EVALUATION OF THE GOAT ISLAND COMPLEX, NIAGARA FALLS, NEW YORK
1. Central Woods Remnant
Day, and others, felt in 1901 that the Goat Island woods was "almost unchanged from its natural condition" (see section on land use), and yet Chamberlin, from Buffalo, New York, in a letter to the magazine Garden and Forest written in 1892, referring to the botanical richness at the Falls wrote "especially is this true on Goat Island, which is now one of the few spots in this vicinity that are covered with primeval growth. It is probable that even here the earlier timber has been removed, for that which remains is not very large, but the absence of stumps shows that no cutting of trees has taken place for a long time. The timber is chiefly of the ordinary hard-wood trees, Beach [sic] and Maple predominating, with an occasional Oak, Ash or Tulip-tree, and near the paths many small Cedars, white and red, Hemlock and prostrate Yew-bushes."
Since Goat Island was said to have had a primeval forest in its first
decades as a Reservation, one would expect the woods to be composed of
relatively well-spaced trees of some maturity, a dense canopy above, darkness
below and herbaceous vegetation or bare soil beneath the trees. Many old
woodlands can be seen that present this kind of climax, such as Fonthill
"Thicket" is a term used by the first Superintendent of the
Niagara Reservation, Thomas Welch, to describe a habitat or the condition of
Young trees appear to have abounded on Goat Island for Welch reported in
the 7th Annual Report of the Commissioners, 1891, that "young trees,
1,122 in number, have been taken from the thicket on
And yet the thicket "on the Reservation" also produced a
quantity of shrubs: twenty ninebark [Physocarpus opulifolius],
sixty euonymus [Euonymus atropurpureus] and forty snowberry
shrubs [Symphoricarpos albus] for the
Olmsted and Vaux (3 Ann Rep Comm, 1887), also made reference to the density of the central woods when they recommended "numerous trails through the thick woods." Walkers on these foot-paths would enjoy "forest seclusions," indicating the visible impenetrability of the primal forest.
To Welch's thinking, echoed by Olmsted and Vaux, there were thicket or
dense shrub communities on
Evidence for the nature of this disturbance, with respect to the forest
Other evidence that winter storms were typical of conditions on the
The type of primeval or climax forest on Goat Island must have been a kind
of disclimax, or modification of a primary climax forest, that is, a climax
community depending for its maintenance on continuing disturbance
(Daubenmire, 1968). The source of disturbance in the central woods was winter
winds, aggravated, perhaps, by the lack of structural cohesiveness of the
sediments underlaying the forest and by the weight of ice in the canopy.
Climax communities without persistent disturbance in their environment, such
as by fire, "usually exhibit a mosaic of rather well-defined climaxes
that are relatively simple in their floristic composition. As disturbance
begins, the distinctiveness of floras among the ecosystems declines and
floristic complexity increases ..." (Daubenmire, 1968). A true disclimax
community, classically, will eventually develop its own distinctiveness and
reduction in floristic complexity. However, on
The frequency of what appears to be White Pine in the old photographs and drawings of the Goat Island forest may also be accounted in part by the relatively frequent blowdowns in the forest dominated by Sugar Maple, seedlings of White Pine requiring "at least 20 percent of full sunlight ... to keep ... seedlings alive" (Fowells, 1965). Although generally this species is considered a part of the climax forest throughout the extent of its range, "in Canada it is considered that many of the present white pine stands are edaphic or pyric relics and that present climatic conditions are against its maintenance as a major species" (Fowells, 1965).
Additional indirect evidence for the presence of White Pine in the
Day makes the enigmatic statement that both the White Pine and the Hemlock
"are not as plentiful upon the island as their beauty demands. They
should be at once, and largely, replanted" (Day, 1901). The suggestion
here is that by 1901 these species had been removed from the
Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) occurs in the literature of
the Commission reports and in photographs. It enjoys growing on the crestline
areas along the
It is possible that only the side of the islands exposed to the direct
force of the wind suffered from extensive blowdown - especially in its oldest
trees. It is convenient that the surface sediments on the south side of
Again, the reported frequency of windthrow may have been in part the result of modifications in the natural woodland structure by the developers: "windthrow is most prevalent among trees growing in dense stands that, through logging or natural damage, are suddenly exposed to the full force of the wind" (Smith, 1966).
But for openings in the canopy by blowdown, or windthrow, the canopy appears to have been a dense and dark ceiling. How dark may be seen in a photograph of the forest just back from the crest of Goat Island, on the island's western end, included in the 28 Annual Report of the Commissioners for 1912 (reprinted above). This area today is completely clear but for "shade trees." In the first few decades of the Reservation's existence, the canopy afforded such dense shade that the rain and mist did not evaporate and the dirt and gravel roads remained difficult. "Portions of the roads on Goat Island are so thickly shaded by the primitive forest that mud remains upon them ... long after the rain has ceased" (6 Ann Rep Comm, 1890).
In the 25 (1909) and 27th (1911) Annual Report of the Commissioners a photograph was included that shows another side of the density and complex structure of the primeval central woods. Vegetation along the path and beneath the tree/shrub layer was dense. In both pictures, however, there are extensive "light-wells" from openings in the canopy above. These openings may have been made as the path was constructed and trees removed, but the density of the surrounding vegetation was well established by the time the pictures were taken. If winter storms removed some large trees every winter, open canopy in many places would result naturally.
The Superintendent described the woodland response to severe gales in 1909 as follows: "the soil, especially on Goat Island, was very soft affording but little support to the trees which first rocked gently then with increasing force until many of the finest ones, those overtopping the surrounding forest by many feet thereby presenting large areas of exposed surface, were blown down, carrying many smaller ones with them" (26 Ann Rep Comm, 1910).
For an alternative discussion of "thickets" see the section on crest vegetation below.
Perhaps it is through the open patches of the primeval canopy that can be attributed the unusual abundance of the woodland flora. Reports for woodland herbaceous species occurring in "profusion" by Day (1901) and others include the two species of Hepatica, both now extirpated from Goat Island, of Squirrel-corn and Dutchman's breeches (Dicentra), "noted for their abundance and beauty" of Toothwort (Dentaria diphylla), Spring Cress (Cardamine douglassii) now absent from the island, and Lyre-leaved Rock Cress (Arabis lyrata), also now absent, and the Violets (Viola cuculata, V. rostrata, V. pubescens and V. canadensis, Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), Spring-Beauty (Claytonia caroliniana), the Wild Crane's-bill (Geranium maculatum) both presently extirpated, as are the Early Saxifrage (Saxifraga virginiana), Foam Flower (Tiarella cordifolia), Miterwort (Mitella diphylla), Blue Phlox (Phlox divaricata), Green Valerian (Polemonium reptans), Large-Flowered Bellwort (Uvularia grandiflora) among others. Much of the ground cover then was probably as it is now, Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus) and young Grape (Vitis riparia).
Chamberlin (1892) and Day (1901) both noted Sugar Maple being the primary
tree species in the
Day (1901) noted the presence of Red, Silver and Mountain Maples (Acer
spicatum) in the
Native Thorn on the island prior to 1901 included Crataegus coccinea,
C. tomentosa and C. crus-galli), both species of
Elder (Sambucus canadensis and S. pubens), and of
the Dogwoods Cornus florida and five others and six Viburnums -
unfortunately Day includes the shrubs of the banks of the Niagara Gorge in
his list, but today both Elders may be found on the island in the woods, Cornus
stolonifera, C. racemosa and C. rugosa on
the margin of the woods and many Cornus alternifolia throughout
and of good size. No native Viburnums presently exist on the island. Day also
does not report Ash as abundant on the island. Basswood (Tilia
The girth of the trees ranged downward from the five-foot in diameter specimen of Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) blown down in 1889 (6 Ann Rep Comm, 1890), the largest tree on the island. Trees were blown down during the winter storm of 1909 and "many of these trees were noble specimens being two to five feet in diameter, some of them without a blemish" (26 Ann Rep Comm, 1910). The sizes of the trees of this untouched woods must be inferred from allusions made to them in the literature, for example the "wonderful development" of the Black Cherry. In pure stands, dominant Black Cherry trees may reach a diameter of 10 to 24 inches in 50 to 60 years (Fowells, 1965) and today the one Black Cherry noted in the central woods measured sixteen inches. A "magnificent specimen" of Tulip-tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) grew in the woods (Day, 1901), a tree which can reach diameters of ten feet, with second-growth trees attaining diameters of 18 to 24 inches in 50 to 60 years (Fowells, 1965). The Basswood was of an "extraordinary size and beauty." This tree on a good site can have a four foot diameter (Fowells, 1965), a far cry from the single five inch diameter tree which crossed the transect line in the present study. Much larger trees occur in the south slope and that to the north (to thirteen inches diameter). For comparison, fourteen of thirty-six trees blown down on the Three Sisters Islands in 1890 were each two feet in diameter (basswood, elm, beech, ironwood (hop-hornbeam), maple, Arbor Vitae, red cedar, pine, white oak and hemlock). "Two of the elms were three feet in diameter" (7 Ann Rep Comm, 1891).
The largest native tree diameters are presently those of the White Ash (31
inches on the transect), Sugar Maple (25 inches) and the occasional American
The path-side Arbor Vitae and Red Cedars, the Hemlock and Yew (Taxus canadensis) noted by Chamberlin (1892) are all absent from the present forest.
The original and presumably central mandate of the Reservation
administration was and is to preserve the native, primeval vegetation and to
reforest or revegetate lands adjacent to
Nowhere is this more apparent than in the decision to "clean"
the woods up, that is, to remove dead trees from the central woods, both by
cutting standing trees and removing those that have fallen, initiated after
the death of Superintendent Welch in 1903. Without a rationale for such
"improvements" to the primitive forest, the Commissioners declared
in 1911 that "in the forests dead and dying timber must be replaced by
young trees" (28 Ann Rep Comm, 1912). This presaged a purgation or
sanitization of the woods. In that year began the "general cleaning up
in the woods of the dead and fallen timber, brush and vines" (28 Ann Rep
Comm, 1912). Under Superintendent Eckert, succeeding to Harries,
"several hundred old tree stumps were dynamited and a large number of
dead trees felled and removed from the forest" (29 Ann Rep Comm, 1913).
In 1908 "a large amount of work has been done toward cleaning the forest
It was this very tangle of nameless underbrush and vines that was the
essence of the native forest, the fallen wood, the blowdowns an essential
part of the character of the primitive woods. Fallen tree trunks and branches
also contribute to the visual complexity and aesthetic values of a natural
environment, such as
At the same time as the woods was being "cleansed," trees and shrubs were continuously being planted on the Reservation, such as the ten thousand trees and six hundred shrubs planted on the islands and the mainland in 1912 (28 Ann Rep Comm, 1913). Rather than planted according to a thoughtful plan regarding extending the primitive forest, these plantings were on the order of "shade trees" - a type of tree not present in the native forest. These were the sorts of trees which required pruning, trimming, spraying with arsenate of lead to ward off insects, characteristic of the policy of the Superintendent around 1910. Lawns invariably surround such trees - in other words, a totally different, artificial ecology was being instituted to replace the native one. "For twenty-six years conditions have been steadily improving, but year by year the burden of proper maintenance has become more exacting and more costly ... with the growth in the number of shade-trees and their insect enemies greater care and greater expense are required to hold these pests in check. In the forests dead and dying timber must be replaced by young trees" (28 Ann Rep Comm, 1912). The State thus began its expensive commitment to the maintenance and development of an urban park, rather than the primitive forest, and the New York State Legislature was asked to produce more money for "upkeep of the grounds." This policy of removing "brush," that is, Dogwood, Frost Grape, native Virginia Creeper is still in place today and is destructive of the native ecosystem.
Fallen tree-boles, when they are well rotted, maintain a higher
water-balance in the forest as well as provide centers of protection, warmth
and moisture conducive to the germination of seeds in natural forest
regeneration. Removal of fallen trees may terminate the ability of certain
species, such as Hemlock, to regenerate in the forest and are notably absent
from the central woods interior today. Nutrients provided by the environment
spent in the growth and structure of the bodies of native trees and shrubs is
continually being removed from that environment. The absence of ferns from
The process of decay involves many living things, and decaying tree boles provide a substrate for a wealth of inconspicuous organisms, primarily of fungi, of which Goat Island displays a great potential (see mycological list), and of lichens, mosses and liverworts, not to mention habitats for insects, snails and small animals. Standing trees provide habitat for bee and other insect colonies, useful or critical in the pollination of native plants and dispersal of their seed, and yielding a food source for other animals, such as birds. Birds and mammals nest in the dead boles. The species diversity and abundance of the island, remarked upon by eminent naturalists when it stood intact at the Reservation's inception, is and has been impoverished by the removal of this material.
Part of the original forest was once described by Superintendent Welch as
a thicket, that is, it was very dense and visually impenetrable, as can be
seen in many of the photographs of woodland path systems established on
The central forest possesses little native thicket boundary typical of
woods where the canopy ends, especially on the edge on the south facing the
direction of the wind. What native thickets there are are composed of Panicled
and Red-osier Dogwood (Cornus racemosa and C. stolonifera),
Purple-flowering Raspberry (Rubus odoratus and more in the
shade, Elder (Sambucus pubens). On the southwestern margin of
the central woods the understory of the forest has been removed, the trees
thinned out and lawns established for a picnic area. This area is where the
forest receives the most wind and the spray from the
Unimpeded winds in the forest stress microhabitats, removing cells of moist, warm, still air from moisture-sensitive organisms, such as bryophytes and fungi, tending to reduce the number of microhabitats and hence the potential and actual species diversity.
Without the forest structure to block them, strong winds evaporate the moisture that drifts over the island intermittently, and carry more of it away. Mist can be felt at the extreme east end of the island during strong winds. This wind desiccates the woodland soils and habitats increasing evapo-transpiration regimes for spring ephemerals and other woodland species that would otherwise benefit from this added water. Desiccation may prevent the germination or success of the seedlings spring vegetation, to the detriment of natural forest recovery, especially without the development of a vegetable mold from rotted tree material.
In one recent study, it was recommended that "cluster plantings should be introduced, especially in viewing areas to provide wind breaks and shaded areas for moderating climatic extremes. Clustered groups also appear more natural and will require less staking than separately planted trees" (The Promontory Partnership, 1981). Clustered plantings would include a brake of shrubs on the windward side.
Perhaps the most important factor in maintaining lush vegetation was the
atmospheric moisture developed from the mist of the
This exposure to low temperature and ice burden, and strong wind may contribute to trunk rupture of various kinds at various times of year in trees, especially old or otherwise vulnerable ones. Many of the trunks in the central woods display bursting and deformations along their trunks. This stressful environment may contribute to vulnerability to disease, which compounds the problem.
If the forest is thinned of trees removed for aesthetic policy reasons, because of deformity, etc., associated increase in environmental stress from weakening of the forest structure may produce more diseased and deformed trees initiating a vicious cycle of a policy of continued woodland depletion leading to extermination of the forest.
The forest edge seems unusually naked for an old-growth forest. The
cultivated lawns extend right up to the forest edge and the ground passes on
into the canopied areas as exposed soil and gravel. Visually significant
species of the present developing edge include several vines: two species of
Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia and P. vitacea),
and especially River Grape (Vitis riparia). Occasionally the
latter is so dense as to smother or destroy the vegetation over which it
grows and this necessary growth and protective screen is the subject of
concentrated efforts of removal. Natural, mature stands of Grape and Virginia
Creeper are quite spectacular and visually attractive in addition to being
essential members of the edge plant-community. The sacrifice of some trees
and shrubs at the forest boundary as an auxiliary to their growth is part of
the natural dynamics of the
Pending further observation, it appears as though Grape populations are fundamental to the recovery of vegetated areas which have lost their forest cover. The apparent difficulty of horticultural species to survive in natural conditions in the wet ends of the islands does not appear to reflect any inability on the part of the native forest cover to establish itself in the original ecosystem. Observation of extensive populations of grape in these areas today, and from historic information suggests the native Grape actually may be critical in screening the destructive elements from the trees and shrubs developing beneath and behind it. In time the young (shade-tolerant) vegetation would emerge through the temporary Grape canopy, the entire community always dense and structurally able to withstand excessive moisture, ice and wind (see discussion on the crest vegetation).
Native thicket species are being presently replaced by the planting of ornamental shrubs, some known as noxious weeds, on some of the woods boundaries, such as Acanthopanax, Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) and a horticultural species of Dogwood (possibly Cornus sanguinea, see species catalogue). The Buckthorn is already beginning to infest the depleted woods interior. How much of the occurrence of the ornamental Dogwood is due to planting or natural dispersal will tell whether this species will become noxious in the future.
Selective reduction to the point of elimination of the native understory,
traditionally treated as "brush," has exposed the forest floor to
the invasion of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria officinalis). This
alien species forms dark green carpets in all woody borders and throughout
the central woods, vivid throughout the winter, when it gets an advantage
over the present spring ephemeral flora. This species forms monocultures. In
a stand of "naturally regenerating" woods along the lower Niagara
River in Ontario, Garlic Mustard grows taller than the spring woodland
wildflowers, shading them out and will perhaps destroy them in the decades
ahead. Another potential weed pest in danger of infesting the natural wooded
areas is Celandine (Chelidonium majus), which is already well
established on the terrace or wooded slopes of the mainland facing
The establishment and maintenance of extensive lawns constituting monocultures of one or two grass species and alien weeds constitutes the most significant substitution for the native habitats. Mowing in particular contributes to the suppression of native forest recovery, especially at the forest edges. The road system, including the west parking lot, bounds the central forest on all margins except the eastern one. An extensive grassy verge is maintained beside all roads except the mid-forest road.
Selective thinning seems to have left behind an overabundance of two tree
species (Acer saccharum and Fraxinus
Forest disease evidenced appears to affect mostly Ash species, such as Fraxinus
Winter storms may still be seen to blow down trees in the native woodlands
In a condition with the woods very much thinned, dead standing tree boles may contribute significantly to what structural integrity the woods may still possess to withstand the prevailing winds, especially in winter, both in the upper layers, and maintaining unevenness or irregularity (microhabitats) on the forest floor. Olmsted and Vaux recognized both the destructive effect of the wind on the island's trees and the exposure to this effect by thinning or opening up the forest - "We feel ... that the road should be as narrow as it can be and tolerably answer its purpose, because at best many trees must be destroyed to make way for it, and the wider the opening the more havoc will storms make with trees left standing near by" (Olmsted and Vaux, 1887).
The eastern end of the central woods bordering on the Meadow area on
Examples of inappropriate use of the central forest is as a storage area for dumping garden soil, gravel, stakes, transplanted trees still with their roots in burlap, and other material used in maintenance of the Reservation. Large vehicles are used to dump and load this material, which destroys forest vegetation and soils and creates a large area of weedy plant and shrub species within the forest interior.
In a recent study, it was recommended to "allow existing forests to become more "natural" by establishing a "hands-off" maintenance policy that allows trees to age and die naturally, returning nutrients to the soil" (The Promontory Partnership, 1981).
A curious section of the central forest, on its eastern and northern boundary, is an area of extremely old trees associated with the old stone "horse barn" building that, during the past decade, has been in the process of being restored following nineteenth century records. Surrounding this building and adjacent to the central forest are a series of horticultural trees that must have been planted as part of a restoration scheme when, or shortly after, the Reservation was established.
In a history of Waterloo, Kingman County, Kansas website (2005) there is a curious quote or paraphrase from Irene Berghamp's book: Kingman County, Kansas, and its People, modified by the Kingman County Historical Society, 1984 that may provide a glimpse into the mind of the designer of this section not only of Goat Island, but of the other little parks established to the north and downstream along the gorge rim at Devil's Hole and Whirlpool State Park:
"A grove of trees, north of the ball
diamond, still stands today as a living memorial to John W. Riggs,
nurseryman. He came to
Two very old trees of the Manchurian tree: * Eucommia
ulmoides Oliver, Hardy Rubber Tree (see vascular plant species list for
Goat Island) occur in this area - one behind the stone building and another
close to the road that cuts through the center of the forest. Behind the
stone building also occur very old * Castanea mollissima Blume Chinese
Chestnut, and * Juglans regia L. Persian or English Walnut.
Native Acer (Maple), Carya (
English Oak (Quercus robur L.) has been
planted by the Cave of the Winds; there is a great White Mulberry (Morus
alba L.) from
It is tempting to imagine the USDA had a program
for distributing exotic trees in American parks in the 1880's, or giving
advice about their establishment, were it not for the early zeal for
arboretum quality species developed on the Canadian side near the
[January 2006] Several mature trees exist on the west end of the forest in the lawn verge beside the large parking lot located there (on its eastern edge). A grove of Fabaceous trees occur there with a Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) presenting a pretty assemblage of trees with compound leaves: Black Locust (Robinia pseudacacia L.), Honey Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos L.) and Japanese Pagoda-tree (Sophora japonica L.). Presumably when all three of these last trees produce long pendulous flower clusters in the spring that this is an attractive sight - a departure from the restoration goal for which the Reservation was first established.
Acer negundo BOX ELDER. Young - removal is highly recommended - this becomes a noxious weed (monoculture) as it presently is on the southwest slopes.
Acer saccharum SUGAR MAPLE.
Acer nigrum BLACK MAPLE.
Aesculus hippocastanum HORSE-CHESTNUT.
Carya cordiformis BITTERNUT HICKORY.
Celtis occidentalis HACKBERRY.
[Fagus grandifolia BEECH. Once abundant, none were observed in the interior of the central woods, it is doubtful if this tree should be considered a present member of the woodland community, although one mature tree can be found beside the loop road as the road leaves the vehicular bridge on the edge of the forest and within its shade. It is probable that at an earlier time, before the woods was deeply modified, this species formed a larger component of the forest.]
Ostrya virginiana HOP-HORNBEAM. Frequent.
Prunus avium BIRD CHERRY. Southwest section.
Prunus serotina BLACK CHERRY.
SHRUBS AND VINES
Cornus alternifolia ALTERNATE-LEAVED DOGWOOD. Mature sizes throughout the woods.
Lindera benzoin SPICEBUSH.
Menispermum canadense MOONSEED. Ground cover, west end.
Parthenocissus quinquefolia VIRGINIA CREEPER. Ground cover.
Parthenocissus vitacea DISCLESS VIRGINIA CREEPER. Ground cover.
Prunus virginiana CHOKECHERRY.
Rhus radicans POISON IVY.
Ribes cynosbati PRICKLY GOOSEBERRY.
Ribes sativum RED CURRENT.
Rubus odoratus PURPLE-FLOWERING RASPBERRY.
Rubus strigosus RED RASPBERRY.
Sambucus pubens RED-BERRIED ELDER.
* Viburnum lantana L. WAYFARING-TREE.
Vitis riparia FROST GRAPE.
Most of the herbaceous vegetation (spring ephemerals) occur only in the western section of the woods. Several delicate grasses were observed but not collected - these are probably a species of Muhlenbergia or Poa nemoralis.
Alliaria officinalis GARLIC MUSTARD.
Allium tricoccum RAMP. Once abundant (Day, 1888), only one patch seen.
Arisaema triphyllum JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT.
Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt. STARVED ASTER, wood’s edge of big west parking lot (2011).
Carex rosea ROSE SEDGE. Woods margins.
Circaea quadrisulcata ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE. Abundant.
Dentaria laciniata CUT-LEAVED TOOTHWORT. Abundant.
Dicentra canadensis SQUIRREL-CORN. Reduced to one or two patches.
Dicentra cucullaria DUTCHMAN'S BREECHED. Frequent.
Erythronium americanum YELLOW ADDER'S TONGUE. Frequent, especially at the bases of trees.
Eupatorium rugosum WHITE SNAKE-ROOT.
Geum canadense WHITE AVENS. Frequent.
* Glechoma hederacea GILL-OVER-THE-GROUND.
* Narcissus pseudo-narcissus L. DAFFODIL. Scattered individuals were found escaped into the central woods from extensive populations planted on the woods margins.
Podophyllum peltatum MAY-APPLE. "Abundant," Day, 1888.
Scrophularia marilandica MARYLAND FIGWORT.
Smilacina racemosa FALSE SOLOMON'S SEAL.
Smilacina stellata STAR-FLOWERED FALSE SOLOMON'S SEAL.
Solidago canadensis CANADA GOLDENROD.
Trillium grandiflorum WHITE TRILLIUM. Abundant.
Trillium erectum RED TRILLIUM. Occasional.
Triosteum perfoliatum var. aurantiacum ORANGE HORSE-GENTIAN.
EXTIRPATED FROM THE GOAT
(see species catalogue):
Arabis lyrata LYRE-LEAVED ROCK CRESS.
Asarum canadense WILD GINGER.
Aster divaricatus WHITE WOOD ASTER.
Aster macrophyllus LARGE-LEAVED ASTER.
Botrychium virginianum RATTLESNAKE FERN.
Cardamine douglassii PURPLE SPRING CRESS.
Caulophyllum thalictroides BLUE COHOSH "Abundant," Day, 1888.
Claytonia caroliniana BROAD-LEAVED SPRING BEAUTY.
Cubelium concolor GREEN VIOLET.
"near the center of
Dentaria diphylla TWO-LEAVED TOOTHWORT. "notable for their abundance and beauty," Day, 1901.
Disporum lanuginosum YELLOW MANDARIN.
Geranium maculatum L. WILD CRANE'S-BILL.
Hepatica acutilobula SHARP-LOBED HEPATICA. "Profuse," Day, 1901.
Juniperus communis LOW JUNIPER.
Juniperus virginiana RED CEDAR.
Mitella diphylla MITERWORT.
Phlox divaricata BLUE PHLOX
Polemonium reptans GREEK VALERIAN.
Quercus alba WHITE OAK.
Saxifraga virginiana FOAM FLOWER.
Streptopus roseus TWISTED-STALK.
Taxus canadensis GROUND HEMLOCK.
Thalictrum dioicum EARLY MEADOW-RUE.
Tiarella cordifolia FOAM-FLOWER.
Uvularia grandiflora LARGE-FLOWERED BELLWORT.
Uvularia sessilifolia SESSILE-LEAVED BELLWORT.
Viola canadensis CANADA VIOLET.
Viola cuculata MARSH BLUE VIOLET.
Viola pubescens DOWNY YELLOW VIOLET.
Viola rostrata LONG-SPURRED VIOLET.
CENTRAL WOODS BRYOPHYTES
Fissidens bryoides. Thin soil on limestone cobbles.
Thuidium pygmaeum. Thin soil on limestone cobbles.