BFNA Title: Campylophyllum
Author: L. Hedenäs
Date: Nov. 2000
Edit Level: R
Version: 3

Bryophyte Flora of North America, Provisional Publication

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XX. CAMPYLOPHYLLUM (Schimper) Fleischer, Nova Guinea 12 Bot. 2: 123. 1914 *  [Greek campylo-, curved, and -phyllus, leaved]

 

Lars Hedenäs

 

Hypnum subg. Campylophyllum Schimper, Syn. ed. 2: 721. 1876

 

Plants small or minute, yellow-green, yellow-brown or brown. Stem irregularly to pinnately branched, with or without narrow central strand and without a hyalodermis; paraphyllia absent or sparse, lanceolate-linear or sometimes ovate; rhizoids or rhizoid initials only on stem or at abaxial leaf costa insertion, smooth or slightly warty-papillose, slightly or strongly branched; axillary hairs with 1--6 distal hyaline cells. Stem leaves from erect to spreading base recurved or squarrose, sometimes slightly homomallous, cordate or narrowly to broadly ovate, suddenly narrowed to ± long, channeled acumen, apex acuminate, not or near base slightly plicate, concave; marginal lamina cells 1-stratose, margin plane or near base recurved, denticulate or entire; costa short and double, abaxially distally sometimes rough or ending in a spine; median lamina cells elongate-hexagonal to linear, few or many cells in distal leaf distally prorate; differentiated alar cells few or numerous, transversely rectangular to rectangular, near insertion sometimes elongate-rectangular, incrassate or slightly so, eporose, small, widest cells 8.5--16 \um wide, forming a distinctly or indistinctly delimited, quadrate, isodiametric, oblong or broadly ovate group along margin, reaching from leaf margin 20--65% of distance to leaf middle at insertion, decurrent or not. Sexual condition autoicous. Inner perichaetial leaves gradually or suddenly narrowed to acuminate apex, plicate or slightly so; margin entire or denticulate in acumen, more strongly denticulate or with single teeth at shoulder; lamina cells smooth, or some distal cells with distally prorate ends. Capsule cylindric, ± curved and horizontal; peristome perfect; exostome margin dentate or slightly dentate above. Spores 8--17.5(--21) \um.

 

Species 10--11 (3 in the flora): mainly in the Holarctic and tropical mountains, with rare occurrences in the Southern Hemisphere.

 

Species of Campylophyllum grow either on at least periodically dry calcareous rocks and soil, or on organic substrates. They are all small (stem leaves up to 1 x 0.7 mm), the leaves are at least partly recurved or squarrose, with a channeled acumen, and a short and double leaf costa that sometimes ends in a spine or has distally prorate cells on its back. The median and distal lamina cells are distally prorate on the back of the leaf and the alar cells are homogeneous, not inflated (widest cells 8.5--16 /um wide) and form a quadrate or oblong to broadly ovate alar group that extends up along the basal leaf margin. The outer pseudoparaphyllia are either filamentose, or narrowly foliose. The seta is short, up to 22 mm, the exostome border is only slightly widened where the pattern changes from cross-striolate to papillose, and the endostome cilia are nodose. In their size and microscopic features Campylophyllum species are similar to certain Hypnum species, such as, H. pallescens and H. recurvatum, rather than to species of Campyliadelphus or Campylium despite striking differences in leaf orientation.

 

SELECTED REFERENCES  Andrews, A. LeRoy. 1957. Taxonomic notes. XIII. The genus Campylium. Bryologist 60: 127--135. Crundwell, A. C. and E. Nyholm. 1962. A study of Campylium hispidulum and related species. Trans. Brit. Bryol. Soc. 4: 194--200. Hedenäs, L. 1997. A partial generic revision of Campylium (Musci). Bryologist 100: 65--88.

 

1. Stem leaves densely inserted, strongly squarrose from erect-spreading base in at least parts of shoot, 0.3--0.7 mm wide, acumen 32--45% of leaf length; alar group small, extending from leaf margin 20--35% of distance to leaf middle at insertion; paraphyllia often present, sparse, lanceolate-linear or sometimes ovate; distal cells of axillary hairs 1--6, frequently rectangular or shortly so  . . .  1. Campylophyllum halleri

1. Stem leaves densely or rather sparsely inserted, ± recurved from erect to almost spreading base, when dry sometimes more erect, sometimes slightly homomallous, 0.2--0.5 mm wide, acumen 40--62% of leaf length; alar group larger, extending from leaf margin 40--65% of distance to leaf middle at insertion; paraphyllia absent; distal cells of axillary hairs 1--3, linear or shortly so.

2. Distal alar cells of stem leaves transversely rectangular, quadrate or shortly rectangular, basal alar cells mostly shortly rectangular, sometimes rectangular, alar group extending from margin 50--65% of distance to leaf middle at insertion; seta 9--17 mm  . . . 2. Campylophyllum hispidulum

2. Distal alar cells of stem leaves quadrate to rectangular, basal alar cells elongate-rectangular to shortly rectangular, alar group extending from margin 40--50% of distance to leaf middle at insertion; seta 12--22 mm . . . 3. Campylophyllum sommerfeltii

 

1. Campylophyllum halleri (Hedwig) Fleischer, Nova Guinea 12 Bot. 2: 123. 1914

 

Hypnum halleri Hedwig, Sp. Musc. 279. 1801; Campylium halleri (Hedwig) Lindberg; Hypnum macounii Kindberg.

 

Plants green, yellowish or brown. Stem with paraphyllia often present, sparse, lanceolate-linear or sometimes ovate; distal cells of axillary hairs 1--6, frequently rectangular or shortly so. Stem leaves densely inserted, when moist and dry strongly squarrose from erect-spreading base in at least parts of shoot, acumen 32--45% of leaf length, leaves 0.3--0.7 mm wide; distal alar cells quadrate or rectangular or occasionally transversely rectangular, basal alar cells longer, rectangular or longly rectangular, alar group small, extending from leaf margin 20--35% of distance to leaf middle at insertion. Seta 8--13 mm.

 

Mountainous areas of the West, mostly lowland areas in the East, calcium-rich rocks; 0--1700 m; Alta., B.C., N.B., Nfld., N.W.T., Que., Yukon; Alaska, Colo, Mont., N.Y.; Mexico (Nuevo León); Eurasia.

 

Campylophyllum halleri is easily recognized by strongly squarrose leaves and short leaf acumina. Similarly strongly squarrose leaves occur in other pleurocarpous species, for example in some of the much larger Rhytidiadelphus species, but not in other North American species of Campylophyllum. No type material of Hypnum macounii Kindberg was found among Kindbergs material in S.

 

2. Campylophyllum hispidulum (Bridel) Hedenäs, Bryologist 100: 74. 1997

 

Hypnum hispidulum Bridel, Sp. Musc. 2: 198. 1812; Campylium hispidulum (Bridel) Mitten; Campylium hispidulum var. cordatum  Grout

 

Plants green or yellow-green. Stems with paraphyllia absent; distal cells of axillary hairs 1--3, linear or shortly so. Stem leaves densely or rather sparsely inserted, when moist and dry ± recurved from erect to almost spreading base, sometimes more erect when dry, sometimes slightly homomallous, acumen 40--58% of leaf length, leaves 0.2--0.5 mm wide; distal alar cells transversely rectangular, quadrate or shortly rectangular, basal alar cells mostly shortly rectangular sometimes rectangular, alar group extending from leaf margin 50--65% of distance to leaf middle at insertion. Seta 9--17 mm.

 

Campylophyllum hispidulum and C. sommerfeltii are both small or minute species with ± recurved leaves. The first has somewhat larger alar groups than the latter, and the alar cells tend to be shorter, varying from transversely rectangular to shortly rectangular in the distal portion of the group to shortly rectangular or rectangular more proximally. In leaves of C. sommerfeltii the alar cells are quadrate to rectangular distally, but elongate-rectangular to rectangular or sometimes shortly so proximally. The seta length varies from 9--17 mm in C. hispidulum compared to 12--22 mm in C. sommerfeltii, and fertile specimens can often be identified on the basis on this character.

 

Mainly lowlands, growing on soil, tree bases and decaying wood, mainly forests or otherwise sheltered habitats; 0--1650 m; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld., Ont., Que., Ala., Alaska, Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.; Mexico; South America (Venezuela); Asia (Japan).

 

Campylophyllum hispidulum and C. sommerfeltii are closely related, and some specimens are difficult to refer to either species. However, C. hispidulum has a wider geographical distribution than C. sommerfeltii in North America, but does, on the other hand, not occur in Europe, a clear indication that the two are different taxa.

 

3. Campylophyllum sommerfeltii (Myrin) Hedenäs, Bryologist 100: 75. 1997

 

Hypnum sommerfeltii Myrin, Årsber. Bot. Arb. Upptäckt. 1832: 328. 1832; Campylium hispidulum var. sommerfeltii (Myrin) Lindberg; C. sommerfeltii (Myrin) Lange

 

Plants green, yellow-green or yellow-brown; paraphyllia absent; distal cells of axillary hairs 1--3, linear or shortly so. Stem leaves densely or rather sparsely inserted, when moist and dry ± recurved from erect to almost spreading base, sometimes more erect when dry, sometimes slightly homomallous, acumen 43--62% of leaf length, 0.2--0.5 mm wide; distal alar cells quadrate to rectangular, basal alar cells elongate-rectangular to shortly rectangular, alar group extending from leaf margin 40--50% of distance to leaf middle at insertion. Seta 12--22 mm.

 

Lowlands and mountainous areas, to subalpine region, decaying wood or soil, more rarely on rock; 0--3000 m; Greenland; Alta., N.B., Nfld., N.W.T., Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Colo., Minn., N.H., N.Y., Pa., S.Dak., Tenn., Vt.; Mexico; Eurasia.

 

OTHER REFERENCES

Crum, H. A. and Anderson, L. E. 1981. Mosses of eastern North America, Volume 2. New York.

 

Nyholm, E. 1965. Illustrated moss flora of Fennoscandia. II, Musci. Fasc. 5. Lund.