abundant in the Chara. Found it, or something like it, in the Riccia fluitans which I collected last year, in Burnt Ship [Creek, Grand Island].  Dined at Mr. G's. Explored the swamp up to the village, nothing new. The Lonicera oblongifolia all in young berry. A little Linnaea in flower. Could not find the Myrica cerifera, it was raining like fury, good for the country! Got home after 8 P.M. "




Vol 1. (51) [I 174]

Tuesday, P.M.



Albany, June 20th /65


My Dear Sir.


Yours of the 19th is at hand. Be assured of my entire willingness to follow out the suggestions therein in reference to aiding in ascertaining species and including specimens of mosses of the state in State Herbarium, corresponding and exchanging largely, &c.


I am even now exceedingly happy to verify some of your remarks. good does come from corresponding and exchanging. Your "No. 4, Caledonia, June 15" is a prize. It is entirely new to me and possibly to our flora. It is not described in the Manual, neither in Sullivant's Icones; nor do I find it mentioned in any place as having been found in this country. Still it is possible it may have been found before; yet I hope to be able to congratulate you ere long for being the first to detect it in our limits. It is named Hypnum Blandowii in some plates of the Bryology of Europe which were kindly loaned to  me by Mr. Lesquereux. There is no description with them but it is easily recognized by the figure. The leaf is peculiar, something like this ... [a drawing is made of the leaf of this species] folded along the middle and ciliated (so to speak) with slender branching rootlets on the basal margins. I hope you may be able to get a large quantity of this. The specimen sent me has but two capsules and neither with an operculum. If you will send a little more some with the operculum if you have any such (if not, without it) I will send to Mr. Lesquereux, or Mr. Sullivant and find if it has been detected before within the U. S. Or if you choose you might send directly to either (better Mr. W. S. Sullivant) for Mr. Lesqx. is absent from home much now I believe. But send me some more by all means, if possible.


Yes, continue to "bother" me, for it is to me most surely a very agreeable "bother" to form such acquaintances as Barbula tortuosa, Dicranum montanum, Fissidens grandifrons and Hypnum Blandowii.


A few more such fine specimens of Barbula tortuosa will not come amiss, but I do not wish you to take any trouble to get them for me after having sent so plentifully. Do you find it always "on rocks",? which is the habitat given in the manual.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received June 21



Vol 1. (54) [I 171]


Albany, June 21, 1865


My Dear Sir.


The specimen of "June 17th" Niagara Falls, Canada; and Tonawanda" are


1 Funaria hygrometrica var. clavescens.


2 Anomodon obtusifolius Br. & Sch.




3 Bartramia Muhlenbergii Schwaegr.


4 Aulacomnion heterostichum Br. & Sch.


5 Bryum intermedium Brid.


6 Bryum intermedium (Some small Ceratodon purpureus is mixed with it.)


7 Barbula unguiculata Hedw. (Small and starved)


8 Ceratodon purpureus Brid.


9 Pylaisaea intricata Bryol. Europ.


No. 1 has been sent to me from New Jersey. Yours it seems is from Canada. I am not aware that it has yet been found in N. Y. though it probably will be.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received June 24


On June 17: " Saturday. By 6* A. M. train to Tonawanda. Explored wood &c., by the Lockport RR, 2 or 3 mosses & a Pyrola, whether chloranthus or a var. of rotundifolia? it grew among the pines (The stem is angular, almost quadrangular, and, at least in some instances, twisted). By the 9* train to the Falls, & crossed by the Ferry [to Canada] & called on John T. Bush, after exploring from the Ferry  up, under the cliff, for mosses. On his grounds saw a brilliant, beelike, but, apparantly stingless insect, gregarious, [... illegible with a query by Clinton], entering & issuing from holes in the soil (caught one & brought it home in my box). Returned to American side, after visiting Table Rock [Canada], Goat Island, walked up to Sawmill [x] on the River - Home!" 

Bartramia muhlenbergii Schwaegr. = Philonotis muhlenbergii (Schwaegr.) Brid.




Vol 1. (55) [I 170]


Albany, June 23d, 1865


My Dear Sir.


Specimens from "Alden June 20th" I consider thus:


1 Dicranum scoparium var. pallidum


2 Bryum bimum


3 Bryum bimum.


The tall bright green stems are Mnium cuspidatum (Sterile)


4 Climacium Americanum (sterile) The fungus growing upon it is also found growing on some species of Hypnum


5 Hypnum delicatulum L. Very early in the development of its fruit. I found it last season, no farther metured than this, late in August.


6 Climaceium Americanum. Approaching a loose elongated form which is sometimes found in water holes.


&7 Hypnum riparium (Fine specimen) A very variable species.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received June 24


On June 20 Clinton wrote: In the 8*25' Erie R. R. train, went, with Father Holzer [of New Brunswick, Canada], to the Alden  [railroad] Station, & walked down (South) the road to Sheldon,

looking for the swamp in which, according to Hadfield, or reported by D. F. Day, the Myrica cerifera grew, some years ago, in such quantities that the people thereabouts used the wax of the berries. I will maintain here that, after due inquiry & exploration, we failed to find it. On crossing to the first wood on the right, we entered it, & I there collected a fungus [x] & Carex, C. Hitchcockiana & what Father H. thought (and is) C. Grayii. Returned to the road & kept on about 1 mile to another very swampy wood on the right, explored it, (collected some mosses & what seems to be a small fungus growing on a fruitless moss, but (the whole) which may be one of the Hepaticaceae in fruit. Returned to the road & kept on to the valley of Cayuga Creek, turned down it for 1/4 mile & then went to the Creek & explored its banks a short distance. Then sat down, in the shade,

on its bank, by the road side, & lunched on bread & Bologna Sausage produced by Father H. ---  Went back a short distance & explored a ravine, then back to the road & returned about 1 mile towards Alden, & struck into the woods on the right (east) & kept along them to a cross road, & but it to the main road & so to Alden. Went to the Hotel & got some

cake, pie & cheese. Then searched on the road towards Alden Station on the Central R. R. to the first wood, & explored it pretty  thoroughly. Took a little Carex Tuckermanii ?! Then back to the station, and, after waiting about 2 hours, took the mail train, & was home a little  after 9 P.M. A very, very pleasant day. Malva moschata, in two varieties, or 2 species we found frequent by the road side, one white, one pink, the leaf seems to be the same."



Vol 1. (57) [I 168]


Albany June 24th 1865


My Dear Sir.


I return the 2 papers last sent with the names on each. I have sent a part of the contents of "A" to Mr. Sullivant for his opinion concerning it.


Your query on paper "B" probably has reference to 2 or 3 stema of Dicranum scoparium var. pallidum which I find in it.


Many thanks for the Fissidens grandifrons. But do not rob yourself of specimens in order to satisfy my greediness.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received June 26



Vol 1. (60) [I 165]


Albany, June 26th /65


My Dear Sir.


Your letter, and specimens of June 22d were received this morning.


1 Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh.


xx2 Dicranum flagellare Hedw.


3 Bryum bimum Schreb.


4 Hypnum radicale Brid.


5 Hypnum delicatulum L.


xx6 Hypnum adnatum Hedw.


7 same as 3


8 same as 5


9 Bryum bimum mixed with sterile Leskea rostrata


10 Hypnum curvifolium Hedw.


11 Bryum bimum Schreb.


12 Ceratodon purpureus Brid.


13 Hypnum denticulatum L


14 Aulacomnion heterostichum Br. & Sch. (Tall)


15 Dicranum scoparium var. pallidum


16 & 17 Hypnum filicinum L. ?


I think that both are the same thing in different forms, but am not quite sure that they are Hypnum filicinum. The leaf differs a little from my specimens of that species, as well as the general appearance. It agrees better with the description and figure of Hypnum commutatum, except in size and in the plicature of the leaves. these are so "flatly contradicted" that I give it the other name with a doubt. H. commutatum has been found in British America but, so far as I know, has not been detected within the United States.


18 Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh.


19 Sphagnum acutifolium (with the reddish tinge)


20 Sphagnum cymbifolium Dill


xx21 Hypnum polymorphum Bryol. Europ.


22 & 23 Mnium affine Bland


x24 Dicranum undulatum Brid.


I hope you may succeed in honoring Buffalo with as many species of Sphagnum as we have here. It may assist you some in their discovery if you have some general idea of the appearance of the 2 remaining species in your mind. I therefore send a bit of them. When moist it is very difficult to separate Sph. cuspidatum from Sph. acutifolium, but when fry the leaves of the former have a more loose and wavy or crumpled appearance.


If Miss Waterbury has Seligeria tristicha and Leucobryum minus from this state they will constitute two additional species for N.Y. Rhabdoweisia angulata I suppose to be intended for R. denticulata. The others in her list are very common.


Should you find 16 & 17 in fruit I would like to examine it again.


I think I must write to Miss. W. and see if she can assist us in unfolding the muscological resources of the Empire State.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received June 28


On June 22 Clinton: " Crossed the ferry to Canada, took 3 specimens of Hyoscyamus. The Dracocephalum has disappeared. Walked up the R. R. & went into the woods on the right. Collected nothing but some mosses."



Vol 1. (61) [I164]


Albany, June 27th


My Dear Sir.


The 4 papers last sent should be labelled as follows:


1 Hypnum orthocladon Beauv.


2 Hypnum orthocladon Beauv. (Very small form)


3 Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh.


4 Polytrichum commune Linn.


3 & 4 you have now sent for the first time. With us they are quite as common as any species belonging to their respective genera.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


P. S. I went after Azalea viscosa this afternoon but failed to find it. Instead of it I took a very pretty little Tortoise, spotted with yellow. As I have never met with it before I conclude it is rare and shall take it to Col. Jewitt for the State Cabinet if it is wanted.


Received June 29



Vol 1. (66) [I 159]


Albany, July 1st 1865


My Dear Sir.


The specimens of "June 28th" Smoke's Creek" have arrived.


1 Pellia epiphylla Nees (Hepat.)


The male flower is imbedded in the frond ‑ the spore bearing capsule (not present in your specimen) is elevated on a slender peduncle, thus: [Note Drawing]


2 Is one of the innumerable forms of Dicranum scoparium. Capsule rather shorter than usual.


3 Mnium hornum Hedw? I am not positive as to the name of this species. At ifrst glance it looks some like M. serratum, but the inflorescence appears to be dioecious, although I find no male flowers in your specimen. M. serratum is hermatphrodite and has a shorter capsule. Calling it dioecious it is probably M. hornum although it is possible it may be M. orthorynchum. The operculum (which is wantint) would decide that.


[Drawing] Operculum of M. hornum [Drawing] Operculum of M. orthorhynchum. Should it be either of these two it will be a new species for New York. Please send a little more of it. I would like to determine it definitely, which may be done by having the male flower and operculum.


I have received from M. Lesquereux a Catalogue of the "Musci Boreali‑SAmericani" 2nd edition, which I mail to you with this. I do this at his request with the suggestion that you consider the propriety of purchasing a copy or set of the specimens therein named, for the state or for yourself. He writes that fifty (50) sets will be issued several of which are already subscribed for. They are not yet quite ready but are nearly so. He does not state the price of a set. Please examine the catalogue and return it to me. I see by it that Hypnum Blandowii has been found in Wisconsin by Lapham. I have not yet heard form M. Sullivant but you are doubtless the first to find it in our state.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


P.S. After July 4th I shall make my "headquarters" at Sand Lake, Rens. Co., N. Y. until Sept. 1st. Please direct any communications accordingly.


 Received & [answered?] July 3


On June 28, Clinton wrote: " Walked on, over the Ridge, to Smoke's Creek, & found there a, to me, new one of the Hepaticaceae, fruit in the frond (=Pellia epiphylla) ---"



Vol 1. (72) I150]


Albany, July 5th 1865


My Dear Sir.


I do not find the operculum on any of the moss sent, but from the appearance and shape of the leaves I am quite sure it is Mnium hornum Hedw.


But to make it doubly sure I have reserved a part which I will send to Mr. Lesqx. when I write to him again. The rest I return to you. It is certainly a new species to be added to our Catalogue of N.Y. Mosses.


I have called on Dr. Woolworth according to your request. He says he will write to Mr. Sullivant concerning the "Musci exsiccati" inquiring/price &c.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received July 8



Vol 1. (76) [I 146]


Sand Lake July 10th 1865


My Dear Sir.


The Catalogue and Musci of July 3d are received. I would name the specimens thus.


1 Hypnum delicatulum


2 Aulacomnion palustre


3 Fegetalla conica. In the absence of the fruit, this may be distinguished from Marchantia polymorpha by the narrower midrib of the leaf and the larger areolation.


4 Hypnum riparium  This specimen has very much the appearance of a Fontinalis. I myself suspected it was such until I examined it with the microscope. The leaves are coated with some sort of deposit which gives it its deceptive appearance.


I do not understand the Chara, neither can I tell who does.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received July 11


On July 3 in the evening in the city of Buffalo: " Through the Grove, and explored Day's Sphagnum [a boggy area on Scajaquada Creek near Forest Lawn Cemetery] thoroughly, on both sides. Nil new, unless a water Cryptogam be so. The Chara (of which I took some) seems to me not to be C. vulgaris. On to the Delaware Street woods, nothing but a (probably) common Carex, 2 mosses, both of which, (I think,) have collected before. Then through White's Grove to the McAdam Road, & home."



Vol. 1 (97) [I123]


Sand Lake, July 17th 1865


My Dear Sir.


The specimens of "July 11th" and paper containing oration reached me Saturday night. I have read the oration with much interest. The specimens I would call thus:


1 Aulacomnion heterostichum Br. & Sch.


2 What we call at present Mnium hornum. I have not yet received Mr. Lesqx' opinion concerning it and may not in some time as I suppose he is absent from home. He wrote me he should be away in July. Neither has Mr. Sullivant yet written concerning Hypnum Blandowii. It is not improbable that he may also be absent.


Two or three specimens of Mn. hornum ? would be very acceptable but perhaps it would be better not to entirely exhaust the locality as specimens may doubtless be obtained next May with the operculum on, which would be very desirable.


3 Atrichum angustatum Beauv. (Good to collect in Nov.)


4 Dicranum scoparium var. pallidum. It is Dic. pallidum of Muller's Synopsis.)


5 Hypnum hispidulum and Hypnum laetum. I have separated the two and return them that you may compare them.


6 Mnium affine Bland.


7 Mnium hornum: and Atrichum angustatum (Returned)


8 Not determined. It is interesting and new to me, nor do I find it described in Sullivant. The fruit is rather immature but will be good in a week or two. If you can get it in plenty, please send me some more and I will try to look it up, or have it determined if I can not. but do not rob yourself of specimens. It is labelled "Smoke's Creek, July 11th"


9 Leucobryum vulgare Hampe


10 Mnium affine Bland.


11 Campylopus viridis Sulliv. & Lesqx. (Sterile) There are also two capsules of Hypnum reptile.


12 Hypnum imponens Hedw. and Hypnum reptile Michx. separated and returned.


13 Hypnum laetum Brid.


14 Bryum bimum Schreb.


We shall be obliged to exercise a little patience in our communications between Sand Lake and Buffalo as the mail is not conveyed as frequently as between Albany and Buffalo.


In a day or two I shall be off for the Catskills where I hope to get some new species of Moss, Insects, &c.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Judge G. W. Clinton


Received July 20 Wrote him Aug. 1


July 11, Clinton wrote: " As it may be scientifically desireable that the station of Mnium hornum Hedw. (identified by C. H. Peck of Albany) discovered by me, should be described, I make this entry.  From Buffalo go, by the Plank Road (cross the Buffalo Creek by the Gun Bridge  & bear to the right at the Charter Oak House)  [Tavern] to the Limestone Ridge, cross the road (heading from Rom'n Catholic Orphan Asylum to the Turnpike at the Lake) & go through the field to the wood, down through the wood, to the dead creek (perhaps an old channel of Smoke's Creek) and cross on a log. The Mnium is on the side of & on the top of the bank, just below (a few feet) the crossing - perhaps some above the end ofthe log on crossing, have observed very little of it. Have searched pretty faithfully, but diligent search by a more capable person would, probably,lead to discovery of much more. (Turned out to be M. serratum).

    Cystopteris fragilis is very abundant, here & there, on the top & sides of the banks of Smoke's Creek." 



Vol 1. (112) [I 103]


Sand Lake July 31st 1865


My Dear Sir.


Upon my return from the Catskills I found two sets of specimen waiting for me.


The one contains


1 Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh. as you have named it. There is but one species in the paper. The axillary fruit appears old, but I have found often found [sic] axillary and terminal fruit maturing at the same time on the same stem [sic]. This is especially true of Sphagnum squarrosum


2 Fegetalla conica (Hepat.)


3 Is possibly Mnium rostratum, yet I hare not affirm it. It seems to come near that, but the operculum is wanting, and it is of much importance in determining species of Mnium.


4 Hypnum orthocladon Beauv.


5 Hypnum curvifolium Hedw.


6 Hypnum rutabulum L.


7 Dicranum scoparium var. pallidum as you suppose


8 Tetraphis pellucida Hedw.


9 Hypnum imponens Hedw.


10 Dicranum flagellare Hedw.


11 Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh.


12 Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh.


13 Sphagnum cymbifolium Dill.


The other contains, (July 17, 18 & 19)


1 Hypnum splendens Hedw. (Sterile)


2 Mastigobryum trilobatum Nees. (Hepat.)


3 Tetraphis pellucida Hedw.


4 Fissidens adiantoides Hedw.


Fruits late in Autumn. It differs from the typical form in having the marginal cells scarcely pellucid, yet I doubt not it is as I name it.


5 Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw.


6 Gymnostomum curvirostrum Hedw. It does please me: it has new fruit.


7 Gymnostomum curvirostrum Hedw. This has old fruit.


8 Barbula tortuosa Web. & Mohr


9 Hypnum polymorphum Bry. Europ.


10 Hypnum polymorphum (Sterile) One or two plants of Barbula mixed with it.


11 Pylaisaea intricata Bry. Europ.


12 The leaves and habitat are those of Hypnum filicinum but the general appearance of the plant is different. I can not tell for certainty what it is.


13 Barbula caespitosa intermixed with sterile Anomodon apiculatus


14 Hypnum adnatum Hedw.


15 Leucobryum vulgare Hampe


16 Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh.


17 Barbula caespitosa Schwaegr.


18 Sphagnum squarrosum Pers. This is sent for the first time. I feared you would find it, and just to keep Albany a reasonable distance in advance of Buffalo, I found Sphagnum compactum on my trip to the Catskills.


19 Tetraphis pellucida Hedw.


20 Barbula caespitosa Schwaegr.


I found also in the package "No. 8 Smoke's Creek July 14" Not determined. I will try to get the name of this. Also our ambiguous friend Mnium hornum? Among these specimens I find one capsule with an operculum which shows at once that my supposition was all wrong. It is not Mnium hornum. My friend Lesquereux writes of the specimen I sent to him that it is Mnium serratum. He is probably correct, and yet after the examination of nearly a dozen flowers I have failed to find a single male sack (antheridium) either mixed with the female flowers or separate from them. The description says of M. serratum ‑ "inflorescence hermaphrodite." My inference would be, from my examination, that the inflorescence is not hermaphrodite; and yet I can not affirm it, not havng seen a male flower at all.


I think I have some new things from the Catskills but have not yet examined all my specimens. I send Mastigobryum deflexum for which Miss. Waterbury mistook M. trilobum.


Yours truly


Charles H. Peck


Received Aug. 2


(Liverworts in Marchantiaceae) Mastigobryum deflexum (Mart.) Ångstr = Bazzania tricrenata (Wahlenb.) Lindb.; Mastigobryum trilobatum (L.) Nees = Bazzania trilobata (L.) Gray. From Schohari, New York, on June 10th [18]65, Rhoda Waterbury wrote Clinton regarding the Mastigobryum specimens.


Clinton wrote: "July 17. In the Sphagnum corner of the wood, just this side of the Pine Hill Wood [east border of Buffalo], on the plank road, collected some Drosera rotundifolia, Equisetum scirpoides, and, probably, 2 species of Sphagnum in fruit.  Collected, in the wood, 2 mosses  which I found in the Bergen Swamp on the 15th, & some others ---".


July 18: "Whirlpool  woods. Could not find Hypnum

abietinum, (very likely it came from the Devil's Hole). Found, inside the enclosure, 7 specmens of Pterospora, in seed. At the Ferry Stairs, wet rocks at top of talus, collected Fissidens grandifrons, and a before uncollected (by me) moss, very delicate. Goat Island, searched it opposite to Luna Island & some way up, for Potamogeton niagarensis in vain. Near the Terrapin Tower, collected some Hypericum kalmianum." 


On July 19, at Bergen, near Rochester, New York: " In the wooded swamp, in a partial clearing, above the Moss Road, found an Agrostis which may be perennans. At a pool, the left side of the moss road going in, in the woods, noticed a few stalks of Equisetum scirpoides no fruit, collected some. Went on into the swamp. ---"


On July 14, Clinton wrote that he was on Strawberry Island and other islands in the Niagara River.