BFNA Title: Cinclidium
Author: S. G. Newmaster 
Date: April 8, 2008
Edit Level: R 
Version: 1

Bryophyte Flora of North America, Provisional Publication
Missouri Botanical Garden

BFNA Web site: http://www.mobot.org/plantscience/BFNA/bfnamenu.htm

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CINCLIDIUM - Mniaceae

                                                                                                                       

XXX.   CINCLIDIUM Swartz, J. für die Bot. 1801(1): 25. 1803 * [Alluding to the endostome, as if supported by pillars]

                                                                                                                  S. G. Newmaster

 

Plants 3--8(--13) cm, in green, dark red-green, red-brown, or black tufts. Stems erect, simple or branching before the apex; rhizoids dark brown, numerous proximally, often matted. Leaves crowded distally and distant proximally, contorted when dry, erect-spreading or reflexed to arcuate-recurved when wet, elliptic to obovate, 3.5--6 mm, decurrent leaf base short and broad or narrow and long; margins plane or weakly recurved, entire, bordered by 1- to multistratose, linear, reddish cells in 2--4 rows; apices acute to rounded, often apiculate; costa percurrent or excurrent as a sharp, red apiculus; distal and medial cells rounded hexagonal, 70--110 x 25--40 \um, sometimes in diagonal rows, smooth, thick-walled, pitted; alar cells undifferentiated. Specialized asexual reproduction absent. Sexual condition synoicous or dioicous. Seta single, yellow-brown, 40--70 mm, flexuose. Capsule pendent, oblong or broadly pyriform with a short neck, 2--3 mm; annulus deciduous; operculum hemispheric; peristome short and blunt, greenish yellow; endostome yellow-brown, dome-shaped, fused at apex, rupturing at maturity into perforations and keeled segments that alternate with the shorter exostome teeth. Calyptra cucullate. Spores spherical, 25--70 \um.

 

Species 4 (4 in flora): Circumpolar.

 

Cinclidium is distinguished from other genera in the Mniaceae by the fused, dome-shaped endostome supported by keeled segments, leaves abruptly cuspidate, and the positioning of the elongated rhizoids that extend up the stem.  All four species of Cinclidium are easy to distinguish using gametophyte characters. Cinclidium arcticum and C. latifolium have diploid sporophytes (n=7), whereas C. stygium and C. subrotundum have tetraploid sporophytes (n=14).

 

SELECTED REFERENCE:  Mogensen, G. S. 1973. A revision of the moss genus Cinclidium Sw. (Mniaceae Mitt.). Lindbergia. 2: 49--80.

 

1.  Plants synoicous; seta 40--70 mm; leaves 3.5--6 mm.

 

2.  Leaves elliptic to obovate, and acuminate, margins 1-stratose, ending in a sharp, red apiculus; distal laminal cells elongate-hexagonal, in diagonal rows, 70--110 \um; capsules 2--3 mm……………………………………. 1.  Cinclidium stygium

2.  Leaves broadly ovate to spatulate and rounded-obtuse, margins bi-multistratose, ending in a broad, colorless apiculus; distal laminal cells hexagonal, not in diagonal rows, 40--60 \um; leaf ; capsules 1.5--2.5 mm….…..…. 2.  Cinclidium subrotundum

 

1.  Plants dioicous; seta 15--40 mm; leaves 2.5--3.5 mm.

 

3.  Leaves ovate, short-acute, slightly reflexed; distal laminal cells rounded, 30--50 \um …………………………………………………. 3.  Cinclidium arcticum

3.  Leaves ovate to round, obtuse, strongly reflexed to arcuate-recurved; distal laminal cells elongate-hexagonal, 70--90 \um……………….. 4.  Cinclidium latifolium

 

1.  Cinclidium stygium Swartz, J. für die Bot. 1801(1): 27, plate 2. 1803

 

Plants 3--8(--13) cm, in dark red-green, red-brown, or black tufts. Leaves spreading when wet, elliptic to obovate, 3.5--6 mm, decurrent leaf base short and broad; margins plane or weakly recurved, 1-stratose, in 3--4 rows; apices acuminate; costa percurrent or excurrent as a sharp, red apiculus; distal and medial laminal cells elongate-hexagonal, 70--110 x 25--40 \um, in diagonal rows. Sexual condition synoicous. Seta yellow-brown, 40--70 mm. Capsule 2--3 mm. Spores 25--70 \um. 

 

Capsules mature summer. Fens, alpine seeps and in shore-line pools along the Great Lakes; low to moderate elevations; Greenland; Alta., B.C.,  Man., Nfld. and Labrador, N.W.T., Nunavut, Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon; Alaska, Maine, Mich., Mont., N.Y., Wyo.; South America; Europe; Asia.

 

Cinclidium stygium is found growing among mosses (Amblystegium stellatum, Scorpidium scorpioides, Calliergon trifarium, Paludella squarrosa, and Sphagnum warnstorfii) and sedges in seeps and streams that drain fens. It is similar to Rhizomnium punctatum, which is distinguished by a strongly defined, 2- to multistratose leaf border and blunt, non-apiculate, leaves. 

 

2.  Cinclidium subrotundum Lindberg, Bot. Not. 1868: 72. 1868

 

Plants 3--8(--12) cm, in green, red-brown, or black tufts. Leaves erect-spreading when wet, broadly ovate to spatulate, 3.5--6 mm, decurrent leaf base asymmetric, short and narrow; margins plane or weakly recurved, 2-stratose, in 3--4 rows; apices bluntly obtuse; costa percurrent or excurrent as a short, broad apiculus; distal and medial laminal cells hexagonal, 40--60 x 25--35 \um, not in diagonal rows. Sexual condition synoicous. Seta yellow-brown, 40--60 mm. Capsule 1.5--2.5 mm. Spores 25--70 \um.

 

Capsules mature summer. Northern fens and along river banks; low to moderate elevations; Greenland;  Alta., B.C., Man., Nfld. and Labrador, N.W.T., Nunavut, Que., Yukon; Alaska, Mich.; Europe.

 

3.  Cinclidium arcticum (Bruch & Schimp.) Schimper, Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens Handlingar 1846: 143. 1848

 

Mnium arcticum Bruch & Schimper, Bryologia Europaea 4: 203. 386 (fasc. 31 Mon. Suppl. 1: 1. 1). 1846

 

Plants 3--6(--12) cm, in red-brown or black tufts. Leaves erect-spreading when wet, narrowly ovate, 2.5--3.5 mm, decurrent leaf base narrow and long; margins slightly recurved, 1-stratose, in 2--3 rows; apices acuminate; costa percurrent or excurrent as a sharp, red apiculus; distal and medial laminal cells rounded hexagonal, 30--50 x 25--35 \um, not in diagonal rows. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta red to reddish-brown, 15--40 mm. Capsule 2--3 mm. Spores 25--70 \um.

 

Capsules mature summer. Calciphilic, northern fens and marshes; low to moderate elevations; Greenland; B.C., Man., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Yukon; Alaska; Europe; Asia; Antarctic.

 

4. Cinclidium latifolium Lindberg, Botaniska Notiser 1877: 43. 1877

 

Plants 3--6(--12) cm, in red-brown or black tufts. Leaves  reflexed to arcuate-recurved when wet, nearly circular or broadly ovate, 2.5--3 mm, decurrent leaf base very short and broad; margins strongly recurved, 1-stratose, in 2--3 rows; apices shortly obtuse; costa percurrent or excurrent as a sharp apiculus; distal and medial laminal cells elongate-hexagonal, 70--90 x 20--30 \um, in diagonal rows. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta red to reddish-brown, 15--40 mm. Capsule 2--3 mm. Spores 25--50 \um.

 

Wet tundra soils and peat; Greenland; Man., N.W.T., Nunavut, Ont., Que., Yukon; Alaska; Europe.