BOTANICAL EVALUATION OF THE GOAT ISLAND COMPLEX, NIAGARA FALLS, NEW YORK
THE DIARY OF GEORGE WILLIAM CLINTON
The following are several abstracts from Clinton's journal relating to Goat Island, areas around Niagara Falls and the Niagara River Gorge. Modern nomenclature in square brackets follows the names Clinton used. In many cases, the specimens Clinton reported collecting may be seen today in the botanical collections of the Clinton Herbarium, Buffalo Museum of Science. The Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences named their botanical collections after Clinton because the specimens he collected and purchased form the nucleus of this herbarium.
Additional notes or insertions made by the present writer are placed in square brackets. In many cases the abbreviations used by Clinton as shorthand are spelled out. Series of dots indicate either extensive portions of irrelevant text deleted, or words obscure in Clinton's handwriting. The question marks, unless in square brackets, are Clinton's. If a technical name followed by a question mark is then given an exclamation mark, it is because Clinton was later able to confirm his identification.
Suspension Bridge was the name of a small village now incorporated into the City of Niagara Falls, as was DeVeaux, just north of it along the crest of the Niagara Gorge.
"The present Herbarium was not commenced until 1865. In January of that year I visited [Asa] Gray, at Cambridge, and advised with him. I adopted his species sheet and genus wrapper." [Note: written on a loose sheet in Clinton's journal.]
GEORGE W. CLINTON'S BOTANICAL JOURNAL 1862-1878
On Goat Island, in flower, the Juniper (Juniperus virginiana), Shepherdia, Sanguinaria, Dicentra cucullaria and Dentaria laciniata.
List of flowers found since last emmendation. Goat Island. Arabis lyrata. Viola sagittata (Sed? Veronica serpyllifolia and V. agrestis? I have searched the station repeatedly since for it, in vain, and think now that it was a mere form of V. cucullata), Shepherdia in young leaf. Both sexes.
Niagara Falls. Goat Island. Collected leaves and fruit of Shepherdia canadensis, Geranium robertianum. Below Biddle Stairs, a fern. On the top of the bank, Arabis lyrata in seed and Houstonia ciliolata [Houstonia canadensis] (which last I found also in dry woods on the Mainland), also Symphoricarpos racemosus [S. albus var. albus] just commencing to flower. Descending to the level of Terrapin Bridge, to the left of the path, found Astragalus Cooperi [Astragalus neglectus), also a pretty Lathyrus? (!) more than 3 teeth to the sheath. On the side hill, an Anemone, which may not be the aconitifolia (it turned out to be A. virginiana ) Lithospermum officinale a common weed on the Island & about the Falls. Gathered some Rhus toxicodendron [Rhus radicans], Cornus circinata [Cornus rugosa] here & there on the Island. Walked through the woods over to Gill Creek and back. Found Hieracium venosum, Thaspium aureum [Thaspium trifoliatum], 1 specimen of Asclepias quadrifolia. At the Creek, Gratiola virginiana [perhaps G. neglecta, the former being excluded from the Niagara Region by Zander and Pierce, 1979] the plants each having its first flower.
July 3 & 4.
Niagara Falls. This side. Arabis canadensis, A. hirsuta? On the Island, Anemone cylindrica or virginica (cylindrica!). Near the Ferry landing on the Canadian side, this Anemone was very large, and the heads were quite long & very cylindrical, and so they are sometimes, on the [Buffalo] Plains, where, as I afterwards found, it is quite common [see discussion on the Buffalo Plains in the origins of the flora section above].) At & near Table Rock, Nasturtium officinale, Myriophyllum heterophyllum, what looks like the leaf of Parnassia (it turned out to be Parnassia caroliniana [Parnassia glauca] which is also on Goat Island, on the flat near Terrapin bridge, & on Strawberry Island). By the railroad, back of Table Rock, Linaria vulgaris. In woods near Suspension Bridge, Oenothera chrysantha [Oenothera biennis], Galium circaezans & lanceolatum. From Zimmerman's hedge, Ligustrum vulgare.
Niagara Falls. About the flat by Terrapin bridge, Platanthera hyperborea [Habenaria hyperborea, Equisetum variegatum, a bush in seed now, pericarps of last year (proved to be Hypericum kalmianum). On the bank on top of the cliff at the Whirlpool, American side, Melampyrum, Asclepias tuberosa, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, in berry, Vitis with the leaves much cut. Dr. Van Rennsselaer showed me a tree which he had been told was the cucumber. It is, probably, Morus rubra! In the Whirlpool horse yard, 1 specimen of Pterospora andromeda, not quite in blossom. On the bank, this side of Devil's Hole, Campanula rotundifolia. Everywhere Lilium philadelphicum. Cross-road sides, between Schlosser [old site of Fort Schlosser, American mainland] & the Falls, Echium vulgare. On the Island, Rhus typhina.
Went in 8 A. M. train to Tonawanda. Kept on, in 8 o'clock train to Suspension Bridge, & walked down to the Whirlpool. There found 6 specm. of Pterospora andromedea, in seed, Asclepias verticillata. Collected also leaves of Sassafras officinale, & 1 specimen of a very singular compound flower, Aster like, but florets all tubular (= Liatris cylindracea.) Near Devil's Hole, collected Dipsacus sylvestris, & a Helianthus everywhere. Crossed the Suspension Bridge, & walked to Table Rock. There collected Lobelia Kalmii, Calamintha glabella var. nuttallia [Satureja glabella var. angustifolia], & a pretty Lycopodium or (more probably) Selaginella =S. apus.) Going down to the Ferry, when almost down, by the road, Polymnia canadensis. On Goat Island, Hypericum Kalmianum, Lathyrus palustris. Collected Phytolacca decandra [Phytolacca americana], Mentha viridis [Mentha spicata], & one of the Antennarias.
To Suspension Bridge. Walked to the Whirlpool, thence back to the Falls, foot of Amer'n Staircase. Goat island, thence up the [Mill] Race & on to La- Salle, thence, by the cars, home. At Cayuga Creek, Dulichium spathaceum, [Dulichium arundinaceum], Nesaea verticillata [Decodon verticillatus]. Between the Falls & that Creek, Melilotus officinalis. At the Dam of the [Mill] Race, Dianthera americana [Justicia americana], Pedicularis lanceolata, Cicuta bulbifera, Sium lineare [Sium suave]. On the Island, Chenopodium hybridum, 2 specimens of Gentiana detonsa ?(!) [Gentiana procera]. On the right of the path to Terrapin Tower saw a hundred Gentians (G. detonsa) [Gentiana procera]. Collected there Parnassia caroliniana [Parnassia glauca]. On the Island, a Nabalus [Prenanthes]. At the foot of the Ferry Stairs, Helenium autumnale in the very narrow leaves. Wood opposite the Whirlpool, on the westerly side of the wood, what I thought might be Parietaria (turned out to be dwarfs of Acalypha virginica.) Whirlpool woods. Saw Monotropa hypopithys in seed. Along the bank, 2 ferns, one (of which I found only one root) Allosorus atropurpureus [Pellaea atropurpurea] the other Polypodium vulgare. A compound flower, not tuberous, flowers all tubular (Liatris cylindracea), a willow leaved Aster ? (Aster ptarmicoides), a procumbent round leaved Lespedeza, Lespedeza violacea [Lespedeza intermedia] (have collected it before, at Portage & about Buffalo.) Asters & Solidagoes.
In springy fields below Table Rock & also on Goat Island near Terrapin Bridge, Gentiana detonsa [Gentiana procera abundant. Also, below Table Rock, in same situation, Gerardia purpurea? Parnassia caroliniana common. Descending to the Whirlpool, on the Canada side, gathered an Asplenium, an Aspidium? with a very narrow & long frond (=Cystopteris bulbifera) and Camptosorus rhizophyllus.
Went by 8 o'clock train to Lewiston, walked to the landing, & then up the River a way. By the path from the river up the bank found a very small leafless shrub, woody, with white flower buds in terminal heads (probably Rhus aromatica). Near the stone house Dr. Scoville once used in flower, Saxifraga virginiensis, Dicentra cucullaria, Claytonia virginica, Ulmus fulva [Ulmus rubra]. On the top of the bank a little beyond the Suspension Bridge, Houstonia [purpurea crossed out] caerulea. Walked to & up the Rail Road and the precipice above it, where water dripped or ran from it, had many icicles. A cold north wind. Went half way down the Devil's Hole, felt there was no use, & so climbed up again. Walked to Whirlpool ... on the bank beyond it, Hepatica triloba [Hepatica americana] abundant. Found also Erythronium americanum. Some ... of Trillium grandiflorum & Cardamine rhomboidea [Cardamine bulbosa]. On Goat Island, Dicentra cucullaria, Sanguinaria canadensis, and Shepherdia. I was a week too early, some of these things were fairly in blossom. Took the 6*20' train at the Falls & got home at 7*20' P.M. Collected also on Goat Island white (?) birch (Betula papyracea), & on the bank, above the Devil's Hole, a poplar (large trees by fence.) Evening at meeting of [Buffalo] Soc. of Nat. Hist. Mr. Reinecke told Mr. [David F.] Day & myself that, a week ago, he found a yellow flower (which he described as well as he could) on this side of the Scajaquada, near the stream, east of Delaware St, & some distance from it. (It turned out to be Caltha palustris.)
With [David F.] Day, took cars to Suspension Bridge, crossed it & walked along the bank to Whirlpool & descended, to the water, and made our way to the st... flat where a stream comes in. Found nothing new. Took some specimens of the Taxus canadensis. Ascended the stream some way leaving it on the left, & then, fought our way up to the top of the bank. Found ... a wet place on hillside, near the stream, Equisetum variegatum & collected a Carex. High up on the hill, Aphylla uniflora [Orobanche uniflora] (4 specm-) and a Cypripedium which may be parviflorum (!) but is probably a very small flowered pubescens. On the top of the bank, a number of Sassafras bushes in full flower, all staminate. A little beyond this rock platform at the foot of the Whirlpool, a smallish, hairy Arabis (= A. hirsuta). Took a road which led us to the main road to Queenston, & went to Brock's Monument. In the dry gravelly soil around it, a low small yellow flowered crucifer abundant, looking like a Lepidium (It is Alyssum calycinum [A. alyssoides]). Crossed the Suspension Bridge & down to Lewiston. The only thing I could find .... the white bush mentioned April 25 (p. 6) is a Rhus, perhaps the aromatica. Cut by Scovill's old place to the railroad. Ranunculus scleratus very abundant. Picked a few specimens of Houstonia caerulea. In the pond in the grove between R. R. & river bank, noticed Ranunculus purshii [Ranunculus gmelinii, excluded from the Niagara Frontier Region by Zander and Pierce, 1979]. On the top of the bank, on both sides of the River, a Vicia, which I think must be V. americana, abundant & beautiful. Made for the Whirlpool House & so along the bank to the tree of Morus rubra, which was in full fruit and a male. The Arctostaphylos has cheated me again, though we found a few flowers, which are very small. Found also, near the bank, a Cerastium arvense probably oblongifolium [crossed out] and a very handsome variety of Senecio aureus. Picked up by the roadside Hesperis matronalis? a garden scape. Walked on to the Falls, and arrived there 20 minutes before the starting of the 6*20' train which took us back to Buffalo.
2*2' [?] P. M. train to Niagara Falls. Took a few specimens of Carex clintonii? [C. Oederi [written above] from below American Staircase, not dioicious & a Carex from above the Staircase where Hypericum kalmianum is abundant. On Goat Island the little flat above the bridge looked in vain for C. Oederi. but colld. two. Also [Agrostis crossed out] Poa pratensis. None of the Carices in condition. Collected 2 specms of Carya alba from the 3 trees near the [depot?].
Took 8 A. M. train to Suspension Bridge, crossed & walked down to Whirlpool. On the way, in a little pool, found Alopecurus geniculatus ? [Alopecurus aequalis] stems rooting in the mud, also, Fragaria vesca, an Oatlike grass, gathered, I think before (= Danthonia spicata, written above). Descending to the Whirlpool, collected a Cystopteris bulbifera, a small grass, &, on the beach at the bottom, a Panicum. Ascended the little stream to the place where Day & I collected a Carex and collected some of it, then climbed up the slide just below it, and found Bromus [mollis crossed out] kalmii and 1 specimen of Calystegia spithamea [Convolvulus spithamaeus]. On top of the bank before coming to Point View [Whirlpool Point] collected Hieracium venosum, 2 specimens of Platanthera hookeri [Habenaria hookeri & Pyrola chlorantha [Pyrola virens]. Along the top of the cliff, beyond the point, Scutellaria parvula abundant. Collected some Carices & a number of grasses at various points, particularly on a wooded, lower plateau 1/2 mile below the Point. Also Asclepias quadrifolia. On the edge of a wheatfield, this side of descent to Foster's Flat. Triticum repens [Agropyron repens] abundant, & also at Niagara Falls. In descending to Foster's Flat, gathered an Arabis, and, along the path near the bottom, two grasses, one of them found 1/2 - 6* high, also Hydrophyllum canadense. Endeavored to return by keeping outer edge of the woods, & came out on a road, which led me to the Great Western R. R. on which I walked to the Bridge, & crossed & walked up to the Falls. At the foot of American Stairs, below it, on the old steamboat dock, & in the talus above, collected 3 Carices, including 2 states or forms of C. Oederi & Lolium temulentum. Took the 6*14' ... train for Buffalo ...
Walked to Whirlpool with George, got 2 or 3 specimens of Pterospora, some specimens of Rhus aromatica, Bromus kalmii, 2 or 3 grasses, Asplenium trichomanes, Pyrola rotundifolia, Silene antirrhina. At foot of American Staircase, Carices, a grass, and Typha angustifolia. On Goat Island, Carices. Collected also the bitter Carya, White Ash, and Ironwood (Ostrya).
Friday, Sept. 11.
Went by 8 A.M. train to Lewiston. On the bank of the River collected Aster ericoides. Walked to the Suspension Bridge in a cultivated field, on the right in the road & on the Bank of the River, Abutilon avicennae [Abutilon theophrasti abundant, crossed & went to Brock's Monument. The Alyssum gone but put some dead stalks in my pocket, hoping there might be a seed or two in them. The Monument gate-keeper asked me if I knew the Lobelia (L. inflata of course, written above), I said yes!. He said he had the asthma & it was recommended to him & showed me some Verbascum blattaria & asked if that was it. I told him no! But that it was a very common plant, & if I found it in going to the bridge I'd leave it at the bridge tollhouse, for him which I did. He told me that the gravel around the monument had been drawn in part from the first village above, & in part from below. I inquired about this, partly because I wished to trace the origin of the Alyssum, & partly because I had found & collected from the side of the gravelly road near the Monument, a small grass (+ Vilfa vaginiflora) [Sporobolus vaginiflorus] very much resembling the smaller Sporobolis (T...) of the Lake Shore. In descending to the Bridge found the Senecio vulgaris, of an unusual aspect, & so took some of it, to try Dick, our canary, with it, unless it should turn out something different (which it did not, written later). Recrossed the Bridge & walked to the Station house, & in going thither, noticed the Houstonia caerulea still flowering, & picked 1 specm. of a tufted grass. Took the 12*30' train to Suspension Bridge, & walked to the Red Mulberry Tree near the Bank of the River, found several younger trees of the species in the wood near it, so that there is probably a male among them, took some of the lobed leaves. On a rock in the wood found the Camptosorus, & on rocks near the bank, Allosorus atropurpureus [Pellaea atropurpurea] and Asplenium trichomanes, kept along the bank to the Whirlpool House, & found, in one place, in a slight, gravelly (?) depression in the edge of the bank the same grass I found near the Monument, or one very much like it. Collected also 1 specm. of Gerardia tenuifolia with white flowers, Andropogon scoparius & A. furcatus [Andropogon gerardii] (noticed Sorghum nutans [Sorghastrum nutans) Arctostaphylos uva-ursi in fruit, Aster ptarmicoides, Liatris cylindracea. Descended about 1/2 way to the River, &, in the right of the path, planted a few roots & scattered spores of the Scolopendrium, also planted a few roots of it on the talus just below the American Staircase at the Falls. In reascending found & took a Strawberry with a runner 2-3 feet long. In the wood by the Whirlpool, collected Zizia integerima [Taenidia integerrima], Desmodium nudiflorum & Pyrola rotundifolia in seed. Saw Gerardia flava [Aureolaria flava]. Walked back to the Falls. Between the Bridge & the Falls, following the railroad, took 1 Solidago, 1 Aster, & Lespedeza violacea [Lespedeza intermedia], exuberantly in flower. At the Falls, near the Grove [Prospect Park], found & took one plant of Sinapis alba? (= probably S. nigra [Brassica nigra]) Small leaved & very smooth. Also a low Euphorbia, on a suspicion that it might be E. peplus, though it is probably, only the helioscopia. Went to foot of American Staircase & searched diligently for Carex Clintonii, but in vain, found long dead culms of this year, c... with the plant in full seed, culms which had shed all their seeds & may be what Dr. Dewey took for staminate spikes. On Goat Isld., in the flat by Terrapin Bridge, collected a few seeds of Astragalus Cooperi [A. neglectus] and one Plantago, in the hope that it would turn out P. rugelii (it did not, written in), and, on the Island, 1 spcm. of P. major. Took the 6*20' P.M. train for home.
2 beautiful big poplars, before E. Grey's house, on Ellicott St., just flowering. Must get specm. Mr. Sweeney wishes to go to Tonawanda to get what he calls "the Adder's tongue" for his garden, & I promised to go with him. Can it be Erythronium? 2 P.M. took train to Suspension Bridge. Cut across lots to the Whirlpool Woods, & took 3 or 4 specm. of a poplar at head of 1st gully. In the wood, found Oryzopsis asperifolia (culm leafy below, but awn long & dead leaves larger than ...) in full flower, its leaves, as yet, shorter than the culm. Took a little Saxifraga virgs. & Cardamine purpurea [Cardamine douglassii]. Walked up to Goat Island, & collected Dentaria laciniata & Dicentra canadensis, and, by the River side, above the Bridge, a willow or two, Betula papyracea, Shepherdia. A very pretty little Carex (= C. aurea) coming forward on the rocks there.
Before Breakfast stroll. Could not get at Mr. Grey's poplars in Ellicott St. [Buffalo]. Took a specimen of Acer saccharinum from tree in N.W. corner of Washington & Mohawk St., and one of Populus balsamifera from N. E. corner of Huron & Michigan Sts. Chatted with [David F.] Day. He says Populus balsamifera is on head of Squaw Island.
Went by 9 A. M. train to Lewiston. On the bank of the River found the shrub mentioned Ap. 25, 1863 (p.6 ante) in flower, & is Rhus aromatica. Upon the rocks some after passing the road beyond old Scoville place, found, just coming into flower a Turritis [Arabis], which does not look to me like the glabra. Found it also in continuation of the same hollow after crossing the rail-road (+ T. stricta) [Arabis drummondii]. Picked up a Carex & divers other things, including Ostrya in flower, & Betula papyracea (populifolia crossed out) beautifully in flower. In the middle of the pond, on right of R. R., some ways before reaching the tunnel, a patch of yellow flowers. My chest being sore with a cold, I did not dare to wade, but think it was Ranunculus Purshii [Ranunculus gmelinii, excluded from the Niagara Frontier Region by Zander and Pierce, 1979], having noticed it there last year. Walked up the R. R. & ascended the Bank just north of St. Xavier's College, kept the road till opposite the Whirlpool Woods. On the bank beyond the Whirlpool House found a very little of Arctostaphylos in flower, & a beautiful flower it is, a white ball constricted at the mouth, & the neck & mouth pink (Rhus aromatica ... in the edge of the wood by the bank). Walked to the Falls. On the Island collected some Equisetum variegatum in fruit or nearly so, & found a few specimens of Dicentra cucullaria in seed. Took the 6*20 train at the Falls. It rained some after & all the way up. Had a delightful day ....
The Panicum collected yesterday has slightly softly hairy sheathes, but is, most probably, P. latifolium. What can I do with the grasses without a microscope?
The Triticum [Agropyron], the one spike I examined, has uniformly 3-flowered spikelets 2d. Are the leaves flat? now involute.
P.M., 2*15', went to Niag. Falls. Down by Ferry Stairs, Triticum caninum? [Agropyron trachycaulum var. unilaterale] [Cinna?]... caespitosa, an Agrostis, Carex Oederi [Carex viridula]. Collected beautiful specm. of Carex aurea, a handfull, found they were over-ripe. Near the Falls, Festuca ovina var. duriuscula small. On the Island, picked up divers things. By the [Terrapin] Tower, Astragalus Cooperi [A. neglectus] in seed, Colld. [Cinna?] Calamagrostis. There, & along the bank, below Summer house, the Triticum of the [Buffalo] Plains. Lithospermum officinale out of flower. Hypericum kalmianum not in. Retd. by 6*15' train.
2*15' P.M. [train] ran down to Goat Island, to collect Hypericum kalmianum, & found it, as I anticipated, in seed. On the American side of the Island, by the river, & above the Bridge found all out of season Carex eburnea.
Took 2 P.M. train to Suspension Bridge. Walked back to the Falls & on my way, stopped at John J. Bush's (the old Bucchanan Place. W. B. .. & Florence absent, at the east, & Mr. Wm...? Ford in possession) reclaimed the packet of paper left there July 21, with plants collected at Devil's Hole. In it leaves of an Uvularia, which, at the time, I thought might be U. perfoliata. About 1/2 way down the Americn. stair, & then took path under the cliff, descended, went to & ascended the cliff below the stairs & so entered the stairway & up. Collected some Gentiana detonsa var. [Gentiana procera], walked to Cataract Hotel & chatted a little while [...] Scattered some seed of Alyssum calycinum [A. alyssoides] on the sides of the road by the Judge Porter place, in the Cataract Hotel side, & also, some distance up, on the river side of the road running by the river. Observed Abutilon avicennae [Abutilon theophrasti], as a weed in a garden. Collected two or three weeds. Home by the 6*15' train.
Took 9 A.M. train to Lewiston. Walked back, in the track, to the rocky grove. Collected there Turritis stricta [Arabis drummondii], in capital condition, noticed a Cornus circinata [Cornus rugosa], & took a specm. for Dr. Wright. Also Avena striata [Schizachne purpurascens], the Rubus noticed yesterday, which seems quite common (R. canadensis [Rubus flagellaris), took a Climacium americanum [moss] (I want to find, hereabouts, the one Peck writes is rare) Selaginella rupestris.
Ascended the hill to the abandoned track of a railroad, & followed that as far as St. Xavier's College where it crosses a ravine, with a spring running into it, under a cliff, found beautiful specm of Arabis hirsuta, and, on the wet rock, bulging masses of a nice dark green moss, with no sign of fructification: afterward noticed the same on the wet precipice below the American Staircase [probably the moss Didymodon tophaceus, which grows there in darkish masses along with Hymenostylium recurvirostrum].
In the old field below St. X's College took one specimen of Vicia americana? (it looked green) and Antennaria plantaginifolia. At the Coll., took the highway and left it for the Whirlpool Woods, at the 2nd or 3rd line of fence below Deveaux College. Near the bank, going along, noticed Avena striata [Schizachne purpurascens] & a very few puny plants of Arabis hirsuta. Also took two species of a broad, short leaved Carex, quite small, must look at it.
In the yard of the house at the Whirlpool, Polygala Senega, abundant & fine, just flowering.
Carex eburnea is common all along the bank of the River, in the woods.
On the bank, above the house, Senecio aureus & balsamita, Sisyrinchium anceps [S. graminoides] & divers other things in flower. Met W. Wiley again. Collected Oryzopsis asperifolia, well in seed. Walked in to Niagara City & up to the Falls, in the Railroad.
On the outside of the cliff, utterly inaccessible, seen in one instance, gloriously in flower, Lonicera parviflora, v. douglasii [Lonicera dioica var. glaucescens].
Descended the American Staircase to the top of the talus, & walked down on it a little way, & found, in the wet rock, a pretty, small fruited moss, and a small (Reboullia) Marchantia [liverwort] which, I think, cannot be M. polymorpha = Preissia commutata [P. quadrata].
Went on Goat Island, up the American side, to the rocky flat by the River. Took, from a stump, a small lead colored fungus in the gills, & a larger one, perhaps the same and one or two mosses collected before. On the naked pasture on the head of the Island, an umbellifer, probably Carum carui. Met Sam. Burnok & wife, Mr. Haywood & wife, & a third couple, who have been picnicing, & they took me to Luna Island & we there finished their lemonade, cake & sandwiches. Home by 6*20' train.
By 9 A. M. train to Suspension Bridge, walked down to R. R. nearly to opposite the Devil's Hole, & then, in a deep rock cutting, collected some mosses. Rosa blanda in flower. Descended, at the Devil's Hole. Collected some mosses & Carex platyphylla & C. plantaginea, the latter over ripe. Walked along the bank to the Whirlpool, & along the chasm above, through Niagara City, & along the R. R. to the American Ferry Staircase. Went half way down, & walked under the cliff to the American Fall, & down to the front of the Staircase ..., except below the staircase, Carex Oederii [Carex viridula] ... same as usual, & what if it be C. granularis, looks green to me. Up the staircase to the top of the talus, & down along the top of it, where springs trickle down. Collected more Preissia commutata [liverwort; P. quadrata] & also, not in fruit, a green leaved plant growing on the rock in the water (Fissidens grandifrons). Over to Goat Island and collected Barbula tortuosa var. [Tortella tortuosa, a moss]. Home by the 6* train. The day has been very pleasant.
Sat. June 17.
By 6* A. M. train to Tonawanda. Explored wood ... by the Lockport RR, 2 or 3 mosses & a Pyrola, whether chloranthus [Pyrola virens] or a var. of rotundifolia? it grew among the pines (The stem is angular, almost quadrangular, and, at least in some instances, twisted). By the 9* train to the Falls, & crossed by the Ferry * called on John .. Bush, after exploring from the Ferry up under the cliff, for mosses. On his grounds saw a brilliant, beelike, but, apparantly stingless insect, gregarious, ...?, entering & issuing from holes in the soil (caught one & brought it home in my box). Retd. to Amn side, after visiting Table Rock, Goat Island, walked up to Sawmill on the River, H....!
Whirlpool woods. Could not find Hypnum abietinum [moss] (very likely it came from the Devil's Hole). Found, inside the enclosure, 7 specm. of Pterospora, in seed. At the Ferry Stairs, wet rocks at top of talus, collected Fissidens grandifrons, and a before uncollected (by me) moss, very delicate. Goat Island, searched it opposite to Luna Island & some way up, for Potamogeton niagarensis in vain. Near the Terrapin Tower, collected some Hypericum kalmianum.
Sunday. My wife & daughter being at the Falls, I went down in the A. M. and retd. by 5 P. M. train.
Noticed, by the Cataract House, above it & between the race & the river, Atriplex hastata [Atriplex patula var. hastata]. Think I noticed it there last year. On Goat Island, American side, above the Bridge, Dianthus armeria abundant & nearly accessible, will be in good condition in 2-4 weeks hence. Fissidens grandifrons [moss] is abundant on the wet rocks above, as well as below, the American Staircase, above the talus. Took some of it, & of the Hypnum [moss] which grows with it [probably Cratoneuron filicinum].
Took 9* A.M. train to the Falls, where my wife is staying. Descending to the Whirlpool, turned off at the top of the talus, and, to ... it up along some rocks, under the guidance of the Keeper of the Whirlpool grounds, reached rock wetted by springs. The little, delicate moss, which grows near the American Staircase, in similar situations was abundant. Noticed no other except a Bryum (?) [moss] in old fruit. Descended to the river bank & picked up a little of 2 or 3 small mosses, one very small, like a Hypnum, growing on stones. Found the same in Goat island, near the cascade. Gathered, in the ... a few more specimens of Hypericum Kalmianum.
Gerardia flava [Aureolaria flava] has been in flower for some time, G. quercifolia [also Aureolaria flava] has not commenced flowering.
By 12* 20' train to Niagara Falls. Followed top of talus a longish way down below American Staircase, nothing new. On wet wettish rocks, at & above top of talus, everywhere here & on Goat Island, below Biddle Staircase, Preissia commutata [liverwort; P. quadrata], now past fruit, abundant. Near the water, a good way below the Staircase, on a large rock, a small moss in fruit, which may be new, not before collected by me [Gymnostomum crossed out]. Fissidens grandifrons does not extend far below the Staircase, nor have I found it on Goat Isl. Colld. some Lobelia Kalmii, & a birch in fruit, probably Betula papyracea [Betula papyracea]. Descended Biddle Staircase. Gymnostomum curvirostrum [Hymenostylium recurvirostrum; moss] everywhere common on wet rocks. On the talus, directly below the Cave of the Winds shanty, Hypericum kalmianum in flower & in ...purpurs.... On the other side took 4 or 5 specimens of Dianthera americana (Justicia americana).
By 12* 20' to the Falls, collected the [Quercus] near Terrapin Tower, stamens 3, also Dianthera [Justicia & Betula papyracea, whither we have the alba v. populifolia [Betula populifolia] (1866 answer, we have not! written in). On Goat Island, a little above, or opposite the head of Luna Isd, in wet [sand?], the water having retreated, a Potamogeton. Above the Amn. Staircase, a small Eupatorium, like ageratoides [E. rugosum] but leaves small & short petioled.
12* 20' train to the Falls. Pursued the foot of the talus, below American Stairs to nearly where the Hydraulic Canal runs over the cliff - then to the ... where on a high rock, I collected the moss Mr. Peck ... Collected very little besides mosses, & few of these. Home by the 6* train. Along the talus, collected Nabalus [Prenanthes], Muhlenbergia (probably capitata but heads more open than usual. In the little inclosure, opposite the R. R. depot, the common red-flowered Amaranthus growing spontaneously.
By invn. of Wm..[A. Thompson?] with [the Buffalonians?], took the 9 A. M. train to the Falls, & there met "the British capitalists" crossed at the Ferry & took first train on Erie & Niagara River, at the Clifton Station, backed 1/2 mile up & then went down to Niagara, where the ... gave the ... of that City & ourselves a nice lunch at Mr. Moffats's [?] Tavern. Walked down to the River and then taken back to Clifton by the train. Recrossed River at Ferry, and made one (unsuccessful) grab, near American Falls for Anomodon viticulosus [a moss]. Home by 11* P. M. special train.
By 9* A. M. train to Suspension Bridge, went down the old road to the Maid of the Mist Landing & along the water up a good way to not far below the Fall made by the Hydraulic Canal, then scrambled to & returned a good way on the top of the talus, & there down it & back to the top of the bank. On the talus found one white Gentiana Andrewsii. Walked up to Goat Island down the Biddle Stairs & searched near the Middle & the British Falls for [the moss] Anomodon viticulosus, then to the American Staircase & did the same at the American Fall. Then took a short walk in the wood, & then home by the 6* P. M. train. Collected some mosses, probably nothing new.
Before Breakfast, recd. letter from Dr. Lesquereux, giving the precise station of Anomodon viticulosus on Goat Island. Went to Suspension Bridge by 9 A. M. train, mossed at Devil's Hole. Turned up to the Falls & to Goat island and examined the station, but, alas! no Anomodon vit's there! The Station was on Goat Island, on a rock, about halfway down the path leading from the Carriage way to the Bridge to Luna Island, not the Hog's Back path, but the one above it. There's no rock there. Perhaps the path has been changed since Dr. L. was there.
Went to the Falls, collected Orthotrichum anomalum [moss], for Dr. Lesquereux, from trees in the park opposite the Ferry House, also another lighter colored one also. From first tree, what Mr. [James?] thinks is Leskea nervosa [moss]. Crossed the Ferry, & explored up to the Horseshoe Fall, under the cliff, looking specially for Trichostomum rigidulum [Didymodon rigidulus; moss]. Found, on the wet talus, close to the Fall, a sterile moss? which may be it (= A singular Conferva). Recrossed, & walked down the river & took some more Didymodon rubellus [Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum; moss]. Ascended the Stairs, went to Goat island, and, commencing at the end of the Bridge, explored the bank all the way down to opposite the middle of the island above Luna Island. Found no rock till I got there - a ridge of the bank, & there, quite close to the bank, was a large rock, in the earth on top of which was an Anomodon which I am confident is not A. obtusifolius (it turned out to be A. viticulosus.) At the foot of the Cascade, in the water, growing on the rock, ... Fissidens grandifrons. Home by the 6* P. M. train. [Note: In Webster's New International Dictionary, 2nd Edition, the confervoids are defined as "a group [of algae] comprising the larger hairlike and mosslike fresh water kinds". This "singular Conferva" of Clinton's was probably one of these.]
To the Falls by 9* A.M. train, crossed & walked up, along the River, nearly to the Horseshoe, looking for Trichostomum rigidulum [Didymodon rigidulus; moss], am afraid I did not find it. Icicles hanging from the cliffs. Back to Goat Island, where I spent the rest of the day looking for Dicranum montanum & Hypnum sprucei, am afraid that I found neither. Home by the 6* P.M. train.
Mossed at Devil's Hole, in Whirlpool Wood, and in Grove by the American Staircase [now Prospect Point] ....
12:34 P.M. to Niagara Falls, to see if Fissidens grandifrons showing any signs of fruiting, it dosen't. On Goat Island, Euonymus atropurpureus in fruit, very pretty, searched the whole of the wooded part of the Island. About this date, received a package from Dr. Martindale.
Niagara Falls, by 12*20' train, to see W. Pettibone, who had told me that there was a plant on Goat Island, a tea from the roots & seeds of which, drunk as you would any tea, had relieved him very much in his kidney complaint, gravel. Went over the Island with him, he looking in vain for it. He describes it as a low bush, with a very small, pearshaped, white hard seed. It occurring to me that it was, most probably, Lithospermum officinale, I looked it up & dug up a root with a dead stalk & he thought it to be the plant, though, the seed being gone, he could not tell certainly. Said the root looked & smelt like it. The channel between the Island & the first Sister being dry, I walked over & explored it. Hypnum nudum [moss] abundant. Collected an Orthotrichum [moss] on Goat Island. Also in the Grove opposite the Ferry House, from a tree, O. anomalum with calyptra.
Went to Goat Island with Mr. Forbes & a party of young ladies from the Buffalo Fem... Sem..., & passed the day there, botanizing &c., until about 3 P.M., then to G..W. Holley's, where .... entertained the party, & thence to the railroad station & home. On the Island, the girls found a few specimens of the green petalled Tillium, which seems to be T. grandiflorum. I found Fegatella conica [Conocephalum conicum; liverwort] capitally in fruit.