A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LITERATURE
ON PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS N - Z

Richard H. Zander
Buffalo Museum of Science
1020 Humboldt Parkway
Buffalo, NY 14211
www.buffalomuseumofscience.org
Feb. 21, 2001

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A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LITERATURE ON PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS N - Z

About 2700 entries, some are duplicates. This file is N through Z.

 

Nagel, E. & J. R. Newman. 1974. Gödel's Proof. Ninth Printing. New York University Press, N.Y.

Nanney, D. L., R. M. Preparata, F. P. Preparata, E. B. Meyer, and E. M. Simon. 1989. Shifting ditypic site analysis: heuristics for expanding the phylogenetic range of nucleotide sequences in Sankoff analyses. Journal of Molecular Evolution 28: 451-459.

Narang, N., S. Narang, and J. B. Kitzmiller.

Nastansky, L., S. M. Selkow and N. F. Stewart. 1974. An improved solution to the generalized Camin-Sokal model for numerical cladistics. Journal of Theoretical Biology 48: 413-424.

Naylor, G. J. P. 1992. Plotting frequency distributions of phylogenetic groupings found among sets of most parsimonious trees. Cladistics 8: 161-164.

Naylor, G. J. P. 1992. The phylogenetic relationships among Requiem and Hammerhead Sharks: Inferring phylogeny when thousands of equally parsimonious trees result. Cladistics 8: 295-318.

Naylor, G. J. P. & W. M. Brown. 1997. Structural biology and phylogenetic estimation. Nature 388: 527–528.

Naylor, G. J. P. 1992. Plotting frequency distributions of phylogenetic groupings found among sets of most parsimonious trees. Cladistics 8: 161–164.

Neale, D. B, N. C. Wheeler, and R. W. Allard. 1986. Paternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA in Douglas-fir. Canadian Journal of Forest Res. 16: 1152-1154.

Neale, J. M. & R. M. Liebert. 1973. Science and behavior: an introduction to methods of research. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Neff, N. A. 1986. A rational basis for a priori character weighting. Systematic Zoology 35: 110-123.

Neff, N. A. 1987. An analysis of the sensitivity of minimum length (Wagner) tree topology to changes in data. Systematic Zoology 36: 227-236.

Nei, M. 1972. Genetic distance between populations. American Naturalist 106: 283-292.

Nei, M. 1987. Molecular evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New York.

Nei, M. 1987. Molecular evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New York.

Nei, M. and W.-H. Li. 1979. Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 76: 5269-5273.

Nei, M. & N. Takezaki. 1996. The root of the phylogenetic tree of human populations. Mol. Biol. Evol. 13: 170–177.

Nei, M. 1987. Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. Columbia Univ. Press, N.Y.

Nei, M., F. Tajima, and Y. Tateno. 1983. Accuracy of phylogenetic trees from molecular data II. Gene frequency data. Journal of Molecular Evolution 19: 153-170.

Nei, M., S. Kumar & K. Takahashi. 1998. The optimization principle in phylogenetic analysis tends to give incorecct topologies when the number of nucleotides or amino acids used is small. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 95: 12890-12397.

Neigel, J. E. & J. C. Avise. 1986. Phylogenetic relationships of mitochondrial DNA under various demographic models of speciation. Pp. 515-533 in Evolutionary processes and theory, eds. S. Karlin & E. Nevo. Academic Press: Orlando, Florida.

Nelson G, Platnick NI. 1981. "Systematics and biogeography: Cladistics and vicariance." New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

Nelson, C. H. 1978. Recognition of convergence and parallelism on Wagner trees. Systematic Zoology 27: 122-124.

Nelson, C. H. & G. S. Van Horn. 1975. A new, simplified method for constructing Wagner networks and the cladistics of Pentacheta (Compositae, Astereae). Brittonia 27: 362-372. cladistics g

Nelson, C. H. and G. S. Van Horn. 1975. A new simplified method for constructing Wagner networks and the cladistics of Pentachaeta (Compositae, Astereae). Brittonia 27: 362-372.

Nelson, G. 1979. Cladistic analysis and synthesis: principles and definitions, with a historical not on Adanson's Familles des Plantes (1763-1764). Systematic Zoology 28: 1-21.

Nelson, G. 1978. Ontogeny, phylogeny, palaeontology, and the biogenetic law Systematic Zoology, 27, 324-345.

Nelson, G. 1985. Outgroups and ontogeny Cladistics, 1, 29-45.

Nelson, G. 1989a. Cladistics and evolutionary models Cladistics, 5, 275-289.

Nelson, G. 1989b. Species and taxa: systematics and evolution in Speciation and its Consequences Eds. D. Otte and J. A. Endler, pp. 60-81, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Nelson, G. J. 1969. The problem of historical biogeography. Systematic Zoology 18: 243-246.

Nelson, G. J. 1971. "Cladism" as a philosophy of classification. Systematic Zoology 20: 373-376.

Nelson, G. J. 1972. "Science or politics?": A reply to H. F. Howden. Systematic Zoology 21: 341-342.

Nelson, G. J. 1972. Comments on Hennig's "phylogenetic systematics" and its influence on Ichthyology. Systematic Zoology 21: 364-374.

Nelson, G. J. 1972. Phylogenetic relationship and classification. Systematic Zoology 21: 227-231.

Nelson, G. J. 1972. Review of: Die rekonstruktion der phylogenese mit Hennig's Prinzip. Systematic Zoology 21: 350-352.

Nelson, G. J. 1972. Review of: Methoden der phylogenetik. Symposium von 12. bis 13. Februar 1970 im I. Zoologischen Institut der Universitot Erlangen-N³rnberg. Systematic Zoology 21: 451.

Nelson, G. J. 1973. "Monophyly again?"-A reply to P. D. Ashlock. Systematic Zoology 22: 310-312.

Nelson, G. J. 1973. Classification as an expression of phylogenetic relationships. Systematic Zoology 22: 344-359.

Nelson, G. J. 1973. Comments on Leon Croizat's biogeography. Systematic Zoology 22: 312-320.

Nelson, G. J. 1973. Negative gains and positive losses: A reply to J. C. Lundberg. Systematic Zoology 22: 330.

Nelson, G. J. 1973. The higher-level phylogeny of vertebrates. Systematic Zoology 22: 87-91.

Nelson, G. J. 1974. Darwin-Hennig classification: A reply to Ernst Mayr. Systematic Zoology 23: 452-458.

Nelson, G. J. 1974. Historical biogeography: An alternative formalization. Systematic Zoology 23: 555-558.

Nelson, G. J. 1977. A reply. Systematic Zoology 26: 91.

Nelson, G. J. 1978. Classification and prediction: A reply to Kitts. Systematic Zoology 27: 216-218.

Nelson, G. J. 1978. Ontogeny, phylogeny, paleontology, and the biogenetic law. Systematic Zoology 27: 324-345.

Nelson, G. J. 1978. Review of: BiogÚographie et evolution en AmÚrique tropicale. Systematic Zoology 27: 484-487.

Nelson, G. J. 1978. The perils of perfection: A reply to D. H. Colless. Systematic Zoology 27: 124.

Nelson, G. J. 1979. Cladistic analysis and synthesis: Principles and definitions, with a historical note on Adanson's Families des Plantes (1763-1764). Systematic Zoology 28: 1-21.

Nelson, G. J. 1982. Cladistique et biogeographie. Comptes Rendue de la Societe de Biogeographie 58: 75-94.

Nelson, G. J. 1983. Reticulation in Cladograms. In N. I. Platnick and V. A. Funk, [eds.], Advances in Cladistics: Proceedings of the Second meeting of the Willi Hennig Society, pages 105-111. New York: Columbia University Press.

Nelson, G. J. 1984. Cladistics and biogeography. In: T. Duncan and T. F. Stuessy, [eds.], Cladistics: perspectives on the reconstruction of evolutionary history, 273-293. Columbia University Press, New York.

Nelson, G. J. 1985. Class and individual: A reply to M. Ghiselin. Cladistics 1: 386-389.

Nelson, G. J. 1985. Outgroups and ontogeny. Cladistics 1: 29-45.

Nelson, G. J. 1989. Cladistics and evolutionary models. Cladistics 5: 275-289.

Nelson, G. J. 1990. Review of: The politics of evolution: Morphology, medicine, and reform in radical London. Systematic Zoology 39: 303-304.

Nelson, G. J. 1991. Review of: Principles of geology being an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth's surface by reference to causes now in operation. Systematic Zoology 40: 503.

Nelson, G. J. 1992. Reply to Harvey. Cladistics 8: 355-360.

Nelson, G. J. 1992. Review of: The meaning of evolution: The morphological construction and ideological reconstruction of Darwin's theory. Systematic Biology 41: 496-497.

Nelson, G. J. 1992. Why, after all, must it? Cladistics 8: 139-146.

Nelson, G. J. 1993. Reply. Cladistics 9: 261-265.

Nelson, G. J. 1993. Why crusade against consensus? A reply to Barrett, Donoghue, and Sober. Systematic Biology 42: 215-216.

Nelson, G. J. & D. E. Rosen (eds.). 1981. Vicariance Biogeography. Columbia Univ. Press, New York. cladistics floristics

Nelson, G. J. 1972. Phylogenetic relationship and classification. Syst. Zool. 21: 227-231.

Nelson, G. J. 1974. Classification as an expression of phylogenetic relationships. Syst. Zool. 22: 344-359.

Nelson, G. J. 1979. Cladistic analysis and synthesis: principles and definitions, with a historical note on Adanson's "Familles de plants" (1763-1764). Syst. Zool. 28: 1-21. requ

Nelson, G. J. 1983. Reticulation in cladograms. In N. I. Platnick & V. A. Funk (eds.), Advances in Cladistics, Vol. 2: 105-111..

Nelson, G. J. 1989. Cladistics and evolutionary models. Cladistics 5: 275-289.

Nelson, G. J. and D. E. Rosen. 1981. Vicariance Biogeography: A Critique. Columbia University Press, New York.

Nelson, G. J. and N. I. Platnick. 1978. The perils of plesiomorphy: Widespread taxa, dispersal, and phenetic biogeography. Systematic Zoology 27: 474-477.

Nelson, G. J. and N. I. Platnick. 1980. Multiple branching in cladograms: Two interpretations. Systematic Zoology 29: 86-91.

Nelson, G. J. and N. I. Platnick. 1991. Three-taxon statements: A more precise use of parsimony? Cladistics 7: 351-366.

Nelson, G. J. and N.I. Platnick. 1981. Systematics and Biogeography: Cladistics and Vicariance. Columbia University Press, New York.

Nelson, G. J. and P. Y. Ladiges. 1991. Three-area statements: Standard assumptions for biogeographic analysis. Systematic Zoology 40: 470-485.

Nelson, G. J. and P. Y. Ladiges. 1993. Missing data and three-item analysis. Cladistics 9: 111-113.

Nelson, Gareth G., & Norman I. Platnick. 1981. Systematics and Biogeography: Cladistics and Vicariance. New York: Columbia University Press.

Nelson. G. J. 1971. Paraphyly and polyphyly: Redefinitions. Systematic Zoology 20: 471-472.

Neticks, F. G. 1978. Derived characters I have known. Systematic Zoology 27: 238-239.

Newmark, J. 1977. Statistics and Probability in Modern Life. 2nd Ed. Hold, Rinehart & Winston, New York.

Nickrent, D. L., C. L. Parkinson, J. D. Palmer & R. J. Duff. 2000. Multigene phylogeny of land plants with special reference to bryophytes and the earliest land plants. Mol. Biol. Evol. 17: 1885-1895.

Nijhout, H. F., G. A. Wray, C. Kremen, and C. K. Teragawa. 1986. Ontogeny, phylogeny and evolution of form: An algorithmic approach. Systematic Zoology 35: 445-457.

Niklas, K. 1980. Paleobiochemical techniques and their application to paleobotany. Progress in Phytochemistry: 143-182.

Nixon, K. C. & Q. D. Wheeler. 1990. An amplification of the phylogenetic species concept. Cladistics 6: 211-223.

Nixon, K. C. 1991. Clados version 1.0 (computer program and manual). Distributed by the author. Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.

Nixon, K. C. 1992. Clados, Version 1.2, Distributed by the author, Ithaca, New York.

Nixon, K. C. 1993. Dada version 0.85 (compter program; pre-release version). Distributed by the author.

Nixon, K. C. 1996. Paleobotany in cladistics and cladistics in paleobotany: enlightenment and uncertainty Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 90, 361-373.

Nixon, K. C. and J. I. Davis. 1991. Polymorphic taxa, missing values and cladistic analysis. Cladistics 7: 233-241.

Nixon, K. C. and J. M. Carpenter. 1993. On outgroups. Cladistics 9: 413-426.

Nixon, K. C. and J. M. Carpenter. 1996. On simultaneous analysis. Cladistics, 12:221-241.

Nixon, K. C. and Q. D. Wheeler. 1990. An amplification of the phylogenetic species concept. Cladistics 6: 211-223.

Nixon, K. C., and Carpenter, J. M. 1993. On outgroups Cladistics, 9, 413-426.

Nixon, K. C., and Davis, J. I. 1991. Polymorphic taxa, missing values and cladistic analysis Cladistics, 7, 233-242.

Noonan, G. R. 1984. Review of: Evolution, time and space: The emergence of the biosphere. Systematic Zoology 33: 123-126.

Noonan, G. R. 1988. Biogeography of North American and Mexican insects, and a critique of vicariance biogeography. Systematic Zoology 37: 366-384.

Norell, M. A. 1992. Taxic origin and temporal diversity: the effect of phylogeny in Extinction and Phylogeny Eds. M. M. Miyamoto and Q. D. Wheeler, pp. 89-118, Columbia University Press, New York.

Norell, M. A. 1993. Tree-based approaches to understanding history: comments on ranks, rules, and the quality of the fossil record American Journal of Science, 293-A, 407-417.

Norell, M. A. 1993. Tree-based approaches to understanding history: comments on ranks, rules, and the quality of the fossil record American Journal of Science, 293-A, 407-417.

Norell, M. A. 1996. Review of Wagner 1995 Paleobiology,

Norell, M. A. 1996. Review of Wagner 1995 Paleobiology,

Norell, M. A. and M. J. Novacek. 1992. Congruence between superpositional and phylogenetic patterns: Comparing cladistic patterns with fossil records. Cladistics 8: 319-337.

Norell, M. A. and M. J. Novacek. 1992b. Congruence between superpositional and phylogenetic patterns: comparing cladistic patterns with fossil records. Cladistics, 8:319-337.

Norell, M. A. and M. J. Novacek. 1992b. Congruence between superpositional and phylogenetic patterns: comparing cladistic patterns with fossil records. Cladistics, 8:319-337.

Norell, M. A., and Novacek, M. J. 1992a. The fossil record and evolution: comparing cladistic and paleontologic evidence for vertebrate evolution Science, 255, 1690-1693.

Norell, M. A., and Novacek, M. J. 1992a. The fossil record and evolution: comparing cladistic and paleontologic evidence for vertebrate evolution Science, 255, 1690-1693.

Northington, D. K. 1974. Systematic studies of the genus Pyrropappus (Compositae, Cichorieae). Texas Tech. University Museum Special Publication no. 6: 1-38.

Novacek, M. J. 1982. Phylogeny and the rates of evolution: Introduction. Systematic Zoology 31: 337bis.

Novacek, M. J. 1992. Fossils as critical data for phylogeny. In Novacek and Wheeler, Columbia University Press, New York.

Novacek, M. J. 1992. Fossils, topologies, missing data, and the higher level phylogeny of Eutherian Mammals. Systematic Biology 41: 58-73.

Novacek, M. J. 1991. "All Tree Histograms" and the evaluation of cladistic evidence: some ambiguities, Cladistics, 7, 345-350.

Novacek, M. J. 1992. Fossils, topologies, missing data, and the higher level phylogeny of eutherian mammals Systematic Biology, 41, 58-73.

Novacek, M. J. 1992. Fossils, topologies, missing data, and the higher level phylogeny of eutherian mammals Systematic Biology, 41, 58-73.

Novacek, M. J. and A. R. Wyss. 1986. Higher-level relationships of the recent Eutherian Orders: Morphological evidence. Cladisitcs 2: 257-287.

Novacek, M. J. and M. A. Norell. 1982. Fossils, phylogeny, and taxonomic rates of evolution. Systematic Zoology 31: 366-375.

Novacek, M. J., 1991. "All tree histograms" and the evaluation of cladistic evidence: Some ambiguities. Cladistics 7: 345-349.

Nyman, T., H. Roininen, and J.A. Vuorinen. 1998. Evolution of different gall types in willow-feeding sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Evolution 52: 465-474.

O' Grady, P.M., J. B. Clark, and M. G. Kidwell. 1998. Phylogeny of the Drososophila saltans species group based on combined analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15: 656-664.

O'Grady, R. T. 1982. Nonequilibrium evolution and ontogeny. Systematic Zoology 31: 503-511.

O'Grady, R. T. 1984. Evolutionary Theory and Teleology. Journal of Theoretical Biology 107: 563-578.

O'Grady, R. T. 1985. Ontogenetic sequences and the phylogenetics of parasitic Flatworm life cycles. Cladistics 1: 159-170.

O'Grady, R. T. 1986. Historical Processes, Evolutionary Explanations, and Problems with Teleology. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64: 1010-1020.

O'Grady, R. T. 1987. Phylogenetic Systematics and the Evolutionary History of Some Intestinal Flatworm Parasites (Trematoda: Digenea: Plagiorchioidea) of Anurans. Doctoral Dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

O'Grady, R. T. 1988. Further calculations on the phylogenetics of Idea (Lepidoptera: Danainae). Cladistics 4: 211-215.

O'Grady, R. T. and Deets, G. B. 1987. Coding multistate characters, with special reference to the use of parasites as characters of their hosts Systematic Zoology, 36, 268-279.

O'Grady, R. T. and G. B. Deets. 1987. Coding multisate characters, with special reference to the use of parasites as characters of their hosts. Systematic Zoology 36: 268-279.

O'Grady, R. T., G. B. Deets, and G. W. Benz. 1989. Additional observations on nonredundant linear coding of multistate characters. Systematic Zoology 38: 54-57.

O'Grady, R. T., I. Goddard, R. M. Bateman, V. A. Funk, R. Mooi, W. A. DiMichele, P. F. Cannell, and W. J. Kress. 1989. Genes and Tongues. Science 243: 1651. (letter to the editor)

O'Hara, R. J. 1988. Homage to Clio, or toward an historical philosophy for evolutionary biology. Systematic Zoology, 37:142-155.

O'Hara, R. J. 1988. Homage to Clio, or, toward an historical philosophy for evolutionary biology. Systematic Zoology 37: 142-155.

O'Hara, R. J. 1992. Telling the tree: Narrative representation and the study of evolutionary history. Biological Philosophy 7: 135-160.

O'Hara, R. J. 1993. Systematic generalization, historic fate, and the species problem. Systematic Biology 42: 231-246.

O'Hara, R. J. 1988. Homage to Clio, or toward an historical philosophy for evolutionary biology. Systematic Zoology 37: 142-155.

O'Hara, R. J. 1988. Homage to Clio, or, Toward an historical philosophy for evolutionary biology. Syst. Zool., 37:142-155.

O'Hara, Robert J. 1988. Diagrammatic classifications of birds, 1819-1901: views of the natural system in 19th-century British ornithology. Pp. 2746-2759 in: Acta XIX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici (H. Ouellet, ed.). Ottawa: National Museum of Natural Sciences.

O'Hara, Robert J. 1991. Representations of the natural system in the nineteenth century. Biology and Philosophy, 6:255-274.

O'Hara, Robert J. 1992. Telling the tree: narrative representation and the study of evolutionary history. Biology and Philosophy, 7:135-160.

O'Hara, Robert. J. In press. Trees of history in systematics and philology. Memorie della Societa italiana di scienze naturali e del Museo civico di storia naturale di Milano.

Olkin, I., L. J. Gleser & C. Derman. 1980. Probability Models and Applications. Macmillan Publ. Co., N.Y.

Olmstead, R. B., H. J. Michaels, K. M. Scott, and J. D. Palmer. 1992. Monophyly of the Asteridae and identification of their major lineages inferred from DNA sequences of rbcL. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79: 249-265.

Olmstead, R. G. & J. D. Palmer. 1997. Implications for the phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of Solanum from cpDNA restriction site variation. Syst. Bot. 22: 19–29.

Olmstead, R. G. 1995. Species concepts and plesiomorphic species. Syst. Bot. 20: 623-630. apospecies

Olmstead, R. G. and J. A. Sweere. 1994. Combining data in phylogenetic systematics: An empirical approach using three molecular data sets in the Solanaceae. Systematic Biology 43: 467-481.

Olmstead, R. G., B. Bremer, K. M. Scott, and J. D. Palmer. 1993. A parsimony analysis of the Asteridae sensu lato based on rbcL sequences. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80: 700-722.

Olmstead, R.G., ad J.A. Sweere. 1994 Combining data in phylogenetic systematics: an empirical approach using three molecular data sets in the Solanaceae. Syst. Biol. 43:467-481.

Olsen, G. J. 1988. Phylogenetic analysis using ribosomal RNA. Methods in Enzymology 164: 793-812.

Olsen, J. S. 1979. Systematics of Zaluzania (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). Rhodora 81: 449-501.

Omland, K. E. 1994. Character congruence between a molecular and a morphological phylogeny for Dabbling Ducks (Anas). Systematic Biology 43: 369-386.

Omland, K. E. 1997. Morphological and molecular rates of evolution are correlated. Evolution, 51:1381-13xx.

O'Neil, P. B. and R. F. Doolittle. 1973. Mammalian phylogeny based on fibrinopeptide amino acid sequences. Systematic Zoology 22: 590-595.

Oosterbroek, P. 1987. More appropriate definitions of paraphyly and polyphyly, with a comment on the Farris 1974 model. Systematic Zoology 36: 103-108.

Oppenheimer, Jane M. 1987. Haeckel's variations on Darwin. Hoenigswald & Wiener, 1987:123-135. [On the tree diagrams of the German evolutionist Ernst Haeckel.]

Orti, G., and A. Meyer. 1997. The radiation of characiform fishes and the limits of resolution of mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Systematic Biology 46: 75-100.

Oxelman, B, M. Backlund and B. Bremer. 1999. Relationships of the Buddlejaceae s. l. investigated using parsimony, jackknife and branch support analysis of chloroplast ndhF and rbcL sequence data. Syst. Bot. 24: 164-182.

Packard, G. C. and R. K. Stiverson. 1975. Geographic variation in physiological characters of the Arachnid Leiobunum longipes: Has a case been made? Systematic Zoology 24: 111-113.

Page, R. D. M. 1987. Graphs and generalized tracks: Quantifying Croizat's panbiogeography. Systematic Zoology 36: 1-17.

Page, R. D. M. 1988. Quantitative cladistic biogeography: Constructing and comparing area cladograms. Systematic Zoology 37: 254-270.

Page, R. D. M. 1989. Comments on component-compatibility in historical biogeography. Cladistics 5: 167-182.

Page, R. D. M. 1989. Comments on component-compatibility in historical biogeography. Cladistics 5: 167-182.

Page, R. D. M. 1989. COMPONENT. Users manual and software. Release 1.5. Published by the author.

Page, R. D. M. 1990. Component analysis: A valiant failure? Cladistics 6: 119-136.

Page, R. D. M. 1990. Temporal congruence and cladistic analysis of biogeography and cospeciation. Systematic Zoology 39: 205-226.

Page, R. D. M. 1990. Tracks and trees in the Antipodes: A reply to Humphries and Seberg. Systematic Zoology 39: 288-299.

Page, R. D. M. 1991. Clocks, clades, and cospeciation: Comparing rates of evolution and timing of cospeciation events in host-parasite assemblages. Systematic Zoology 40: 188-198.

Page, R. D. M. 1991. Random dendrograms and null hypotheses in cladistic biogeography. Systematic Zoology 40: 54-62.

Page, R. D. M. 1992. Comments on the information content of classifications. Cladistics 8: 87-95.

Page, R. D. M. 1993. COMPONENT: Tree comparison software for Microsoft Windows, version 2.0. Natural History Museum, London.

Page, R. D. M. 1993. Genes, organisms, and areas: The problem of multiple lineages. Systematic Biology 42: 77-84.

Page, R. D. M. 1993. On describing the shape of rooted and unrooted trees. Cladistics 9: 93-99.

Page, R. D. M. 1993. On islands of trees and the efficacy of different methods of branch swapping in finding most-parsimonious trees. Systematic Biology 42: 200-210.

Page, R. D. M. 1994. Maps between trees and cladistic analysis of historical associations among genes, organisms, and area. Systematic Biology 43: 58- 77.

Page, R. D. M. 1994. Parallel phylogenies: Recontructing the history of host-parasite assemblages. Cladistics 10: 155-173.

Page, R. D. M. 1989. Comments on component-compatibility in historical biogeography. Cladistics 5: 167-182. requ

Page, R. D. M. 1989. COMPONENT 2.0, Distributed by The Natural History Museum, London, Department of Botany.

Page, R. D. M. 1991. Random dendrograms and null hypotheses in cladistic biogeography. Syst. Zool. 40: 54-62. requ

Page, R. D. M. 1996. On consensus, confidence, and "total evidence." Cladistics, 12:83-92.

Page, R. D. M. and C. Lydeard. 1994. Towards a cladistic biogeography of the Caribbean. Cladistics 10: 21-41.

Pagel M. 1994. Detecting correlated evolution on phylogenies: A general-method for the comparative analysis of discrete characters. Proc. Royal Soc. London B, Biol. Sci. 255: 37-45.

Pagel, M. 1999a. Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution. Nature 401: 877--884.

Pagel, M. 1999b. The maximum likelihood approach to reconstructing ancestral character states of discrete characters on phylogenies. Syst. Biol. 48: 612--622.

Pagel, Mark. 1999. Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution. Nature 401:877-884 (Oct 28 1999).

Palmer, J. D., R. K. Jansen, H. J. Michaels, M. W. Chase, and J. Manhart. 1988. Analysis of chloroplast DNA variation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: 1180-1206.

Pamilo, P. & M. Nei. 1988. Relationships between gene trees and species trees. Mol. Biol. Evol. 5: 568--583.

Pamilo, P. & M. Nei. 1988. Relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 5: 568-583.

Pamilo, P. and M. Nei. 1988. Relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 5: 568-583.

Panchen, A. L. 1992. Classification, Evolution, and the Nature of Biology. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. 403 pp.

Pandolfi, J. M. 1989. Phylogenetic analysis of the early tabulate corals Palaeontology, 32, 745-764.

Pankhurst, R. J. 1991. Practical taxonomic computing: Phylogenetic and cladistic classifications, Chapter 3.3. Cambridge University Press.

Pap, A. 1962. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Macmillan Co., N.Y.

Parenti, L. R. 1980. A phylogenetic analysis of the land plants. Journal of the Linnaean Society, Biology 13: 225-242.

Parenti, L. R. 1981. A Phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of cyprinodontiform fishes (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha). Bulletin, American Museum of Natural History 168: 335-557.

Parenti, L. R. 1982. Review of: Biological diversification in the tropics. Systematic Zoology 31: 527-529.

Paterson, H. E. H. 1984. The recognition concept of species. South African Journal of Science 80: 312-318.

Patterson, C. 1977. The contribution of paleontology to teleostean phylogeny. In: M. K. Hecht, P. C. Goody, and B. M. Hecht [eds.], Major patterns in vertebrate evolution, 579-643. Plenum Press, New York.

Patterson, C. 1978. Verifiability in systematics. Systematic Zoology 27: 218- 222.

Patterson, C. 1980. Cladistics. The Biologist 27: 234-239.

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