BFNA Title: Cladopodiella
Author: L. Leonardi
Date: August 9, 2011
Edit Level: R
Version: 1

Bryophyte Flora of North America, Provisional Publication
Missouri Botanical Garden

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XX. CLADOPODIELLA H. Buch, Memoranda Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 1: 89. 1925  *  [Greek clado branch, -podi- foot, Latin -ella diminutive; possibly alluding to postical branches close to substratum]

Lorinda Leonardi


Stem cortical and medullary cells similar, without differentiated superficial cells; ventral branches with leaves, reduced leaves, or leafless; without surface structures; rhizoids postical or on ventral branches, hyaline.  Leaves succubous, not decurrent, widest at or close to middle, 2-lobed, lobes slightly asymmetrical, sinus acute to obtuse; margin smooth; cells round or quadrate to elongate, cuticle smooth, trigones absent to small; oil bodies papillose, ellipsoidal to round.  Underleaves 0--1 per lateral leaves, 2--7 cells in width at base, mostly lanceolate, entire to 2-lobed, lobes ciliate or lanceolate, margins and apices smooth with or without slime papillae; cells round or quadrate to elongate, medium to thick-walled, trigones absent to small.  Rhizoids hyaline, scattered ventrally or absent.  Asexual reproduction present or absent.  Sexual condition dioicous.  Androecia terminal or intercalary on stems or branches; bracts imbricate, 4--9 pairs, concave, mostly 2-lobed, often toothed at base, with or without slime papillae at apices or along margins; bracteoles similar to underleaves but smaller; antheridia orbicular, hyaline, bronze or red-purple, 0.1--0.2 mm in width, 1 per bract; jacket cells irregularly orientated; stalks 2 cells in width, 3--4 cells in length.  Gynoecia terminal on postical branches, innovational branches absent; bracts 2--4 pairs, 2-lobed, concave, longer than leaves, with or without slime papillae along margins, bracteoles mostly similar in size and shape to bracts; connate, adnate, or free; stem-derived protective structure absent.  Perianth 0.5--0.8 exerted, oblong to lingulate; mouth tapered to slightly tapered, sinuate, crenate to entire; 1(2)3-stratose (1--)2(--3)-stratose near base, 1-stratose near mouth; without surface ornamentation.  Sporophyte seta cross section with 13--18 exterior cells and 5--16 interior cells; capsule ovoid, 4-valved, outer cells with nodular rust-colored thickenings, inner cells with semiannular rust-colored thickenings.  Elaters with tapered or truncate ends, 2-spiraled, spirals 2.5--4 \um in width, red-rust.  Spores papillose, red-rust to purple.


Species 2 (2 in the flora): North America, Europe, Asia, Africa.


SELECTED REFERENCES:  Schuster, R. M. 1974. Cladopodiella. In: R. M. Schuster. 1966---

1993. Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America East of the Hundredth Meridian. New York. Vol. 3. Pp. 678--695.



1.  Leaves typically wide-spreading, mostly flat, 0.5--1.1 mm; gemmae never present . . .  1. Cladopodiella fluitans


1.  Leaves typically erect-spreading, mostly concave, 0.3--0.5 mm; gemmae often present. . .  2. Cladopodiella francisci



1. Cladopodiella fluitans (Nees in Funck) Jörgensen, Bergens Mus. Skr. 16: 276. 1934 


Jungermannia fluitans Nees in Funck, Krypt. Gew. Fichtelgeb. 29: no. 593. 1823 


Plants yellow-brown, green or purple-black, prostrate, shoots 20--45(--100) mm. Stems 150--200 \um in diameter; cortex and medulla 6--8 cells in width, cortical cells in transverse section 30--90 x 20--27 \um; ventral branches with leaves, reduced leaves, or leafless. Leaves wide- to erect-spreading, mostly distant but contiguous to slightly imbricate, flat to slightly curved, oblong, 0.5--1.1 x 0.4--0.8 mm, 2-lobed 0.2--0.4 leaf length; largest leaf lobe 7--15 cells in width at base, lobe apices obtuse to occasionally acute.  Leaf cells 15--38 \um at margins, 20--40  medially in lobes,\um 18--60 \um at midleaf, 15--60 \um at base; thin to thick-walled; oil bodies 3--10 per cell, 4--10 \um.  Underleaves  cells 12--75 \um.distant, 0.2--0.5 x 0.05--0.15 mm  Specialized asexual reproduction absent.  Androecial bracts 0.4--0.7 x 0.4--0.6 mm.  Gynoecial bracts 0.8--1.2 mm.  ­­Perianth with 2--3 plicae at mouth, 2.5--4 x 0.7--1 mm. Sporophyte capsule wall of 3 cell layers, 30--35 \um in thickness, outer cells 10--18 in width, inner cells 10--13 \um. Elaters 125--250 x 10--13 \um.  Spores 15--20 .\um


Acidophile, often growing intermingled with sphagnum or peat in pools, less commonly on moist soil or rock; bogs, lake and pond edges, moist open areas; mostly low to moderate elevations; Greenland; Alta., B.C., Nfld. & Labr. (Labr.), Man., N.B., Nfld., N.W.T., N.S., Ont., P.E.I, Que.; Alaska, Conn., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Ohio, R.I., Vt., Wash., W.Va., Wis.; Europe; Asia; Africa.


Sometimes confused with the more common Gymnocolea inflata, Cladopodiella fluitans may be identified easily if perianths are present.  The perianths of C. fluitans, which are more elongate than the more globose perianths of G. inflata, do not become detached from the stem.  Also C. fluitans does not develop terminal or lateral branching as does Gymnocolea. 



2. Cladopodiella francisci (Hooker) Jörgensen, Bergens Mus. Skr. 16: 274. 1934 (as franciscii) 


Jungermannia francisci Hooker, Brit. Jungermann., pl. 49. 1813 

Plants green or purple-red, prostrate with erect branches, shoots 3--15 mm. Stems 120--150 \um in diameter; cortex and medulla 5--7 cells in width, ventral branchesx 10--30 \um; cortical cells in transverse section 20--65, with leaves or leafless. Leaves erect to wide-spreading, mostly imbricate but contiguous to distant, concave to slightly concave, ovate, 0.3--0.5 x 0.2--0.4 mm, 2-lobed 0.1--0.3\x leaf length; largest leaf lobe 5--8 cells in width at base, lobe apices acute to obtuse.  Leaf cells 10--28 \um at  atat midleaf, 18--45 \um 10--25 \um medially in lobes, 10--38 \um margins base; medium to thick-walled; oil bodies 1--5 per cell, 4--8(--14) \um.  Underleaves distant to imbricate, 0.11--0.18 x 0.06--0.11 mm, cells 7--38 \um.  Specialized asexual reproduction often present on leaf margins of erect stem tips, gemmae hyaline-green or red-purple, stellate, 3--6-angled, 17--33 \um, 1(--2)-celled.  Androecial bracts 0.1--0.5 x 0.1--0.3 mm.  Gynoecial bracts 0.6--1 mm.  Perianth with 3--6 plicae at mouth, 1.8--2.5 x 0.7--0.9 mm.  Sporophyte capsule wall of 2(--3) cell layers, 20--30 \um thick, outer cells 10--15 \um in width, inner cells 5--8 \um  Elaters 65--170 x 8--10 \um.  Spores 12.5--15 \um.


Acidophile, often forming uniform patches on moist sandy to gravelly soil and less common on peat; wetlands, heathlands, lake and pond edges, roadsides, and cliff ledges; low elevations to alpine summits; Greenland; Nfld., N.S., Que.; Conn., Maine, Mass., N.H., N.Y., R.I.; Europe. 


Because of its size and form, Cladopodiella francisci may be confused with species of Cephalozia, but absence of a hyalodermis and the non-decurrent leaves will readily distinguish Cladopodiella. Cladopodiella francisci is less common than C. fluitans, but in ideal conditions can form abundant patches. The two species are easily separated by size, growth form and habitat, and presence or absence of gemmae.