BFNA Title: Calyculariaceae
Author: Konstantinova & Mamontov
Date: April 21, 2018
Edit Level: S
Version: 1

Bryophyte Flora of North America, Provisional Publication
Missouri Botanical Garden
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XX. Calyculariaceae He-Nygren, Juslen, Ahonen, Glenny & Piippo, Cladistics 22: 27. 2006

Nadezhda A. Konstantinova

Yuriy S. Mamontov

Plants thalloid with hemidiscoid apical cell; thallus with distinct midrib, bearing persistent ventral scales, 2--6(--8)-seriate at the base, abruptly tapering into a uniseriate tip with marginal teeth or cilia, in cross- section with one layer of dorsal epidermal cells smaller than medulla; central strands lacking. Sexual condition dioicous. Gametangia dorsal on thallus midrib; perigonial scales transversely inserted, variable in shape and size, each subtending 1--4 subsessile globose antheridia; antheridial stalk quadriseriate; perichaetial scales linear to  lanceolate, posterior and lateral to an archegonial cluster, or scattered among them. Caulocalyx (not a pseudoperianth see note) formed after fertilization, infundibulate to campanulate, multistratose at the base, becoming unistratose at the mouth, plicate; mouth with 3--4 massive laciniate or ciliate lobes. Calyptra large, more or less thick at the base. Capsules broadly ovoid to spheroidal, with a basal elaterophore, with 2--4-stratose wall, with outer cells larger than inner cells, with seminanular or spiral thickening bands in all strata, dehiscing by 4--7 irregular valves. Spores brownish black, large (30--80 /mu, ovoid to spheroidal, with long conic or cylindric echinate outgrowths.


Genera 1, species 2 (1 genus, 1 species in the flora): North America; South America, Eurasia, Africa.


Calyculariaceae includes only one genus and is segregated in a monotypic suborder Calyculariineae He-Nygren, Juslen, Ahonen, Glenny & Piippo of the Fossombroniales Schljakov.



XX. Calycularia Mitt., J. Proc. Linnean Soc. 5:122. 1861 [Latin calyculus, alluding to bracts simulating a calyx]



Plants thalloid, without a distinct midrib,  pale to yellowish or deep green, often with secondary fuscous to reddish pigmentation, with apical portion of thallus emarginate or nearly obcordate, sometimes strongly recurved to the dorsal surface. Branching terminal, less often ventral, dichotomous. Thallus wings flat, undivided or deeply lobed, with undulate or crispate 1-stratose margins. Midrib not distinct, dorsally flat or concave, ventrally convex, 8--20 cells thick; central strands lacking. Rhizoids colorless or pale brown, or fuscous. Ventral scales restricted to costal area and most abundant towards an apical notch, 2--6(--8)-seriate at base abruptly tapering into a 1-seriate tip with marginal teeth or cilia. Sexual condition dioicous, gametangia dorsal on thallus; male plants usually smaller than the female with dorsal scales mostly in several rows along midrib. Androecia subtended by 1-stratose bracts, these erect or concave, lamelliform, laciniate-dentate. Archegonia aggregated in well-defined or diffuse clusters and surrounded by slender scales or sometimes mixed with them. Female scales erect, arcuate, or prostrate, linear to lanceolate, with marginal teeth or cilia. Caulocalyx purplish red to red-brown or colorless, large, up to 6 mm high and up to 5 mm wide, usually found at apical part of the thallus or rarely medially, infundibuliform, bell-shaped or inflated-cylindric, mouth with 3--4 massive laciniate or ciliate lobes. Calyptra large, pyriform, base more or less thickened. Capsule brownish to blackish, broadly ovoid to spheroidal, with 2--4-stratose wall with semiannular or spiral thickening bands in all strata, dehiscing by 4--7 irregular valves. Seta massive, up to 2.5 cm long and 0.5 mm wide, in cross section 7--22 cells in diameter. Elaters 2--4 spiral, 120--300 x 8--12 \um, 120--300 \um long, with spirals ca. 2 \um thick. Spores brownish black, 30--80 \um, with long echinate outgrowths.


Species 2 (1 in the flora): Western North America, Mexico, Arctic, Europe, Asia, Africa.


selected references Konstantinova, N.A. and Yu.S. Mamontov. 2010. A revision of the genus Calycularia Mitt. (Calyculiariaceae, Marchantiophyta). Arctoa 19: 117--130. Steere, W.C. and H. Inoue. 1978. Hepaticae of Arctic Alaska. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 44: 251--346.



1. Calycularia laxa Lindb. & Arnell, Kongl. Svenska Vetensk. Acad. Handl., n.s. 23(5): 66. 1889


Plants 3--12 cm long and 1--5 mm wide, yellowish or deep green to reddish and purplish red and red-brown, prostrate, nearly flat or with undulate margins, never forming lobe-like structures, simple or 1--2 times furcated, never with ventral branches. Thallus wing with cells thin-walled, (60--)90--130(--160) x 26--70 (--80) \um, with the midrib gradually tapering into a one-cell thick margin. Ventral scales (73--) 250--1000 \um long, 60--200 \um wide. Oil-bodies small and numerous, 1--3.7 \um, 12--58 per cell. Male plants with dorsal scales in several rows along midrib or (rarely) scattered over the apical portion. Archegonia in a diffuse cluster, surrounded by slender scales or mixed with them. Female scales yellowish to purplish red or colorless. Specialized asexual reproduction lacking. Caulocalyx yellowish to purplish red, rarely colorless, often with purplish red to red-brown laciniate-ciliate mouth, with cilia 1-seriate almost from the base, 3--14 cells long. Seta 15--22 cells in diameter. Spores 33--80 \um, with conical, needle-like, or (very rarely) nearly cylindrical projections, mostly acuminate or weakly rounded.


Capsules very rare, mature July--Sept. Wet and shady places on soil, peat in tundra , on humus covered rocks and in cliffs in mountains; low elevation in tundra to high elevation in mountains (to 1700 m); B.C., Alaska; Arctic; n Europe; n, e Asia.


Calycularia laxa is most likely to be mistaken for the second species of the genus, C. crispula, which is restricted to the tropics. However, in C. crispula, the thallus is deeply divided into lobes, the midrib is well defined and often pigmented, the lobes of the caulocalyx mouth bear laciniae that are biseriate almost to the apex, and the cylindric projections of the spores are truncate or emarginate at apex. Sterile plants of C. laxa might be confused with Moerckia or Pellia; C. laxa differs from both in having foliose and usually purplish ventral scales.


OTHER REFERENCES Dauphin, G. 2005. Catalogue of Costa Rican Hepaticae and Anthocerotae. Tropical Bryology 24: 141--218. Grolle, R. 1980. Miscellanea hepaticologica 201-210. J. Bryol. 11: 325--334. Inoue, H. 1976. Illustrations of Japanese Hepaticae. Vol. 2. Tokyo.