BFNA Title: Anacolia
Author: D. Griffin, III
Date: July 21, 2003
Edit Level: R Brum+
Version: 1

Bryophyte Flora of North America, Provisional Publication
Missouri Botanical Garden
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Edit Level R Brum + Kiger+




3. ANACOLIA Schimper, Syn. Musc. Eur. ed. 2, 2: 513.  1876, name conserved * [Greek ana, short, Latin col, neck, alluding to capsule neck absent or nearly so]


Plants small to moderately robust, yellowish green to green above and reddish brown below, occasionally vinaceous, in dense to loose tufts. Stems 1--5 cm, erect to ascending, simple or fastigiate, octagonal in cross section, with prorulose epidermis, usually densely reddish radiculose proximally with felt-like rhizoids. Leaves imbricate, appressed when dry, not sheathing, erect to spreading or recurved when moist, mostly narrowly lanceolate from an ovate base, sometimes broader or narrower above; margins revolute in distal half, occasionally almost to base, 1--3-stratose (sometimes 3--4-stratose at margins), singly or doubly serrate; costa stout, percurrent to long-excurrent; cells variable, mostly oblong to linear or quadrate, thick-walled, strongly prorulose to nearly smooth, basal cells usually shorter and broader, sometimes linear near costa. Specialized asexual reproduction not known. Sexual condition dioicous, perigonia and perichaetia terminal, appearing lateral by innovations, perichaetial leaves scarcely distinct. Seta solitary, short, to 2--12 mm, straight or somewhat curved, smooth. Capsule erect to inclined, globose to ovoid or short-cylindric, leptodermous, irregularly wrinkled when dry, neck lacking or very short, mouth small, annulus lacking or scarcely developed; operculum low-convex to conic-obtuse; peristome none or of a low membrane or of 16 short, fragile teeth, usually falling early, endostome rare, very faint. Spores globose to reniform, warty or coarsely papillose.


Species 4 (2 in the flora): North America, South America; Europe, Asia, Africa.


Anacolia is recognized by its imbricate, appressed leaves, which are borne on prorulose stems that are felty tomentose below. When fertile, the usually erect, irregularly wrinkled capsules are distinctive. Within the flora area, Anacolia is confined to western North America.


SELECTED REFERENCE  Flowers, S.  1952.  Monograph of the genus Anacolia.  Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 79: 161--185.



1. Distal cells of leaf prorulose at both ends on both surfaces, inner basal cells linear; distal lamina 2--3-stratose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Anacolia laevisphaera


1. Distal cells of leaf smooth or with a few cells bearing low prorulae on abaxial side; inner basal cells quadrate or short-rectangular; distal lamina 1--2-stratose .  . .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  2. Anacolia menziesii


1. Anacolia laevisphaera (Taylor) Flowers in A. J. Grout, Moss Fl. N. Amer. 2: 155.  1935


Glyphocarpa laevisphaera Taylor, London J. Bot. 5: 56.  1846


Plants in loose to dense tufts, yellow green or reddish. Stems 1--5 cm. Leaves imbricate when dry or with distal leaves divaricate, spreading to recurved when moist, narrowly ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 2--6.5 mm; margins coarsely doubly serrate distally; costa excurrent to long-excurrent, rough on back; distal cells 2-stratose toward costa and 3--4 stratose at margins, short-rectangular to linear, to 45 × 3--7 µm, prorulose at both ends, basal cells subquadrate, grading to short-rectangular toward margins, to 20 µm × 10--12 µm. [Seta 2--8 mm, straight, reddish. Capsule subglobose to ovoid, 2--3 mm; operculum low conic; peristome none. Spores 23--28 µm.]


Dry to moist soil, often in rock crevices or on talus slopes; 1000--1650 m; s Ariz., Colo, N.Mex.; Mexico; West Indies; Central America; South America; Asia; Africa.


The prominently prorulose leaf cells and the well differentiated cells of the leaf base distinguish this species from Anacolia menziesii. When sterile, Bartramia stricta may be mistaken for A. laevisphaera.


2. Anacolia menziesii (Turner) Paris, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, sér. 5, 6: 27.  1894


Bartramia menziesii Turner, Ann. Bot. (König & Sims) 1: 525.  1805; Anacolia menziesii var. baueri (Hampe) Paris


Plants in dense, yellow green to reddish brown tufts. Stems 3--5 cm, ascending to erect. Leaves erect, imbricate when dry, spreading when moist, narrowly lanceolate from an ovate base, 2.5--4.5 mm, plicate along both sides, straight to slightly falcate, margins revolute above (sometimes almost to base), singly or doubly serrate above; lamina 1(--2)-stratose along distal margins; costa percurrent to long-excurrent; distal laminal cells rectangular to oblong, to 25 × 4--10 µm, smooth or prorulose at distal or proximal end; basal cells shorter and wider, mostly smooth. Seta 5--12 mm. Capsule erect to inclined, globose to ovoid or short-cylindric, 2--2.8 mm, fragile and often split, mouth small, exothecial cells quadrate, intensely colored below mouth; operculum conic obtuse; peristome mostly lacking, variously developed when present and usually broken, occasionally as a low thin membrane below mouth. Spores 18--32 µm.


Capsules mature Feb.--Aug.; rocks, ledges and ravines, often in shady canyons, occasionally soil; 500--2200 m; B.C.; Alaska, Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., Nev., Oreg., Utah, Wash.,  nw Wyo.; Mexico (Baja Califorinia Norte).


The less prorulose leaf cells and lack of sharp distinction between inner and outer basal cells of the leaf aid in distinguishing this species from A. laevisphaera. Anacolia menziesii var. baueri, is moderately distinct from the type variety by virtue of more elongate capsules but is not recognized here.