July 23, 2014



This is a short instruction file for authors of FNA vol. 29.


The latest “Contributors’ Guide” for FNA is here. Substitute hepatic terminology for the references to vascular plants. See also recent treatments online at the BFNA Web site.


Authors should determine the modern correct names, and put all names that have been recognized as correct in American literature (not European) in synonymy or “excluded names.” Helpful files are the accepted names and hepatics chart by Marshall Crosby.


You are requested to arrange the characters in your descriptions following the order in the Character List for Hepatics and Anthocerotes.


Authorities should follow Brummitt and Powell, except that the last names should be spelled out. For problematic names, see the entries in Tropicos.  Bob Magill, nomenclatural editor, can advise if there are discrepancies.


You are also requested to make sure that all traits listed in the keys are also found, exactly the same, in the descriptions. And that any traits used for one species in a genus are also described for each of all other species of the genus (i.e., all traits are parallel). The same parallelism is needed for descriptions of all subgenera and genera in a family, and tribes and subfamilies, and to a somewhat lesser degree to family descriptions.  The best way to do this is to make a spreadsheet of traits of the genera and make sure there are no empty spaces. This has been a major hold-up in getting Vol. 28 edited by technical staff.


In descriptions, for traits not in the FNA flora region for a particular taxon, put them in [  ] square brackets. E.g., Leaves oblong [lanceolate], etc.


Given that nearly half the genera and half the species have been submitted at the time of this writing (June 10, 2014), supraspecific classification matches already fairly well the classification suggested about 10 years ago, following the system of K. S. Renzaglia and K. C. Vaughn for hornworts, and of B. Crandall-Stotler and R. E. Stotler for liverworts in A. J. Shaw & B. Goffinet. 2000. Bryophyte Biology. Cambridge University Press. Those who wish to change to a more recently published supraspecific classification should reference B. Crandall-Stotler et al. 2009. Phylogeny and classification of the Marchantiophyta. Edinb. J. Bot. 66: 155–198. Any classification changes from that the classifications of Shaw and Goffinet (2000) should be negotiated with any other affected authors (R. Zander will mediate in case of disagreement). The FNA is mostly an identification manual, not a taxonomic monograph.


As of June 14, 2014, the classification of FNA Volume 29 and assignment of authorship is summarized at (click here). If you want to change your status or classification, let me (richard.zander@mobot.org ) know.


Alan Whittemore has provided a spreadsheet of rather up to date nomenclature for genera and families, which should prove helpful. He also has compiled a handy checklist of the species in the FNA region.


The area of the flora is North America north of Mexico and including Greenland. This is the order of citation in the distribution paragraph:


Greenland; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labrador, N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Ala., Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.; Mexico; West Indies; Bermuda; Central America (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama); South America; Arctic; Eurasia, or Europe; Asia (including Indonesia); Africa (including Madagascar); Atlantic Islands; Indian Ocean Islands; Pacific Islands (including New Zealand); Australia; Antarctic.


Note: Alphabetize all abbreviations by the fully spelled out form of the name.


"Nunavut" is the new Canadian province composed of the eastern half of N.W.T. including most of the Canadian Arctic archipelago.


If you want to mention particular countries, use form like "Europe (Belgium, France, Germany)". If you want to emphasize particular portions of an area outside the flora area (not in it), add "e, w, n, s, c" before the unit, as example in "sw Asia" or "c and sw Europe".


Of ultimate value is the expertise of the authors of liverwort and hornwort treatments. Nothing will serve to complete Vol. 29 but the perseverance and dedication of the contributors.




Illustrations are important. They will be new drawings from material the authors provide. Each genus will be illustrated. We can illustrate one species for each genus, unless there are more than 6 species in the genus, then 1 for each 6 species.


Little-known or little-understood taxa are first choices for illustrations but if identification requires fresh material or sexual plants, or material with oil-bodies, then common species will be illustrated.


If material can be easily rehydrated and drawn, authors can simply send habit material and slides of anatomical features needed for illustration.  For species that are particularly transparent, drawing is difficult unless the material is stained. A  very light staining with Toluidine Blue or similar is effective. Add the material to a drop of very dilute stain, and remove it before it gets too stained. Then make the slide with rinsed material.


If fresh material is needed, this can be sent separately with a note on the package that these are living plants and to not sterilize when they arrive at the Missouri Botanical Garden.  If fresh material must be sent across a national border, a very few plant that can be used for habit and oil-body illustration can be put in saran wrap in a regular letter-sized envelope, one species per envelope, and it should get here. Senders must WARN me to watch for any fresh material that is sent:   richard.zander@mobot.org


Authors are requested to send a habit plant (or two or three), plus slides of anatomical traits that should be illustrated to help key the species. The plate size is small when published, so restrict the traits that should be illustrated to only those important to identify the species. Slides should preferably be made with polyvinyl alcohol-glycerin mounting medium (see Zander 2014). The polyvinyl alcohol-glycerin medium is best for not collapsing cell walls and may keep oil bodies intact for some time (experiment). I now use a 70% clear Elmer’s glue and 30% glycerin mixture rather than the 50/50 mixture suggested in the paper as this makes harder mounts. Stained material should be added to the clear mounting medium; do not put stain into the mounting medium because it is difficult to see the material.



Comments and concerns may be addressed to the Lead Editor, Richard Zander, richard.zander@mobot.org