Mrs. Zander’s Libelli Latini,

Sample files, the Letter T
P. M. Eckel
Res Botanica
Missouri Botanical Garden
July 26, 2010
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Mrs. Zander’s Libelli Latini

Sample Files, The Letter “T”




[Partial treatment, beginning “triplus”.]


triplus,-a,-um (adj.A): threefold, triple, three times as much; cf.

   duplus,-a,-um (adj.A): twice as much, twofold, double;

    - intervallis duplis vel triplis, with the intervals double or triple.

    - amplitudine tripla, with the size three times as much.

    - vere numero seminum triplo, in spring with the number of

      seeds thrice as much.


triporate: triporatus,-a,-um (adj.A), in pollen, with three rounded apertures (pores).


triqueter, triquetrous (adj.A), triquetrus,-a,-um (adj.A) [> L. -quetrus,-a,-um, -pointed, -cornered]: three-edged, three-angled, the angles usually sharp; triangular; see triangular; see trigonus,-a,-um (adj.A).

    Ptychostomum pseudotriquetrum, refers to a resemblance to Meesia triquetra; Meesia triquetra, the epithet in allusion to the keeled leaves that spread widely in three rows; Triquetrella, a genus of mosses; Carex triquetra Boott.


triradiatus,-a,-um (adj.A): with three rays.


tris-, in Gk. comp. thrice, three times (> Gk. tris (adv. of treis), ‘thrice,   three times;’ Lat. = ter, ‘often used indefinitely in compounds, to strengthen the force of the simple word, like Lat. ‘ter,’” and the English ‘thrice’, e.g. trisalastos, ‘thrice-tormented;’ see ter (adv.).

  Trismegistia, a genus of mosses, thrice-great, perhaps ‘very large.’


Trismegistia (C. Muell.) C. Muell., a genus of mosses.

  Trismegistus,-i (s.m.II) is an epithet of Mercury; megistos is the  superlative of the Gk. adj. megas, megalE, mega: ‘large, big, great.’  Hermes Trismegistus, ‘thrice-great Hermes’ in Latin, Mercurius ter Maximus; see tris-, in Gk. comp.; see ter (adv.). 


triste (adv.): sadly, sorrowfully; harshly, severely; dull- or somber-colored;

    - pileus triste brunneus, pileus dull brown.


tristichus,-a,-um (adj.A): in or having three rows; cf. trifarius, triplostichus [> Gk. tris, adv. of treis, thrice, three times; Lat. ter; cf. tris-asmenos, thrice pleased, i.e. well contented, tris-athlios, thrice unhappy.

  Tristichella; Tristichium. 


tristis,-e (adj.B): sad, dull-colored, melancholic, gloomy, sullen, somber; of taste: harsh, disagreeable, bitter; of smell, offensive, foul; comp. tristior,-ius (adj.B); superl. tristissimus,-a,-um (adj.A); see dull, matt;

    - Carex tristis M.Bieb.; Cyperus tristis Kunth;  Gahnia tristis Nees;    Mariscus tristis Kuntze; Scleria tristis A.St.-Hil.; Cetraria tristis, a brownish black lichen.

    - Cirsium triste A.Kern.; Carpesium triste Maxim.; Eriophorum triste    (Th.Fr.) Hada & Á. Löve

    - Cirsium tristissimum Kitam.

    - Hieracium tristiceps Dahlst. ex A.Hamberg; Taraxacum tristiceps Soest;    Hieracium tristicolor Ohlsen; Carpesium tristiforme Hand.-Mazz.


triticeus,-a,-um, triticius,-a,-um (adj.A): of, belonging to or consisting  of wheat, wheaten.

Triticum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. tritico: wheat.


tritus,-a,-um (part.A): rubbed, ground, bruised, worn away [> L. tero, trivi, tritum, 3, to rub, grind, rub to pieces, bruise, wear away, esp. of stones or grain.]


trium: see three.


trivialis,-e (adj.B): commonplace, ordinary, found everywhere; see common;

    - nomen triviale, specific epithet; nomina trivialia forte admitti possunt modo, quo in Pane suecico usus sum; constarent haec vocabulo unico, vocabulo libere undequaque desumpto; ratione haec praecipue evicti, quod differentia saepe longa evadit, ut non ubique commode usurpetur, et dein mutationi obnoxia, novis detectis speciebus, e.g. Pyrola irregularis, Pyrola Halleriana, Pyrola secunda, Pyrola umbellata, Pyrola uniflora (Linnaeus, Phil. bot. 202; (1751), trivial names may be admitted after a fashion, as I have used them in Pan suecicus; thay consist of a single word, a word freely taken from anywhere; the chief reason, which cannot be gainsaid, is that the differential character is often so long, that it cannot everywhere be conveniently used and is subject to change through new species being discovered, e.g. Pyrola irregularis, Pyrola Halleriana, Pyrola secunda, Pyrola umbellata, Pyrola uniflora (Stearn 1983).

  Rubus trivialis Michx. 'ordinary.'


trochlearis,-e (adj.B), trochleiformis,-e (adj.B): shaped like a pulley-wheel, a small wheel with a grooved rim; a wheel with a flat, curved or grooved rim.


trocho-: in Gk. comp., wheel-like.

  Trochobryum, a genus of mosses.


tromb-, trombi-: trumpet-, or funnel-.

  WIII gives the etymology of tromb- as from the Italian (tromba, trumpet) from the Old High German trumpa, trumba, trumpet.

  Trombicula, a genus of mites, the type of the family Trombiculidae; Trombidium, a genus of mites, the type of the family Trombidiidae; Trombidoidea: a superfamily of mites. 


trombiformis,-e (adj.B): narrowly funnel-shaped; see trumpet-shaped.


Tropa,-ae (s.f.I): the tropic solstice; see tropic, pl. tropics.


tropaeolinus,-a,-um (adj.A): nasturtium red (H.C.C. 14) = capucinus,-a,-um (adj.A).


-tropal: see -tropic.


-trope (English): in Gk. comp. -tropium,-ii (s.n.II), turning; Heliotropium L. Turnsole, Heliotrope, "The ancient name, from the Greek helios, the sun, and tope, a turn; ancient writers believing that it turns toward the sun in flowering" (Fernald 1950).


tropaeolinus,-a,-um (adj.A): nasturtium red (H.C.C. 14); cf. capucinus.


-trophic, in Gk comp. relating to nutrition: -trophicus,-a,-um (adj.A); -trophus,-a,-um (adj.A) [> Gk. trophe, s.f.I, food];

    - autotrophus, self-nourishing; dystrophus, with faulty nutrition; heterotrophicus, heterotrophus, eating two or more kinds of things; mesotrophicus, more or less neutral in reaction, neither acidic nor basic; monotrophicus, monotrophus, eating only one kind of thing; oligotrophus, oligotrophicus, poor in minerals, hence acid in reaction; ombrotrophus, q.v.; omnitrophicus, omnitrophus, eating everything; see dystrophus,-a,-um (adj.A), eutrophus,-a,-um (adj.A), minerotrophic.

  NOTE: -trophic may also be rendered -tropic:

    - ectotrophicus, ectotropicus: ectotrophic or ectotropic: ‘of a mycorrhiza: growing as a close web on the surface of the associated root: opp. endotrophic’ WIII.

    - endotrophicus, endotropicus: endotrophic, endotropic: ‘of a mycorrhiza: penetrating into the associated root and ramifying between the cells; opp. ectotrophic’ WIII.

    - lipotropic: having an affinity for lipids, especially fats and oils; having a preventive or curative effect on the development of fatty livers.


Trophocyst: trophocystis,-is (s.f.III), abl. sg. trophocyste.


Trophogonium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. trophogonio: trophogonium.


Trophophyll, in Polypodiophyta, sterile frond, frond that does not produce sporangia: trophophyllum,-ii (s.n.II), trophophyllo, nom.  & acc. pl. trophophylla, dat. & trophophyllis; see sporophyll (fertile frond). 


Tropic, pl. tropics: [> Gk. tropikos, of the solstice, > tropE s.f.I, action of turning]; the tropics are circles of latitude where the sun ‘turns;’ cf. solstitium,-ii (s.n.II);

    - tropa,-ae (s.f.I): the tropic solstice.

    - tropic of Cancer: circulus (s.m.II) solstitialis (adj.B), abl. sg. circulo solstitiali; orbis (s.m.III) solstitialis, abl. sg. orbe solstitiali; the apparent position of the sun at the time of the June solstice; the ‘northern tropic;’ 23* 26’16’’ north (of the equator) latitude; summer solstice.

    - tropic of Capricorn: circulus brumalis (adj.B), abl. sg. circulo brumali; orbis brumalis, abl. sg. orbe brumali; the apparent position of the sun at the time of the December solstice; the ‘southern tropic’; 23*26’16’’ south (of the equator) latitude; winter solstice.

  The topics is the region of the earth straddling the equator limited in latitude by the topic of cancer in the northern hemisphere and by the tropic of capricorn in the southern; zona (s.f.I) tropica (adj.A); zona torrida (adj.A); regiones (pl.f.III) torridae, abl. pl. regionibus torridis, ‘hot (and dry) regions.’ “The tropics” = Circuli tropici, abl. pl. circulis tropicis; orbes tropici, abl. pl. orbibus tropicis; the noun is often dropped and the adjective alone is used, as in ‘inter tropicos’ between the tropics.


tropical: tropicus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘or belonging to a turn or turning, tropical;’ tropical in the sense of ‘very hot:’ aestuosus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - regiones aestuosae, hot or tropical regions.

    - species inter tropicos in utroque orbe vigentes, species between the tropics on both sides of the world thriving (here tropicos is rendered in masc. acc. pl.). 

    - neotropicus, relating to the New World tropics; palaeotropicus, relating to the Old World tropics;  pantropical: pantropicus,-a,-um (adj.A).

    - Capricornus tropicus, ‘where the sun turns back’, i.e. “the sign of the zodiac which the sun enters at the winter solstice (opp. Cancer)” Lewis & Short.

  NOTE: ‘inter tropicos’ implies the masculine nouns ‘circulus’ or ‘orbis’; see 'tropic.’


-tropic, -tropous, -tropal: in Gk. comp., -tropicus,-a,-um (adj.A), -tropus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘turning, changing or tending to turn or change, esp. in a (specified) manner or in response to a (specified) stimulus’ (WIII) [> Gk. tropos, s.m.II: a turn, direction, way; manner, fashion, mode; tropE is the solstice or tropic, i.e. the points of midsummer and midwinter, when the sun appears to turn his course; also the rout (turning) of the enemy (Liddell & Scott)];

  1.- amphitropicus, amphitropous q.v.: in or with two manners. (as in a hepatic, with two different kinds of phyllotaxis, the ventral representing one genus, the dorsal another).

      - deuteroptropicus, deuterotropic, in or with two ways.

      - heterotropic, in different ways; uncertain, inconstant.

  2.- (generally of ovules) anatropicus, anatropic, the ovule is the reverse of its usual position; lycotropus, shaped like a horse-shoe; orthotropus, assuming a vertical position.

      - apogeotropicus,-a,-um (adj.A): turning or bending upward or away from the ground.

      - ectotropicus,-a,-um (adj.A): curving out (Ainsworth & Bisby).

      - eutropicus, twining with the sun, twisted from left to right.

      - geotropicus: geotropic, when gravitational attraction is the orienting factor, as in the downward growth of roots, or the upward growth of shoots, and the “climbing, swimming, or right-side-up orientation certain animals’ (WIII).

      - heliotropicus,-a,-um (adj.A): turning in response to or toward the sun.

       - phototropicus,-a,-um (adj.A): turning in response to light.

  NOTE: -tropic is also a form of -trophic, q.v.


-tropis,-idis (s.f.III): in Gk. comp. ‘keel, keeled’ [> Gk. tropis,-idis (s.f.III) a ship's keel = tropideion (s.n.II)].

  Oxytropis,-idis DC. (s.f.III),  gen. sg. Oxytropidis, dat. sg. Oxytropidi, abl. sg. Oxytropide, from Greek oxus, sharp and tropis, ship's keel.


-tropous: = tropic, q.v.


troubled: see confused, disordered, turbulent.


trough-shaped: alveiformis,-e (adj.B) [> L. alveus,-i (s.m.II), in its   sense as the channel or bed of a river].


true: verus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘actual, true, real, genuine, authentic, standard; a reference to a non-hybrid species;   compar. verior,-ius; superl. verissimus,-a,-um (adj.A); opp. falsus,-a,-um (adj.A), fictus,-a,-um (adj.A), spurius,-a,-um (adj.A), 'spurious' in epithets, an indication of hybrid origin; rectus,-a,-um (part.A), ‘correct, proper, right, appropriate; opp. to what is false or improper;’ cf. authenticus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'authentic, authoritative,  trustworthy; genuine, real;’ genuinus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘genuine, authentic, hence applied to type element of a species (Stearn 1983);’  legitimus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'legitimate, allowed by the law or a code;' opp. adulterinus,-a,-um (adj.A) ‘not genuine, not authentic;’ illegitimus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘unlawful;’ cf. false, hybrid; cf. verisimilis,-e (adj.B), ‘probable, likely, likely to be the truth;’

    - verum L. hastatum Desv. testibus insuper Kunze et Wright, true L. hastatum, moreover, by the witness of (according to) (both) Kunze and Wright (Stearn 1983).

    - nomen legitimum, abl. sg. nomine legitimo, a name conforming to the rules of nomenclature, a legitimate name.


true-speaking, speaking the truth: veridicus,-a,-um (adj.A); opp. falsidicus,-a,-um (adj.A): speaking falsely, lying.


true- (prefix): in Gk. comp. eu-, q.v., ‘well-, goodly-, thoroughly, completely, truly;’ "Also formerly much used in sense of 'true, original, primitive' in subgeneric and sectional names and infraspecific epithets for the subdivision containing the type of the name thus prefixed without reference to its linguistic origin, as in Rhododendron subg. Eurhododendron . . . ” (Stearn 1983).


trullatus,-a,-um (adj.A), trulliformis,-e (adj.B): angular-ovate, trullate, i.e. shaped rather like a bricklayer's trowel, broadest below the middle with two equal straight sides meeting at the apex and two shorter straight sides meeting at base. It may be qualified by the adverbs anguste, narrowly, late, broadly, latissime, very broadly, and depressed, depressed. Stearn

  Pontederia lanceolata forma trullifolia Fern. (trowel-leaved).

trullipetalus,-a,-um (adj.A): with petals shaped like a brick-layer's trowel.

trulloideus,-a,-um (adj.A): "Elongate, basically square in  transverse section, broadest below the middle, regularly attenuate to angular ends, all faces essentially plane" (Kiger & Porter 2001).


truly, in fact, really, actually, exactly: recte (adv.) ‘correctly, properly, suitably, accurately;’revera (adv.; of res vera), ‘in fact, truly, really, actually; vere (adv.), ‘actually, genuinely, really, in fact, properly, rightly, exactly, according to truth, truly;’ vero (adv.),‘certainly, q.v., assuredly, in truth, in fact, exactly, surely;’ de vera (adv. phrase); opp. falsely, q.v.;

    - inflorescentia revera dioica, with a truly dioicous inflorescence. 

    - species proxima  Ilici kunthianae Triana, sed differt vero: ramulis junioribus teretibus, the species is nearest Ilex kunthianae Triana, but it differs assuredly by the younger branchlets terete.

    - differt foliis non vere lanceolatis, it differs by the leaves not truly lanceolate.

  NOTE: reapse (adv.): in fact, actually, in reality; used rarely.


trumpet-shaped: buccinatus,-a,-um (adj.A), buccinatorius,-a,-um (adj.A) (when somewhat curved); tubaeformis,-e (adj.B), tubatus,-a,-um (adj.A) (when almost straight). The Roman tuba was a straight-sided instrument, the bucina a strongly curved one; cf. funnel-shaped, trombiformis (Stearn 1983).


truncatus,-a,-um (part.A): truncate, i.e. ending very abruptly as if cut straight across, with an apex squared at the end; syn. abruptus,-a,-um  (adj.A), q.v. (Kiger & Porter 2001).


trunciformis,-e (adj.B): like a trunk. 


Trunculus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. trunculo: a little trunk, trunklet, q.v.


Truncus,-i (s.m.II), trunco: trunk or stem of a tree; see trunk.

  Vibrissea truncorum (Alb. & Schw. Fries. (in gen. pl.).


Trunk, bole, the main stem or trunk of a tree; in lichens, the thallus:

  truncus,-i (s.m.II), trunco, nom. pl.  trunci, acc. pl. truncos, dat. & abl. pl. truncis; the word caudex,-icis (s.m.III), which in L. means trunk of a tree, is mostly used for rootstock, also used for the trunks of palms;

    - habitat in truncis putridis terraque humida ubique, it grows on rotten trunks and moist soil everywhere.

    - ad truncos ramosque dejectos cortice exfoliato, on fallen trunks and branches with the bark exfoliated.

    - caudex elatus mediocris v. humilis, trunk tall, medium or low.

    - truncus nanus, dwarf bole or trunk.

  NOTE: the word 'trunk' also applies to the part of the petal of a flower in the genus Drymaria (Caryophyllaceae)  and refers to the blade-like portion below the lobes and above the claw.

  little trunk, trunklet, as in tree ferns of the genus Cyathea, trunculus,-i (s.m.II), trunculo.

  like a trunk: trunciformis,-e (adj.B).

  growing on trunks: truncicola,-ae (s.c.I), abl. sg. truncicola.


Truth, reality, accuracy: veritas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. veritate, q.v.p; cf. erisimilitudo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. verisimilitudine, ‘probablilty, likelihood, plausibility.’

  in truth: probably: probabiliter; verisimiliter (adv.), ‘plausibly, in a manner resembling the truth  (adv.); see truly.


Tuba,-ae (s.f.I), tuba: trumpet; cf. funnel; cf. trumpet-shaped.


tubaeformis,-e (adj.B), tubatus,-a,-um (adj.A): trumpet-shaped, q.v. Cantharellus tubaeformis, a mushroom in the shape of a trumpet.


Tube: tubus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sing. tubo, nom. pl. tubi, dat. & abl. pl. tubis; fistula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. fistula, ‘a pipe, tube, tubular vessels; a hollow reed-stalk, a reed, cane,’ syn. tubus, canalis, in the sense of ‘water pipe,’ sypho; sipho,-onis (s.m.III), abl. sg. sphone, a small pipe, a siphon; a sipping straw or pipette or pipet to suck drinks through, drinking tube; siphon,-onis (s.m.III), siphone, ‘siphon, i.e. elongated tube in frond of alga [> Gk.

  siphon,-onos (s.n.III) a reed, straw, any tube, especially the siphon used to draw wine out of  the cask]; cf. hyponom-, in Gk. comp.; see cuniculum,-i (s.n.II);

  see cnemis,-idis (s.f.III); cf. funnel; see germ tube;

    - corollae tubus cylindricus inferne albus supra medium rubescens vel ruber, extus glaber, intus pubescens vel etiam annulo pilorum sub apice ornatus, c. 1 cm. longus 4 mm. latus, of the corolla the tube cylindric below white above the middle reddish or red, outside glabrous, inside pubescent or even with a ring of hairs below the top ornamented, about 1 cm long 4 mm. wide. 

    - corolla e tubo engusto 1 cm. longo sensim ampliata, fauce nuda, tubo ima basi saepius, annulo piloso vel carnuloso instructo, staminibus tubo medio insertis, corolla from a narrow tube 1 cm. long gradually expanded, with the throat naked, with the tube at the very base most often with a pilose or rather fleshy ring furnished, with the stamens to the tube at the middle attached (Stearn 1983). 

    - tubus conjugationis (s.f.III, conjugatio), conjugation tube.

    - corolla pentamera, lobis tubum aequantibus, corolla in five parts, with the lobes equalling the tube.

    - filamenta staminalia in tertio basali tubi corollini inserta, staminal filaments inserted in the basal third of the tube.

    - tubo calycis ore barbato, with the tube of the calyx with bearded mouth.

    - foliis ut fistula involutis, with leaves involute like a pipe.

  little tube: tubulus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. tubulo.


Tube, androecial: tubus,-i (s.m.II) androecialis (adj.B), tubo androeciali

Tube, calyx: tubus,-i (s.m.II) calycis ( calyx,-icis, s.m.III), tubo calycis; see calyx tube.

Tube, floral: hypanthium,-ii (s.n.II), hypanthio, q.v. relating to a tube or pipe: in Gk. comp., siphon-, siphono-, -siphonius,-a,-um (adj.A) relating to a tube or pipe;

    - monosiphonius, with a single tube; oligosiphonius, with few tubes; polysiphonius, with many tubes.

    - 3-siphonius, with three tubes; 6-siphonius, with six tubes.


tubed: siphonaceus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘ with elongated tubes or non-septate filaments.’


Tuber, a globose or ellipsoidal brood body produced in rhizoids in mosses, usually subterranean: tuber,-eris (s.n.III): abl. sing. tubere, nom. & acc. pl. tubera, dat. & abl. pl. tuberibus, 'swelling, protuberance, hump,' can mean a knot in wood; roundness, swelling, bump; in animals, it can indicate a bump or other swelling whether indicating disease or not;

  in plants it may be “a knob, hard excrescence on wood’ (Lewis & Short); see tumor,-oris (s.m.III);

    - tuber magnum globosum vel irregulare 10 cm. latum, carne albida amara, tuber large globose or irregular, with flesh whitish bitter.

    - tubera geminata ellipsoidea vel dauciformia 2-4 cm. longa, tubers paired ellipsoid or carrot-shaped 2-4 cm. long.

    - herba tubere parvo cavo, herb with tuber small hollow (Stearn).

    - gemmae asexuales vulgares nunc tubera sphaerica rhizoidalia nunc caules moniliformes rhizoidales nunc tubera caulina nunc bulbili axis foliaris, asexual gemmae common now shaerical rhizoidal tubers, now moniliform rhizoidal stems, now cauline tubers now bulbils of the leaf axil.

  Lignotuber,-eris (s.n.III): abl. sing. lignotubere, nom. & acc. pl. lignotubera, dat. & abl. pl. lignotuberibus: a burl of wood; see burl.


tuberans,-antis (adj.B), tuberascens,-entis (adj.B): becoming swollen or tuberous.


Tuberculum,-i (s.n.II), tuberculo, nom. & acc. pl. tubercula, dat. & abl. pl. tuberculis: tubercle, a small swelling, boil, wart; in Palmae, short, stout, persistent floral stalks, appearing as small humps in coryphoid palms; in mosses and liverworts, "peg", q.v. Tubercularia-like, like Tubercularia: tubercularioideus,-a,-um (adj.A), tubercularinus,-a,-um (adj.A)

tubercularis,-e (abj.B): having tubercles or like a tubercle. 

tuberculatus,-a,-um (adj.A), tuberculosus,-a,-um (adj.A): tuberculate, tuberculose, covered with swellings or warty protuberances.

tuberculiformis,-e (adj.A): like a tubercle.  


Tuberidium,-ii (s.n.II), abl. sg. tuberidio: ‘the pseudo-bulb of an orchid, according to Reichenbach (Jackson) [note that the ending -idium is the Greek diminutive suffix; tuber, however, does not appear to be Greek].


tuberifer,-fera,-ferum (adj.A): tuber-bearing.

tuberiform, tuber-shaped: tuberiformis,-e (adj.A).

tuberosus,-a,-um (adj.A): producing tubers or swollen into a tuber, possessing tubers.

  Collybia tuberosa, a mushroom with a rounded, tough body (sclerotium);

  Sclerotinia tuberosa, a mushroom bearing stalks on a hard black fungus tissue (sclerotium).


tubiformis,-e (adj.B): tube-like; cf. tubaeformis.

tubiflorus,-a,-um (adj.A), tubuliflorus,-a,-um (adj.A): with symmetrical tubular (as distinct from rayed) florets, with tubular flowers.


tubular: tubularis,-e (adj.B), tubulosus,-a,-um (adj.A), tubulatus,-a,-um (adj.A), siphonaceus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. fistulosus

tubulatus,-a,-um: trumpet-shaped, q.v.


Tubule: tubulus,-i (s.m.II), tubulo;

    - tubuli ad stipitem decurrens flavi, tubules on to the stipe decurrent yellow.

    - caro ad tubulos purpurea, flesh at the tubules purple (Stearn).

tubuliformis,-e (adj.B): like a tubule.

tubulosus,-a,-um (adj.A): tubelike, used to refer to leaves with stronly incurved margins; fistulatus,-a,-um (adj.A),’ furnished with a pipe or pipes;

  pipe-shaped;’ fistulosus,-a,-um (adj.A),’ fistular, i.e. hollow throughout, like a pipe, but closed at ends. 


Tubus,-i (s.m.II), tubo: tube, q.v.


Tufa, tuff, a porous limestone formed by deposition from calcareous waters, often as a result of photosynthetic activity of aquatic mosses that remove carbon dioxide from calcium bicarbonate in solution and precipitate insoluble calcium carbonate (Crum & Anderson 1981): tofus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. tofo; also tophus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. topho.

tufaceous, composed of tufa or tuff: tofaceus,-a,-um (adj.A),

  tofacius,-a,-um (adj.A), toficius,-a,-um (adj.A) like tufa: tofinus,-a,-um (adj.A); tofosus,-a,-um (adj.A) like-tufa, tufaceous, porous.'

tufa-like, with a papillose or gritty surface: tophaceus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Tuft, a small cluster of elongated flexible outgrowth or parts attached or close together at the base and free at the opposite ends, as a small bunch of body hairs, a growing bunch of grass, leaves; a collection of small things in a knot or bunch, implying a dense rounded mass (WIII): caespes,-itis (s.m.III), caespite, nom. & acc. pl. caespites, dat. & abl. pl. caespitibus 'a turf, sod, as cut out, a clump, group of plants; a grassy field, turf'; coma,-ae (s.f.I), ‘coma, tuft, group of capillate trichomes, i.e. hair-tuft on some seeds, as in Asclepiadaceae, tuft of leaves at top of an inflorescence, stem or trunk, leafy crown of a palm or other tree;’ crista,-ae (s.f.I), crest, terminal tuft; crest of feathers; floccus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. flocco, ‘a lock or flock of hairs, wool;’ torulus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. toruluo (dim. of torus), ‘a tuft, a little elevation, hence, a tuft of hair; cf. fasciculus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. fasciculo;

  see coma, cluster, cushion; see crest (as of feathers); see panicle, rosula cf. crinis,-is (s.m.III), abl. sg. crine, ‘the hair, especially of the head;’ see stuppa,-ae (s.f.I).

    - caespes fasciculatus, fasciculated tufts.

  little tuft or crest: cristula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. cristula. 


tufted: caespitosus,-a,-um (adj.A), cespitosus,-a,-um (adj.A); comatus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘comated, provided with tufts as though of hair;’ comosus,-a,-um (adj.A), ’comose, with much or long hair, bearing a tuft of hairs (trichomes) or leaves, leafy;’ crinitus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘having tufts of long weak hairs’ floccosus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘floccose, flocculent, with tufts of soft hairs;’ penicillatus,-a,-um (adj.A), penicilliformis,-e (adj.B), ‘shaped like a pencil or an artist's painting brush, straight but ending in a tuft; scopiformis,-e (adj.B), scopulatus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘like a broom or brush;’ stuppeus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘stupose, consisting of, bearing or covered with tufted or matted tow-like hairs or filaments;’ torulosus,-a,-um (adj.A), 'torulose, tufted, with tufts, as of hair;' cf. rosetted, rosulatus,

  pulvinatus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. incohaerens,-entis (part.B), 'incoherent, not clinging together, unconnected, not crowded, loose, free;' in collecting mosses, ‘loosely tufted and becoming separated on collection;’ cf. crinis,-is (s.m.III), abl. sg. crine, ‘the hair, especially of the head; see stuppa,-ae (s.f.I);

    - seminibus utrinque penicillatis (B&H), with the seeds on both sides 'straight but ending in a tuft.'


-tufted, -crested: in Gk. comp. see loph-, lophio-, lopho-, ‘crest-, crested;’ L. = crista,-ae.

  somewhat tufted: caespitulosus,-a,-um (adj.A); caespitellosus,-a,-um (adj.A), cespitellosus,-a,-um (adj.A); stuppulosus,-a,-um (adj.A; also stupulosus): covered with fine, short hairs; finely stupose;’

    - plantae pusillae, gregariae vel interrupte caespitulosae, plants very small, gregarious or here and there somewhat tufted.

tuft-like: flocciformis,-e (adj.B), stuppiformis,-e (adj.B).

  little tuft, a small sod: caespitulus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. caespitulo 'employed of Hymenomycetes for a Fungus tuft’ (Jackson); stuppula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. stuppula.


Tulip: tulipa,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. tulipa, ‘from oriental word for turban’ (Bailey 1938).


tum = tunc (an adv. of time): then, at that time; in the next place, thereupon; next; and also, but also; if so, furthermore;

    - hyphae in nodos tumentes tum rumpentes, hyphae swelling into knots, then rupturing.


  a) tum... tum..., first... then...; at one time ... at another time;

    - foliis tum tomentosis tum glabris, with the leaves first tomentose, then glabrous. 


  b) postquam (conj.): after, after that, as soon as, when, often with tum or  tunc 'then, at that time, thereupon'; see when.

    - calyx postquam patens tum cito marchescens, calyx after spreading then quickly withering.


  c) "Used in enumerations of characters indicating sequence, as with primum [at first], deinde [next, then], [tum, next], postremo [finally]” (Stearn 1983).

      [note typogr. error in Stearn, ‘postremo’ is written as ‘prostremo’] primum ... deinde ... tum ... postremo, first ... next, (then) ...lastly.

     - pileo primum pallide viridi tum pisino, denique atrovirenti tincto, with the pileus at first pale green, then pea-green, finally dark-green tinged (Stearn 1983).

    - pileus primum planus, deinde cupulatus, tum erosus postremo deliquescens, pileus at first flat, next cup-shaped, then erose, finally deliquescens. 


  d) when, at a time when, whenever: quum (conj.), cum (conj.), ubi (adv.); whenever: quandoque (adv. and conj.), q.v.; quandocumque (adv. and conj.); + tum or tunc, ‘then,’

    - quandoque fructus non evoluti tum sporae eorum abortivae, whenever fruits not developed then their spores abortive.

    - quum pileus expansus tum color rubrescens, whenever the pileus has expanded then the color becomes red.

    - cum papillae absentes tunc cellulae in aspectu late mamillosae, when the papillae are absent then the cells appear broadly mamillose.

    - planta ubi madida tum patens, plant when moist then spreading.


  e) the conj. ‘cum’ and ‘quum’ may be used with ‘tum’ or ‘tunc’ to indicate ‘both the one, and the other;’ or ‘not only ... but also;’

    - descriptio e speciminibus plurimis quum siccis tum vivis, description from very many specimens not only dried but also living (Stearn 1983).

    - folia omnia caduca, cum juvenilia tum matura, all leaves caducous, both the young and the mature.


Tumba,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. tumba: a sepulchral mound, tomb; see sepulcrum,-i (s.n.II), see tomb.

Tumbula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. tumbula: a little tomb.


tumefaciens,-entis (part.B): swelling, puffing up, inflating [> L. tumefacio, -feci,-factum 3. to cause to swell, to tumefy; to swell or puff up, to inflate]; see swelling.


tumefactus,-a,-um (part.A): swollen, puffed up, inflated [> L. tumefacio,-feci,-factum 3. to cause to swell, to tumefy; to swell or puff up, to inflate]; see swollen;

    - area hyphalis tumefacta, a swollen hyphal area.


tumens,-entis (part.B): swelling, being tumid or swollen, swelling, inflating [> L. tumeo,-ere, to swell, be tumid or swollen, to be inflated or puffed out].


tumescens,-entis (part.B): beginning to swell or puff up [> L. tumesco,-mui 3. to begin to swell, to puff up].


Tumentia,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. tumentia: a swelling;

    - flos per tumentiam capitis augens, flower enlarging through swelling of the head.


tumidans,-antis (part.B): causing to swell [> L. tumido,-are, 1. to cause to swell].

Tumiditas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. tumiditate:  a swelling, tumor [> L. tumido,-are, 1. to cause to swell]

tumidosus,-a,-um (adj.A): high swelling.

tumidulus,-a,-um (adj.A): somewhat swollen, tumid.

tumidus,-a,-um (adj.A): tumid, swelling, swollen, inflated, thickened, protuberant, rising up; see swelling, swollen;

    - Bryo argenteo similis sed trigonis tumidis vel gangliformibus differt, similar to Bryum argenteum but differs by the swollen or knot-like trigones.


Tumor, swelling, bump: tumor,-oris (s.m.III), tumore, nom.& acc. pl. tumores, gen. pl. tumorum, dat.& tumoribus; see tuber,-eris (s.n.III); see swelling (noun).


tumorosus,-a,-um (adj.A): full of tumors; inflated, bloated.


Tumulamen,-inis (s.n.III), abl. sg. tumulamine: a sepulchral mound, tumulus, mound.


tumulosus,-a,-um (adj. A): full of hills, hilly;

    - locus (s.m.II) tumulosus, abl. sg. loco tumuloso, hilly place.


tumultuosus,-a,-um (adj.A): restless, turbulent, full of confusion or tumult, disturbed, agitated; see turbulent.


Tumulus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. tumulo: an elevation of heaped earth, hill,

   hillock, mound, hillock; a sepulchral mound; see tymb-, tymbo-,-tymbus,-i (s.m.II): in Gk. comp. tomb-, -tomb; see hill, tomb; see heap; see hill;

    - habitat ad tumulos formicarum, it grows on ant-hills.

    - frutex habitu pulvinato tumulos tegetesve formans, shrub with a cushion-shaped habit forming mounds or mats.


tunc (adv.): = tum (adv.), q.v.


tundens,-entis (part.B): beating, striking; bruising [> L. tundo, tutudi, tunsum, tussum and tusum, 3. to beat, strike, buffet with repeated strokes; to bruise, to keep pounding or hammering].

    - ostreae testas siccas tundere, to pound up the dry shells of an oyster.


Tundra: tundra,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. tundra.


Tunic, the skin of a seed, the spermoderm; the membranous coat of a bulb or corm, q.v.; the peridium of certain fungi, occasionally used for the utricle of Carex (Jackson); tunic = exospore (Ainsworth & Bisby): tunica,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. tunica, nom. pl. tunicae, acc. pl. tunicas, dat. & abl.  pl. tunicis [> L. tunica,-ae (s.f.I) 'an under-garment; a coating, skin, tegument, membrane, husk, peel];' cf. bulb;

    - tunica in collum elongatum producta, tunic into a long neck drawn out (Stearn 1983).

    - tunica praecipua tenuissime membranacea demum in fibras papallelas soluta, chief tunic (covering) very thinly membranous at length into fibers parallel broken up.

    - tunica cribraria fibris reticulatis colore stramineo pallido, tunic sieve-like with fibers reticulate with the color straw-colored pale.

    - bulbus tunicis pergamenis punctatis, interioribus candidis exterioribus nigricantibus, bulb with tunics parchment-like dotted, with the inner ones white the outer ones becoming black.

    - herba bulbi tunicis reticulato-fibrosis castaneis, herb with tunics of the bulb reticulate-fibrous chestnut-colored (Stearn).

  Tunica, a genus in the Caryophyllaceae, the name ‘tunic’ meaning ‘coat’, refers to the imbricated calyx (Bailey 1938).

Tunica,-ae (s.f.I), tunica: skin, coating, covering, peel; may refer to the outer walls of cells, such as in seeds and in certain fungi: the peridium; cf. wall; 'a coat, esp. a thin white membrane round the peridiole in most species of the Nidulariaceae (Ainsworth & Bisby). 

tunicatus,-a,-um, (adj.A): ‘wearing a tunic or undershirt;’ coated, covered with a skin or peel; tunicate, having coats, envelopes, a thin separable covering;

    - bitunicatus,-a,-um (adj.A); in fungi, with two walls or coats; crassitunicatus,-a,um (adj.A), in fungi, thick-walled; glabritunicatus,-a,-um (adj.A), smooth-walled; tenuitunicatus,-a,um (adj.A): in fungi, thin-walled.


Turba,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. turba: disorder, tumult, disturbance, urmoil; = Gk. tyrbE (s.f.I); see tyrb-, tyrbo-.


Turbamentum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. turbamento: a means of disturbance.


turbans,-antis (part.B): agitating, confusing, disturbing, disordering [> L. turbo,-avi,-atum, 1. to agitate, confuse, disturb, disorder; to throw into confusion or disorder, to disorganize]  syn. confundens, agitans.


Turbatio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. turbatione: confusion, disturbance, disorder.


turbatus,-a,-um (part.A): agitated, confused, disturbed, disordered, made turbid [> L. turbo,-avi,-atum, 1. to agitate, confuse, disturb, disorder; to throw into confusion or disorder, to disorganize]  syn. agitatus, confusus.


Turbellae,-arum (pl.f.I), turbellis: a row, bustle, stir, a small or unimportant disturbance.


turbidulus,-a,-um (adj.A): somewhat confused or disturbed.


turbidus,-a,-um (adj.A): full of disorder, confusion, confused, disordered, wild (cf. agitatus, tumultuosus); of fluids: troubled, muddy, turbid; perplexed.


turbide (adv.): confusedly, disorderly, wildly. 


Turban: see tiara,-ae (s.f.I).


Turbarium-ii (s.n.II), turbario: peat-bog.


turbatus,-a,-um (adj.A): disturbed, disordered.

turbinatus,-a,-um (adj.A): turbinate, i.e. top-shaped or obconical, broadly obovoid-obconic, like an inverted cone; cf. pear-shaped, pyriform, obturbinate.

  Bryum turbinatum, a moss, in allusion to the shape of the capsule.


turbineus,-a,-um (adj.A): shaped like a top, cone-shaped, q.v..


Turbo,-inis (s.m.III), abl. sg. turbine: that which spins or twirls round (cf. vertex,-icis (s.m.III)); a whirlwind, hurricane, tornado, storm; a spinning-top, anything that has a shape or whirling motion of a top, as a reel, whirl, spindle; a whirling motion, a twirl, twist, rotation, revolution (Lewis & Short)]; see cone;

    - turbo serpentis, the coiling of a snake.


turbatus,-a,-um (part.A): troubled, disturbed, disordered [> L. turbo,-avi,-atum, 1. to disturb, agitate, confuse, disorder; to throw into confusion]; see confused, disordered. 


turbate (adv.): confusedly, disorderly, in confusion; see disorderly.

turbide (adv.): confusedly, disorderly, wildly.

turbidus,-a,-um (adj.A): full of confusion or disorder, confused, disordered, wild; cf. agitatus, tumultuosus. 


turbulent, agitated, disturbed: procellosus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘stormy, turbulent, tempestuous, full of storms;’ tumultuosus,-a,-um (adj.A), ’restless, turbulent, full of confusion or tumult, disturbed, agitated;’ turbulentus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘full of trouble or commotion, restless, agitated, confused, disturbed; troublesome, turbulent; stormy;  cf. turbidus,-a,-um (adj.A).


turbulente (adv.): in a turbulent manner, confusedly, with violence.


Turf, sward, sod: the upper stratum of earth and vegetable mold that is filled with the roots of grass and other small plants forming a thick mat [WIII]; sod, which is synonymous with turf, may refer to a piece of turf; turf may also refer to a slab of peat; used of mosses, fungi and lichens growing in dense mats of intertangled stems; in mosses, a tufted form of growth, with stems erect and parallel, often in extensive clones: caespes,-itis (s.m.III), abl. sg. caespite, q.v.; viretum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. vireto, ‘a garden or park, a place green with vegetation or foliage,'a place overgrown with grass, a green place, greensward, sod, turf' (Lewis & Short). 


turf-like, made of turf: caespiticius,-a,-um (adj.A).

Turfosum,-i (s.n.II), turfoso: peat moor.

turfosus,-a,-um (adj.A): peaty.


turgens,-entis (part.B): swelling, swelling out, being tumid [> L. turgeo, tursi, turgere: to swell, to be swollen or tumid, to swell out].


turgescens,-entis (part.B): starting to swell up, swelling [> L. turgesco,-ere: to swell up, swell, to begin to swell].

turgidus,-a,-um (adj.A): inflated, swollen with air or water, slightly swelling; cf. distentus,-a,-um (part.A), inflatus,-a,-um (part.A), swollen; opp. wilted, q.v.;

    - caulis turgidissimus foliosus robustus, stem very swollen, leafy, strong.

  Aulacomnium turgidum "refers to a stout, swollen appearance (fat and wormlike when dry)" (Crum & Anderson 1981).


Turgor,-oris (s.m.III), abl. sg. turgore: a swelling, turgidity; see swelling (noun).


Turion, a scaly sucker, q.v.: turio,-onis (s.m.III), abl. sg. turione; nom. & acc. pl.  turiones, dat. & abl. pl. turionibus;

    - turio juvenilis erectus, young turion erect.

    - turiones flagellares arcuati pilosi, aculeis parvi armati, superne glandulis stipitatis adspersi, turions whip-like arching pilose, with prickles small armed, above with glands stalked sprinkled; see primocane (Stearn 1983). 


Turma,-ae (s.f.I), turma: troop, squadron, throng, group of species; see group;

    - species e turma Selaginellae bisulcatae, species from (i.e. belonging to) the group of (i.e. typified by) Selaginella bisulcata (Stearn 1983). 


Turn: anfractus,-us (s.n.IV), anfractu; see bend; spiral, twist;

    - chlorophoro singulo anfractibus 2-5, with a single chloroplast having 2-5 turns (Stearn).


turned: contortus,-a,-um (part.A): intricate, intertwined; perplexed, complicated, twisted, twisted together obversus,-a,-um (part.A), turned towards, directed towards, opposite; tortus,-a,-um (part.A)n tortuous, turned, twisted, crooked; versatus,-a,-um (part.A): turned, bent, wound, twisted; versus,-a,-um (part.A), as a participle: turned towards, facing; after ad and acc., or after a noun in the accusative; see bent.

  NOTE: turned as in curved back: retrocurvatus,-a,-um (adj.A), retrocurvus,-a,-um (adj.A), curved back or retroflexus,-a,-um (part.A): bent back, reflexed; see other terms for ‘curved’ or ‘bent’; cf. reflexus.


turned down or aside: deflexus,-a,-um (part.A), ‘deflected, bent or turned abruptly downwards;’

    - petiolis per angulum 45* deflexis, with petioles deflexed through an angle of 45 degrees.

    - folium ad apicem valde deflexum, the leaf at the apex strongly bent backward.


turned towards: versus (adv.) (usu. preceded by adv. or name of object in acc.); obversus,-a,-um (part.A);

    - apicem versus, towards the tip.

    - sursum versus, upwards.

    - sutura vexillo obversa, suture turned towards the vexillum, i.e. on the side nearest the vexillum; cf. direction. (Stearn)

turned towards, facing: versus,-a,-um (part.A): as a participle, after ad and acc., or after a noun in the accusative; see verso; see versum (adv.);

    - ad muros versus, turned toward the walls.

    - ad Oceanum versus, towards the ocean; ad Alpes versus, facing the Alpes.

    - in agrum versus, turned into the field;

    - costis in apices versus evanidis, with costae vanishing into the apices.

    - pileus centrum versus convexus vel planus, pileus toward the center convex or plane.

    - lamina a basi apicem versus gradatim attenuata, with the blade from the base to the apex gradually attenuated, after acc. alone: Arpinum versus.

    - costa apicem versus evanida, seta vanishing toward the apex.


turning: contorquens,-entis (part.B): intertwining, contorting, twisting, twisting together; obvertens,-entis (part.B): turning towards anything, directing towards anything; torquens,-entis (part.B): winding, twisting, turning about.


turning around;  versans,-antis (part.B): turning, bending, winding, twisting vertens,-entis (part.B), turning towards, facing; changing, altering; see bending.


turning: change of state or process of becoming is usually expressed by participle ending -escens or -ascens; see becoming;

    - thallus lutescens, thallus turning yellow (Stearn). more exs.

    - planta KOH flavescens, plant turning yellow in KOH.


-turning: in Gk. comp. -trop; -tropium,-ii (s.n.II):

  Heliotropium L. Turnsole, Heliotrope, "The ancient name, from the Greek helios, the sun, and tope, a turn; ancient writers believing that it turns toward the sun in flowering" (Fernald 1950).


turning down or aside: deflectens,-entis (part.B);

    - folium strictum praeter ad apicem valde deflectens, leaf straight except at the apex strongly bending backward.

turned towards the inside, opening on the inside, turned toward the axis, situated on the inner side of a filament, as an anther, introrse: introversus,-a,-um (part.A).

turned towards the outside, extrorse, opening on the outside, turned away from the axis, situated on the outer side of a filament, as an anther: extroversus,-a,-um (part.A).

turning toward the sun: or to the sun  heliotropicus,-a,-um (adj.A).

turning or bending aside, a deflexion: deflexio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. deflexionem.

turned upside down, transposed: see inversus,-a,-um (part.A)

  full of turns: labyrinthine: daedaleus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'marked with sinuous intricate lines', labyrinthinus,-a,-um (adj.A), labyrintine; labyrintheus,-a,-um (adj.A), labyrinthicus,-a,-um (adj.A), labyrinthiformis,-e (adj.B),

  ‘of or belonging to a labyrinth, labyrinthine,'irregularly bent and crumpled' (Stearn 1983); flexuosus,-a,-um (adj.A), sinuosus,-a,-um (adj.A), ‘sinuous, sinuate, very sinuate, full of bendings, windings or curves;’ tortuosus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. worm-shaped; see zigzag. 

  with many turns (adv.): flexuose (adv.), sinuose (adv.).

  in turn, in their turn, in order, in their order: ordine (adv.), in ordinem, per ordinem, in ordine, ex ordine: in turn, in their turn, in order, in their order;

    - genera describere omnia ordine, to describe all the genera in turn.

    - tabulae in ordinem confectae, the plates  completed in turn

  in turn, by turns, alternately, taking turns, reciprocally:  in vicem, invicem (adv.); per vices, alterne (adv.), alternatim (adv.);

    - flores masculos atque femineos in vicem evolvens, developing masculine and feminine flowers in turns.

    - gemmae foliaque alternatim sequentes, gemmae following leaves alternately.

  in turn, conversely (in change of viewpoint): vicissim (adv.):

      - alii auctores species caducas in Rosam includentes vicissim alii in genera Rubo, some authors including the caducous species in the genus Rosa, others in turn (include it) in the genus Rubus.

  turns, successive; alternation: vicissitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. vicissitate:

    - vicissitatem generationis exhibens, showing an alternation of generations.


Turnip: napus,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. napo; rapa,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. rapa; rapum,-i (s.n.II), rapo.

Turnip-bed: napina,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. napina; rapina,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. rapina: 'a turnip-crop, a turnip-field.'

turnip-shaped, depressed globose with an acumination at the base: napiformis (adj.B), rapiformis,-e (adj.B).


turpis,-e (adj.B): ugly, unsightly, foul, filthy.

turpiter (adv.): in an ugly or unsightly manner.

Turpitudo,-inis (s.f.III), abl. sg. turpitudine: ugliness, foulness, deformity, unsightliness; syn. deformitas,-atis (s.f.III); see deformity.


turquoise-colored, pale green greenish-blue: callainus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Turret, little tower: turricula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. turricula.

turreted, towered: turritus,-a,-um (adj.A).

Turricula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. turricula: a little tower

turriformis,-e (adj.B): shaped like a tower.

turriger,-gera,-gerum (adj.A), turrigerus,-a,-um (adj.A): tower-bearing.

  Apios americana var. turrigera Fern.


Turris,-is (s.f.III), abl. sg. turre: tower, q.v.

turritus,-a,-um (adj.A): furnished with towers (as a wall); tower-like, towering high, as cliffs (scopuli).


tussus,-a,-um (part.A), tusus,-a,-um (part.A): struck, beaten; bruised [>L. tundo, tutudi, tunsum, tussum and tusum, 3. to beat, strike, buffet with repeated strokes; to bruise, to keep pounding or hammering].


Tutamen,-inis (s.n.III), abl. sg. tutamine: a defence, protection, means of defence; see decus,-oris (s.n.III).

Tutamentum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. tutamento = tutamen,-inis (s.n.III).

Tutaculum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. tutaculo = tutamen,-inis (s.n.III).


twelve: duodecim (num. adj. indecl.) 'twelve;' duodecimus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'twelfth;' duodecies (adv.), duodeciens (adv.) 'twelve times;'

    - flores staminibus duodecim praediti, flowers provided with twelve stamens.

    - stamine duodecimo reducto vel nullo, with the twelfth stamen reduced or none.

twelve-: in Gk. comp., dodec-, dodeca-; see dodec-, dodeca-;

    - dodecandrus, 12-stamened; dodecanthus, 12-flowered

    - dodecaphyllus, 12-leaved; dodecastylus, 12-styled.


twenty: viginti (num. adj. indecl.) 'twenty;'

    - flores stylis viginti praediti, the flowers provided with twenty styles.

     viginti unus,-a,-um        unus,-a,-um et viginti  21

     viginti duo, duae, duo  duo, duae, duo et viginti  22

     viginti tres, tria          tres, tria et viginti  23

     viginti quattuor              quattuor et viginti  24

     viginti quinque                quinque et viginti  25

     viginti sex                        sex et viginti  26

     viginti septem                  septem et viginti  27

     viginti octo                      octo et viginti  28

     viginti novem                    novem et viginti  29



  in L. comp. viginti-;

    - folia vigintijuga, leaves 20-paired; vigintifolius, 20-leaved.

    - vigintantherus, with 20 anthers.

  in Gk. comp. icos-, icosa-, icosi-;

    - icosandrus, with twenty stamens; icosantherus, with 20 anthers; icosaphyllus, 20-leaved

    - icosahedron,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. icosahedro, a polyhedron having 20 faces (sides)


twentieth: vicensimus,-a,-um (adj.A), also vicesimus,-a,-um (adj.A); stamine vicensimo nullo, with no 20th stamen.

    vicesimus,-a,-um (adj.A): 20th

    vicesimus,-a,-um (adj.A) primus,-a,-um (adj.A)    21st

    vicesimus,-a,-um (adj.A) secundus,-a,-um (adj.A)  22nd

    vicesimus,-a,-um (adj.A) tertius,-a,-um (adj.A)   23rd

    vicesimus,-a,-um (adj.A) quartus,-a,-um  (adj.A)  24th

    vicesimus,-a,-um (adj.A) quintus,-a,-um (adj.A)   25th

    vicesimus,-a,-um (adj.A) sextus,-a,-um (adj.A)    26th

    vicesimus,-a,-um (adj.A) septimus,-a,-um (adj.A)  27th

    vicesimus,-a,-um (adj.A) octavus,-a,-um (adj.A)   28th

    vicesimus,-a,-um (adj.A) nonus,-a,-um (adj.A)     29th


twenty times: viciens (adv.) or vicies (adv.)

  growing in twenties: viceni (adv.).


twice:  bis (adv.), q.v. 'twice, in two ways, at two times, on two occasions;' duplo (adv.), 'doubly, twice; double;' duplicato (adv.) 'twice as much;'

    - frutex bis in anno fructificans, shrub bearing fruit twice in a year.

    - 2-vel 3-plo, duplo vel triplo, two or three times; see times.

    - foliis duplo latioribus quam longis, with leaves two times wider than long.

    - pedunculo duplo folium subtentem superante, by the peduncle twice  exceeding (longer than) the subtending leaf

    - articuli diametro trichomatis ad duplo breviores, rarius ad duplo longiores, articule up to twice shorter than the diameter of the trichome, more rarely to twice longer.

   - stamina petalis duplo pluria vel rarius numero aequalia, stamens two times more than the petals or more rarely equal in number.


twice-, two-, double-:

  in L. comp. bi-, q.v., 'two-, double-, twice-;' bis-, in L. comp. twice-, the same as bi-, used when the word to which it is compounded begins with a vowel; duplicato-, 'twice, doubly;' duo-, two; duplo-, 'doubly; both, double; twice, double;'

    - bicoloratus, two-colored; biglumis,-e, two-glumed; bijuglandifer,-fera,-ferum, with two glands; bijugus, with two pairs of leaflets; bivalvis,-e, with two valves.

    - bisalatus, with two wings (bis + alatus); bisantherus, with two anthers.

    - duosepalus,-a,-um (adj.A), duosepalous, with two sepals.

    - duplodentatus, with doubled teeth; duplopetalus, with two petals.

    - duplicato-dentatus,-a,-um (adj.A): twice dentate.

    - duplicato-crenatus,-a,-um (adj.A): doubly crenate, each tooth itself toothed.

    - duplicato-pinnatus,-a,-um (adj.A): bipinnate.

  in Gk. comp., di-: two-, double-; see di-;

    - diadelphus, with stamens in two sets; diandrus, two-stamened; diarthrodactylus,-a,-um (adj.A): (in Charophyta) having each ultimate ray two-celled; dichroanthus, with two-colored flowers; diclinus, with unisexual flowers, lit.'in two beds;' dicyclus, with two circular twists; dimorphus, of two shapes.

  in Gk. comp. dich-, dicho-, q.v.: in Gk. comp. two, split in two;

    - dichodontus, with two teeth, with teeth split in two; dichotomos,-on (adj.A), cut into two, halved.

  NOTE: bis- as a prefix in chemistry, 'doubled', as in complex chemical expressions, such as bisdimethylamino- (WIII).

  NOTE: the generic name Dianthus is a contraction of Diosanthos, flower of Zeus (Stearn 1983).


twice as much, double: duplus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. triplus,-a,-um (adj.A), three times as much;

    - intervallis duplis vel triplis, with the intervals double or triple.

    - amplitudine dupla, with the size twice as much.

    - vere numero seminum duplo, in spring with the number of seeds twice as much.


Twig, rod, wand, stick: ramulus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. ramulo 'the smaller divisions of a much-branched plant;' ramunculus,-i (s.m.II), ramunculo, 'the ultimate division of a branch;' sarmentum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. sarmento, 'cut and green twigs, small branches, brushwood;' scopa,-ae (s.f.I), q.v., scopa: a thin branch, twigs, shoots, a sprig; surus,-i (s.m.II), suro: 'shoot, twig'; see surculus, sucker-like outgrowth; vimen,-inis (s.n.III), vimine, a long flexible shoot, an osier; see especially virga,-ae (s.f.I), q.v., twig = 'most recent growth;' see branchlet, pole, wand.


Twig, little, small rod, wand: virgula,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. virgula.

  living on twigs, branches: ramicola,-ae (s.c.I), abl. sg. ramicola.

  made or consisting of twigs or shoots, twiggy: virgatus,-a,-um (adj.A), virgate, made of twigs, twiggy; virgeus,-a,-um (adj.A).

Twiggy place, place full of brushwood: virgetum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. virgeto; see thicket.


Twin: geminus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. gemino, a double, one of two twins.

Twins: gemini,-orum (pl.m.II), abl. pl. geminis.

twin-: in L. comp. gemi-;

    - gemipomus,-a,-um (adj.A), producing double fruit.

twin-born: see paired.


Twine, cord, rope, string: chorda,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. chorda; linum,-i (s.n. II), abl. sg. lino; see rope, thread.


twining: volubilis,-e (abj.B). "Direction of twining is indicated by the  adverb sinistrorsum, 'towards the left side', or dextrorsum, 'towards the  right side', the phrase 'extus vis.' or 'externe vis.,' 'seen from outside' or 'e latere vis.,' 'seen from the side' distinguishing the viewpoint of an  observer with the stem in front of him from that of a person who imagines himself entwined within its coil ('e centro vis.,' 'seen from the center') or climbing a spiral stairway' cf. A. Gray in American Journal of Science III, 3: 162 (1880), Schmucker in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 41, i: 51(1924) (Stearn 1983); cf. scandens,-entis (part.B), climbing, ascending; see liana, winding;

    - frutices saepius volubiles, shrubs most often twining;

    - herbae caulibus volubilibus, herbs with twining stems (Stearn).

    - liana dextrorsum (externe visa) volubilis, liana to the right (seen from the outside) twining.

    - caulis infra sinistrorsum (externe visus) infra dextrorsum volubilis, stem below to the left (seen from the outside) above, to the right twining.

twined, wound around: circumplicatus,-a,-um (part.A).

twining, winding around: circumplicans,-antis (part.B).

Twining, a whirling or twining motion, the characteristic of twining or rolling: volubilitas,-atis (s.f.III), abl. sg. volubilitate.

intertwined: contortus,-a,-um (part.A): intricate, intertwined.

intertwining: contorquens,-entis (part.B): intertwining, contorting.

an intertwining: contortio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. contortione.

twining in habit, as a liana: lianescens,-entis (part.B); lianoideus,-a,-um (adj.A).

twining with the sun, twisted from left to right: eutropicus,-a,-um (adj.A).

in a twining manner; spinning; in a changeable or unstable manner: volubiliter (adv.).


twinned, twin-born, paired: binatus,-a,-um (adj.A), paired, in pairs, two each, with a pair, as a leaf divided into two leaflets; gemellus,-a,-um (adj.A), geminatus,-a,-um (part.A), ‘geminate, doubled, paired, in pairs;’ geminus,-a,-um (adj.A); jugatus,-a,-um (adj.A; didymus,-a,-um (adj.A) see double, paired; see didymus,-a,-um (adj.A); diplo-.


-twinned, -paired: -geminatus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.: in L. comp. '-paired';

    - bigeminatus, with or in two pairs, double-paired, i.e. in 4's; trigeminatus, with or in three pairs.


Twist (noun): anfractus,-us (s.m.IV), abl. sg. anfractu, 'a turning, bending; winding, a  spiraling;' convoluta,-ae (s.f.I), convoluta, 'a twist, a rolling up;' spira,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. spira,' that which is wound, wreathed, coiled or twisted;' see spiral; see turbo,-inis (s.m.III);

    - cellulae spirales 8-9 convolutas ostendentes, spiral cells showing 8-9 twists (Stearn 1983).

     - trichomata circinata anfractibus unis ad octo, trichomes coiled with one to eight spirals.

    - elater intus spira continens, elater containing a spiral within.

    - trichomata elongata inferne recta superne uncinata vel per totam longitudinem in spiram laxam plus minusve irregularem contorta, apice attenuata, trichomes elongated, below straight, above hooked or for the whole length in a loose spiral more or less irregularly twisted, at the tip attenuate (Stearn 1983). 


twisted: contortus,-a,-um (part.A) ' irregularly twisted, bent into irregular curves;’ helicoideus,-a,-um (adj.A) helicoid, spirally twisted; tortus,-a,-um (part.A), ’twisted, bent, wound;’ tortilis,-e (adj.B) ‘twisted;’ torsivus,-a,-um (adj.A) ‘twisted spirally’ (Stearn), also ‘plicate and contorted, contortiplicate’ (Kiger & Porter 2001); torquatus,-a,-um (adj.A): 'adorned with a collar or zone, twisted, as wearing a twisted collar or necklace;' tortuosus,-a,-um (adj.A): 'tortuous, bent or twisted in different directions, involved, complicated, irregularly twisted, intricate; see contorted, crispatus,-a,-um (part.A); see spiral, zigzag; cf. twining; 

    - trichomata plerumque funiformi-contorta, trichomes commonly twisted like a rope.

    - frustula circum axem apicalem torta, frustules twisted around the apical axis (Stearn 1983). 

    - trichomata simplicia libera mobilia cochleatim tortilia apicem versus attenuata, trichomes simple free mobile spirally twisted towards apex, narrowed.

    - trichomata elongata inferne recta superne uncinata vel per totam longitudinem in spiram laxam plus minusve irregularem contorta, apice  attenuata, trichomes elongated, below straight, above hooked or for the whole length in a loose spiral more or less irregularly twisted, at the tip attenuate (Stearn). 

  spirally twisted: anfractuosus,-a,-um (part.A): sinuous, spirally twisted; helicoideus,-a,-um (adj.A) helicoid, spirally twisted; torsivus,-a,-um (adj.A) ‘twisted spirally’(Stearn 1983); see coiled.

  in a twisted manner, crookedly: torte (adv.), contorte (adv.); see spirally.



  in L. comp. torti-;

    - tortifolius, with twisted leaves; tortispinus, with twisted spines or thorns.

  in Gk. comp.  strepto-, q.v.;

          - Streptocalypta,-ae (s.f.I), veiled with a twisted calyptra or veil, calyptra; Streptopogon, with a twisted beard, from the twisted peristome; Streptopus,-i (s.m.II) Michx., Twisted-stalk, from streptos, twisted and pous, foot or stalk; Streptotrichum, with twisted peristome teeth.

twisted, liable to twist: tortilis,-e (adj.B).

twisted together: conglomeratus,-a,-um (part.A), rolled or wound together, conglomerated;  to press together; contortus,-a,-um  (part.A), twisted together, intertwined.

twisted from left to right, twining with the sun: eutropicus,-a,-um (adj.A).


twisting: (con)torquens,-entis (part.B) ’winding, twisting, turning around;’ see twining, winding; see turning.


Twisting (noun), torsion: contorsio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. contorsione; torsio,-onis (s.f.III), abl. sg. torsione; cf. turbo,-inis (s.f.III).


Two: "the cardinal numerals unus (1), duo (2) and tres (3) are declined; the others from quatuor (4) to centum (100) are used unchanged whatever the gender and case of the noun which they qualify ." (Stearn 1983); cf. 'both;' see second;


          m.         f.      n.

Nom.     duo       duae     duo          (always plural)

Gen.    duorum    duarum    duorum

Dat.    duobus    duabus    duobus       'the two; both'

Acc.  duo or duos  duas     duo

Abl.    duobus    duabus    duobus


  NOTE: 'two' (duo, duae, duo) in the sense of 'both' refers to two unrelated or unassociated objects; see 'both';

   - interdum antheridia duo per oogonium visa, sometimes two antheridia per oogonium seen.

   - coloniae aetate duarum vel trium hebdomadum, colonies at the age of two or three weeks, 2- or 3-week-old colonies (Stearn, 1983). 

   - lodiculae duae hyalinae truncatae vel bilobatae glabrae, 1-3 mm  longae, lodicules 2 hyaline truncate or 2-lobed glabrous 1-3 mm long (Stearn 1983).

   - lobis ventralibus duobus lanceolatis majoribus, sinu non profundo separatis, with lobes ventral two lanceolate larger, separated by a shallow sinus.

   - folia quaterna, in quoque verticillo duo longiora, duo breviora, leaves four together, in each whorl two longer, two shorter (Stearn 1983).

   - interdum antheridia duo per oogonium visa, sometimes antheridia two per oogonium seen.

   - antheridia plerumque paragyna, per oogonium unica vel raro duo, antheridia usually paragynous, per oogonium single or rarely two.

   - saepe in caespitibus interruptis duobus vel pluribus, often in interrupted tufts two or more.

   - vacuolae apicales contractiles duae, apical contractile vacuoles two.

   - vacuolis apicalibus contractilibus duabus, with apical contractile vacuoles two.

  NOTE: ambo, ambae, ambo, q.v., numerical adj. expressed in plural only and declined like duo, duae, duo: 'both', two together, the two, of objects naturally in pairs, such as hands or the ends of two-ended objects, used of two objects considered together as a pair;

    - in ambabus extremitatibus, at both ends.

    - ad ambas extremitates, at both ends.

  NOTE: uter, utra, utrum (indefinite relative pron.): whichsoever of two, the one (of two) which; either of the two, one or the other, one of two; see uterque, utraque, utrumque to which the grammatical points apply;

    - uter florum fertilis, hieme caducus, either one of the (two) fertile flowers, in winter is caducous.

  NOTE: uterque, utraque, utrumque (pronoun), q.v.: either, each of two, each member of a  pair, both (considered  separately), used in the singular to consider each one of two things 'applied to two subjects regarded severally, while [ambo, ambae, ambo, numerical adj. 'both'] regards the two as a pair' (Lewis & Short);   

    - in utroque latere costae, on each side of the costa

  NOTE: alter, altera, alterum (irregular adj.A), q.v.: the other (of two), the one, one of two, the second;   

    - perigyniae duae, altera sterilis, perigynia two, one sterile.

    - superficie adaxiali glabra, abaxiali stratis indumenti duobus vestita, alterum stratum e trichomatibus sessilibus stellatis, alterum ex strato granuloso-furfuraceo denso compositum, adaxial surbace glabrous, abaxial clothed with two layers of indument, one layer composed of stellate sessile trichomes, the other with a granulose-furfuraceous dense layer. 


two, two each, two apiece, two at a time; a set of two, paired; the two, both; with substantives that are used only in the plural; of things that match, as oxen in a yoke: bini, binae, bina (adj. num. distr. plural, adj.A); see bini, binae, bina; see second;



               m.    f.      n.

Nom.         bini  binae    bina   (always plural)

Gen.       binorum binarum binorum

Dat.                binis              

Acc.       binos    binas   binos

Abl.                binis


    - spica filiformis solitaria vel binae, spike filiform solitary or paired.

    - angulis binis, with two angles (Stearn 1983).

    - fructibus in quoque ramo binis, with fruits on each branch two (i.e. paired).

    - folia secus rhachim bina, leaves two along the rhachis.


two-, twinned-, double-: see twice-.


two each, paired, in pairs, with a pair, as a leaf divided into two leaflets: binatus,-a,-um (adj.A); cf. geminatus; see paired;

    - aculeis binatis, with prickles in pairs.

    - dentibus peristomii in crura binata divisis, with the teeth of the peristome divided into paired crura.


by twos, in pairs, two each, two at a time; two together: binatim (adv.);

    - foliolis binatim dispositis, with leaflets arranged in pairs.

    - suturis binatim dehiscentibus, with sutures dehiscing in pairs.


two-colored: bicolor,-coloris (adj.B); for declension see -colored; bicolorus,-a,-um (adj.A); dichroicus,-a,-um (adj.A), dichrous,-a,-um (adj.A), dichromus,-a,-um (adj.A).


of two months (duration): bimestris,-e (adj.B).


two-thirds: see bes, gen. sg. bessis (s.m.III), i.e. 'two-thirds (= eight unciae) of any whole composed of twelve parts', but apparently used to represent two-thirds of any quantity, such as length;

    - pappi squamis dimidiis vel bessibus longitudinis tubarum corollarum, with the scales of the pappus half or two-thirds the length of the corolla-tubes (St. John & White, 1920). 

two years old, of two years, continuing two years: bimus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - fructibus bimis, with fruits that are two years old.

  Bryum bimum Schreb.


tych-, tychae, tyche, tychero-, tycho-: chance, fortune [> Gk. tychE (s.f.I), what is obtained from the gods, good fortune, luck; Lat. fortuna];

    - tycholimnetic [> Gk. tychE (s.f.I), what is obtained from the gods, good fortune, luck + limnetic, pertaining to ponds; see limnetic 'of fresh water'] "used of that floating vegetation which at times is at the surface, and at others is attached to plants or rocks at the bottom" (Jackson): tycholimneticus,-a,-um (adj.A), tycholimnicus,-a,-um (adj.A);

    - plantae tycholimneticae, tycholimnetic plants.

    - tychopelagic [> Gk. pelagos, the open sea]: as in 'tycholimnetic' but pertaining to the open sea.

    - tychopotamicus,-a,-um (adj.A) [> Gk. potamos, a river]; thriving in still waters, occurring only incidentally in flowing waters; Plankton, the floating organisms of pools and river overflows (Jackson); see autopotamic (thriving in still waters), eupotamic (thriving in both flowing and still waters).

    - plancton (-i, s.n.II) tychopotamicum (adj.A), abl. sg. plancto tychopotamico, nom. & acc. pl. plancta tychopotamica.


tyl-, tylo-, -tylus,-i (s.m.II): in Gk. comp. callose, knobbed, knotted, padded [> Gk. tylos (s.m.II) or tylE (s.f.I) a knot or callus; anything rising like a lump, knot, knob; a callus, pad];

    - tylarus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. tylaro, the pad present on the undersurface of a bird's toe.

    - tylaster: a small spicule of sponges with the ray ends knobbed.

    - Tylosaurus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. Tylosauro: a genus of dinosaurs with limbs that function as paddles.

    - tylotatus,-a,-um (adj.A): having knobs at both ends, as in the tylotate spicule of a sponge.

    - tylosis,-is (s.f.III), abl. sg. tylose: callosity, a (diseased, unnatural, unusual) thickening and hardening of an organ or body part; a protrusion from a plant parenchyma cell into an adjacent tracheary element.

  Possibly the fungus genera: Tylochytrium (Chytridiales); Tylodon; Tylomyces; Tylophoma, Tylophorellomyces; Tylopilus; Tylosperma, Tylostoma.


tylicolor,-oris (adj.B): in modern Latin, the color of a woodlouse, slate or dark gray (Jackson).


tylot-, tyloto-: in Gk. comp. knobbed  knotted [> Gk. tylOtos, E, on: adj. knobbed, knotted; tylos (s.m.II) or tylE (s.f.I) a knot or callus; anything rising like a lump, knot, knob; a callus];

    - tylotus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. tyloto, a tylote, an elongate spicule in sponges with a knob at both ends.

    - Tylotoxea,-ae (s.f.I), a sponge spicule sharp at one end, the other knobbed.


tymb-, tymbo-, -tymbus,-i (s.m.II): in Gk. comp. tomb-, -tomb [> Gk. tymbos (s.m.II), a place where a dead body is burned; a barrow or cairn, an earthen mound heaped over the ashes, a tomb or grave; Lat. tumulus,-i (s.m.II), q.v.; Lat. tumba,-ae (s.f.I) a sepulchral mound, tomb; tumbula,-ae (s.f.I), a little tomb; see sepulcrum,-i (s.n.II), tomb.


-tymma,-atis (s.n.III), tymmat-, tymmato-: in Gk. comp. a blow [> Gk. tymma,-atos (s.n.III), a wound, a blow, stroke].


tympan-, tympani-, tympano-, -tympanum: in Gk. comp. a drum, a membrane; [> Gk. tympanon (s.n.II): a kettle-drum; Lat. "in Latin tympana were wagon-wheels made of a solid piece of wood; rollers" (Lidell & Scott).

  The fungus genus Tympanis, possibly.


tympanicus,-a,-um (adj.A): relating to a tympanum, associated with a membrane;

    - membrana (s.f.I) tympanica, a tympanic membrane, a thin membrane enclosing a cavity, such as the theca of a moss.


tympaniformis,-e (adj.B): drum-shaped, as the membrane covering the mouth of a capsule in mosses [> L. tympanum,-i (s.n.II), a drum].


Tympaniolum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. tympaniolo: a little drum, a small tympanum.


tympanoideus,-a,-um (adj.A): resembling the head of a drum (such as an epiphragm, q.v.).


Tympanum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. tympano: the membrane across the mouth of the capsule of a moss; the epiphragm, as in species of Astomum or Weissia; [> L. tympanum,-I (s.n.II), a translation from the Gk. a drum, timbrel, tambourine, tambour; > Gk. tympanon (s.n.II): a kettle-drum; Lat. "in Latin tympana were wagon-wheels made of a solid piece of wood; rollers" (Lidell & Scott)]; see epiphragm, membrane.


typ-, typi-, typo-: in Gk. comp. a blow or strike; a type [> Gk. typos (s.m.II) a blow; the mark of a blow, the impress or stamp, print, mark from a blow; a figure, image; outline, sketch; a type, model, the  original pattern; a system or form of doctrine (Lidell & Scott)].


Type, kind or sort of thing; the ideal representative of a group, genus, species: typus,-i (s.m.II), typo [> L. typus,-i (s.m.II), a figure on a wall, > Gk. typos, a blow; an outline, sketch; the original pattern, model, type; a type, figure; a system, form of doctrine]; also forma,-ae (s.f.I), q.v. abl. sg. forma; see kind; cf. morph (noun): in Gk. comp., -morpha,-ae (s.f.I), -morpha [ > Gk. morphE (s.f.I), form, shape, figure; Lat. forma,-ae (s.f.I)];

    - pollinis granula e typo "Stachelpollen", pollen grain from the type "Stachelpollen" (spine-pollen) (Stearn 1984).

    - pollinis granula c. 60 um diametro sphaeroidea ad typum "Wabenpollen" nominatum pertinentia, pollen grains about 60 um in diameter to the type named "Wabenpollen" (honey-comb pollen) belonging (Stearn 1984).

    - loculi ad typum simplices, non divisi pertinentes, locules belonging to the simple, undivided type.

    - zygosporae ad typum I nominatum pertinentes, zygospores belonging to type called I.

    - formae ambae hypharum, the two (i.e. both) types of hyphae (nom. pl.).  

    - typus in vivario Cantabrigiensi depositus, type deposited in the living collection at Cambridge.  

  NOTE: something of two types may be dimorphic: dimorphus,-a,-um (adj.A) or dimorphicus,-a,-um (adj.A) or biformis,-e (adj.B); see dispar,-paris (adj.B) 'unlike, different, dissimilar, unequal;' dissimilis,-e (adj.B), unlike, dissimilar; inaequabilis,-e, (adj.B), inaequalis,-e (adj.B), unequal.

  NOTE: -oideus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.: resembling:

    - gynoecia in ramis longis frullanoiodeis disposita, gynoecia on long Frullania-type branches seated.


Type (taxonomic or categorical): typus,-i (s.m.II), acc. sg. typum, dat. & typo, nom. pl. typi, gen. pl. typorum, acc. pl. typos, dat. & abl. pl. typis;

    - apotypus: apotype = hypotypus, q.v.; apotypicus,-a,-um (adj.A): varying or departing from a type.

    - ecotype: see oecotypus,-i (s.m.II).

    - generitypus, typus generis, type-species of a genus.

    - genotypus: genotype, the type species of a genus; also the genetic constitution or the totality of the genes of an individual or group. genotypicus,-a,-um (adj.A): pertaining to the genotype.

    - holotypus, the one specimen or element used by the author of a name or designated by him/her as nomenclatural type. 

    - hypotypus: hypotype "a specimen of a species not of the original type series but known by published description, figure, or listing " (WIII), = apotypus, an apotype; hypotypicus,-a,-um (adj.A) imperfectly typical; of or relating to a hypotype; = apotypicus,-a,-um (adj.A).

    - isosyntypus, a duplicate of a syntype; it is not cited in a protologue. All duplicates cited by the author are syntypes.

    - isotypus, duplicate of the holotype, part of the single gathering made by the collector at one time constituting the holotype.

    - lectotypus: lectotype, specimen selected from original material to serve as nomenclatural type when the holotype is missing or not designated.

    - logotypus: logotype, a generitype designated subsequent to the publication of a generic name (WIII).

    - neotypus, a specimen selected for working purposes as representative when all of original material on which the name of the taxon was based is missing.

    - oecotypus,-i (s.m.II), ecotype " a subdivision of an ecospecies that comprises individuals which are interfertile with each other and with members of other ecotypes of the same ecospecies but which maintain their individuality as a distinct group through environmental selection and isolation and that is when morphologically distinct comparable with a taxonomic subspecies" (WIII).

    - paratypus, specimen cited with the original description other than the holotype. 

    - syntypus, one of the specimens used by the author when no holotype was designated or when two or more were simultaneously designated as type; cf. topotypus. (Stearn 1983).

    - typotype: topotypus,-i (s.m.II), topotypo, topotype, i.e. specimen from the type-locality agreeing with the type-specimen.

    - a typo speciei coloribus pilei pallidioribus atque superficie stipitis omnino alba differt, from the type of the species it differs by the colors of the pileus paler and also by the surface of the stipe altogether white.

    - locus (-i (s.m.II) typi (gen. sing. of typus), abl. sg. loco typi: type locality. 

    - materia (s.f.I) typica (adj.A), abl. sg. materia typica, type material, "a group of equivalent specimens collected at the type locality at one time and used wholly or partially in the identification and description of a new taxonomic entity" (WIII). 

    - collectio culturarum typicarum, abl. sg. collectione culturarum typicarum, a collection of type specimens; collectio culturarum typicalium, a collection of type specimens.

    - descriptio (-onis (s.f.III) typi, abl. sg. descriptione typi, type description; descriptio typica (adj.A), type description; descriptio typicalis (adj.B), type description.

    - specimen (-inis (s.n.III) typi ( typus, q.v.), abl. sg. specimine typi, type specimen; exemplum typicum, abl. sg. exemplo typico;

     - Typus: C. L. Hitchcock & L. S. Martin 7931a (WTU); Type: C. L. Hitchcock & L. S. Martin 7931a (WTU).


typh-, typho-: in Gk. comp. a whirlwind, hurricane, a furious storm, cyclone [> Gk. typhOn,-Onos (s.m.III): Typhon, a giant; a hurricane, whirlwind, storm; possibly related to Gk. typhos (s.m.II), 'smoke cloud, mist; = Lat. fucus; Lat. typhon,-onis (s.m.III), abl. sg. typhone:  a violent whirlwind, a typhoon].

  NOTE: the word typhoon, a tropical cyclone of the Philippines and China Sea, is partly from Gk. typhOn, whirlwind and a Cantonese word.

  Typhonium,-ii (s.n.II), a genus of Australia and India (Araceae); Typhonium divaricatum is endemic in the South Asia, in the Monsoon Region;

  Thyphonodendrum,-i (s.n.II), a genus (Araceae) with species in Madagascar as is Typhonodorum,-i (s.n.II), 'gift of the typhoon.'


typh-, typho-,  -typhus,-i (s.m.II): in Gk. comp. smoke [> Gk. typhos (s.m.II), smoke, cloud, mist].


Typha,-ae (s.f.I), abl. sg. Typha, the cat-tail, rush; the name in Greek.


typhinus,-a,-um (adj.A): resembling or made of rushes (Typha).


typhl-, typhlo-: in Gk. comp. blind  [> Gk. typhlos, E, on (adj.): blind; of things, dark, dim, obscure, unseen; Lat. caecus,-a,-um (adj.A), q.v.];

    - typhlologia,-ae (s.f.I), typhlology, the scientific study of blindness.

    - Typhlomolge > gk. typhl- + Molge: a genus of salamanders that dwell in underground waters and that lack functional eyes; monotypic with T. rathburni.

    - Typhlops, > Gk. typhl- + ops, 'eye' a genus constituting the 'blind snakes', small burrowing snakes; type genus of the family Typhlopidae.


typhoid: typhosus,-a,-um (adj.A).


Typhon,-onis (s.m.III), abl. sg. typhone:  a violent whirlwind, a typhoon; see typh-, typho-: in Gk. comp. a whirlwind. 


typhonicus,-a,-um (adj.A): relating to a typhoon; 

    - ventus typhonicus (adj.A), a typhoon wind.


typho-paratyphoid: typho-paratyphosus,-a,-um (adj.A).


typt-, typto-: in Gk. comp. beat, rap [> Gk. verb typtO: to beat, strike, knock, smite, beat; of plants or animals, such as bees, to sting].


Typhus: typhus,-I (s.m.II), abl. sg. typho.

typhusus,-a,-um (adj.A): of or relating to typhus.


typically: typice (adv.); cf. plerumque (adv.): 'for the most part, very frequently, commonly, mostly, generally'; see generally, usually.


typicus,-a,-um (adj.A): in Gk. typikos, figurative, typical; periodical, recurring at intervals; agreeing with or representing the type or form of a group;

    - pro parte quoad plantam typicam, in part as regards the type plant.


typicus,-a,-um (adj.A): in Gk. comp. typical, of the type collection or specimen;

    - terra typica restricta, restricted type locality.

    - monotypicus, monotypic.

    - specimen (-inis (s.n.III) typi ( typus, q.v.), abl. sg. specimine typi, type specimen; exemplum typicum, abl. sg. exemplo typico; exemplum typicale, abl. sg. exemplo typicali, type specimen.

    - cultura (-ae (s.f.I) typi, abl. sg. cultura typi, type culture; cultura typica, type culture; cultura typicalis, abl. sg. cultura typicali, type culture.


typicalis,-e (adj.B): typical, having the nature of a type, representing something by a form, model or resemblance; showing the essential characteristics of a group sharing the nature of a type; conforming to a type; syn. regular (WIII); syn. regularis,-e (adj.B); ordinatus,-a,-um (adj.A) 'regular, according to a rule or order'; ordinarius,-a,-um (adj.A) q.v., 'ordinary, usual, customary, regular;' normalis,-e (adj.B), q.v., conforming to a standard (a norm); see usual; opp. atypicus,-a,-um (adj.A): not typical, abnormal, cf. aberrans, abnormal, anomalous.


Typonym: typonymum,-i (s.n.II), abl. sg. typonymo, a basionym based on the same type but published independently and not by transfer (Ainsworth & Bisby) following Donk (Bull. Bot. Gard. Buitenzorg, Ser. 3, 18, 274, 1949). 


Typus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. typo: a figure or image; a form, type, character; the ideal representative of a group, genus, species [> Gk. typos (s.m.II), a blow, the mark or impress or stamp of a blow, a print or mark; the pattern, model, type; a form of doctrine]; see type.


tyr-, tyro-, -tyreum,-ii (s.n.II), -tyrion,-ii (s.n.II): in Gk. comp.: cheese [> Gk. tyros (s.m.II), cheese]; tyridium,-ii (s.n.II) or tyridion,-ii (s.n.II), a diminutive; Lat. = caseus,-i (s.m.II); see cheese;

    - tyronotus,-a,-um (adj.A), with a layer of cheese, spread with cheese; tyrophorus,-a,-um (adj.A): bearing cheese, spread with cheese

  Possibly the fungus genera: Tyridomyces, which may be associated with a yeast, Tyrodon (=Hydnum); Tyromyces, a segregate from Polyporus Ainsworth    & Bisby); Tyroglyphus siro, the cheese-mite.


tyrann-, tyranno-: in Gk. comp. tyrant-, master-, king-;

    - Tyrannosaurus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. Tyrannosauro, king-lizard [> Gk. tyranno-, king + -saurus, lizard].


Tyrannus,-i (s.m.II), abl. sg. tyrrano: Lat. & Gk., a king, sovereign, ruler, monarch; a despot, tyrant.

  Tyrannus: a genus of birds, the flycatchers, including the kingbird;

  Tyrannidae, a family of American birds.


tyrannicus,-a,-um (adj.A): tyrannous, tyrannical.


tyrb-, tyrbo-: in Gk. & Lat. comp. disorder, bustle, throng; = Lat. turba,-ae (s.f.I) [> Gk. TyrbE (s.f.I), disorder, > Lat. turba,-ae (s.f.I) uproar, disorder, commotion, disturbance]; see turba,-ae (s.f.I).


tyrianthinus,-a,-um (adj.A): a color between purple and violet (Lewis & Short).


tyrius,-a,-um (adj.A): tyrian purple (H.C.C.7.27).


tyto-, tyton-: in Gk. comp. 'owl' [< Gk. tytO, an owl].

  Tyto,-onis (s...III): a genus of owls; Tytonidae, a monotypic family of owls (barn owls).


tytth-, tyttho-: in Gk. comp. little, small, young (of children); tytthocarpus,-a,-um (adj.A): with small fruits.

  Tytthostemma Nevski.

  Allium tytthanthum; Carex tyttholepis; Cotoneaster tytthocarpus; Hieracium tytthopogon; Hygrophila tyttha; Nepeta tytthantha; Phlomis tytthaster