BFNA Title: Bryhnia
Edit Level R new Aug. 3, 2010
BRACHYTHECIACEAE -- Bryhnia
Michael S. Ignatov
Plants small to robust, green, or yellowish to brownish green. Stems prostrate to ascending or arching, with central strand, unevenly foliate, alternating cochleariform parts with moderately loose foliage or moderately dense with very loose, irregularly to regularly pinnately branching; branches straight, moderately densely terete- to complanate-foliate; axillary hairs 3--4-celled. Stem leaves imbricate-appressed, erect, patent, or rigidly spreading, ovate or ovate- triangular and broadly acute to ovate-lanceolate and then tapered to a long acumen, decurrent; margins serrate distally, serrulate proximally; costa ending in distal portion of leaf, smooth or ending in an abaxial spine; basal cells indistinctly differentiated, thick-walled; alar cells (or sometimes only sub-alar cells) isodiametric, rather large and thin-walled, indistinct or distinct; laminal cells elongate-flexuose, moderately to strongly thick-walled, distal cell ends prorate to papillose on abaxial surface. Branch leaves narrower and smaller than stem leaves, acute to acuminate (more acute than stem leaves), with margins and abaxial surface of costa more strongly serrate and abaxial lamina more toothed. Sexual condition dioicous; perichaetial leaves with reflexed acumens. Seta brownish orange to red brown, rough. Capsule brownish orange to red brown, inclined to horizontal; annulus separating by fragments; operculum high-conic, tapered to a broad beak; peristome xerocastique, perfect. Spores 13--18 \um. Calyptra naked.
5--10 (3 in the flora): North America, South America,
circumscription of Bryhnia needs a
re-evaluation with DNA markers since morphology seems to be misleading. In
1. Plants small, stems to 2 cm; stem leaves narrowly ovate to lanceolate, 0.6--1.1 x 0.25--0.5 mm . . . 1. Bryhnia graminicolor
1. Plants medium-sized to robust, stems usually much longer than 2 cm; stem leaves broadly ovate-triangular to ovate, 0.7--1.5 x 0.7--1.2 mm.
2. Stem leaves ovate-triangular to ovate, 1--1.6 mm, usually longer than broad, acute, rarely cucullate, more or less imbricate but not julaceous (except rarely along some portions of the stem); alar cells usually gradually differentiated; eastern North America . . . 2. Bryhnia novae-angliae
Stem leaves broadly ovate-triangular, 0.7--1.2 mm, often shorter than broad,
rounded or broadly acute, often truncate and short-apiculate, often
cucullate, julaceous; alar cells abruptly differentiated;
1. Bryhnia graminicolor (Bridel) Grout, Bull. Torrey Bot. Cl. 25: 231. 1898
Hypnum graminicolor Bridel, Musc. Recent. Suppl. 2: 251. 1812
Plants small, in moderately dense, soft tufts, light green or brownish yellow-green. Stems to 2 cm, prostrate to ascending, straight or flexuose, terete foliate, rather regularly pinnately branched; branches to 5 mm, straight, terete-foliate. Stem leaves rigidly spreading, narrowly ovate to lanceolate, broadest at 1/5--1/6\x leaf length, not or slightly plicate, 0.6--1.1 x 0.25--0.5 mm, rounded to base, short-decurrent; margins plane or partially recurved, usually only below the broadest point of the leaf, serrulate to serrate almost to base; gradually acuminate; costa moderately weak, reaching 0.6--0.8\x leaf length, ending in an abaxial spine; basal cells shorter in ca. 2 rows, little differentiated from cells above, 7--8 \um wide, thick-walled; alar cells subquadrate to short rectangular, 10--20 x 7--9 \um, forming a small group of about 4 x 4 cells, moderately thick-walled, indistinctly differentiated, sometimes obscured by a recurved portion of the leaf margin; laminal cells elongate, 25--45 x 5--6 \um, strongly papillose at distal corners, the rough surface of leaves readily observed under stereo-microscope and 10\x hand lens. Branch leaves smaller and narrower, more strongly serrulate. Seta 7--15 mm. Capsule inclined, cylindric, not or slightly curved, about 1.6 mm, operculum high-conic and broadly rostrate. Spores 13--15 \um.
Rock faces, crevices, and ledges, soil, often steep banks along roads and creeks, rarely wood, moist shaded to rather open habitats; 0--900(--2040) m; Nfld. and Labr., Ont., Que.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Vt., Utah, Va., W.Va., Wis.
Bryhnia graminicolor usually occurs at low elevations,
reaching to 900 m in the
2. Bryhnia novae-angliae (Sullivant & Lesquereaux) Grout, Bull. Torrey Bot. Cl. 25: 229. 1898
Hypnum novae-angliae Sullivant & Lesquereaux, Musci
Plants medium-sized, in moderately loose to dense tufts, light to dark green, or yellowish to brownish green. Stems to 10 cm, prostrate to arching, slightly curved or flexuose, terete to sub-complanate foliate, with rather numerous sub-dendroid sympodial branches and with occasional rather regular pinnate branching; branches to 7 mm, straight to slightly curved, sub-complanate to complanate-foliate. Stem leaves closely to loosely imbricate, rarely julaceous along some portions of the stem, erect, or patent and then twisted to contorted, ovate-triangular to ovate, broadest at 1/7\x leaf length or more proximally, not or weakly plicate, 1--1.5 x 0.7--1.1 mm, longer than broad, rounded to base, decurrent; margins plane or recurved proximally, serrulate or serrate almost to base; apex acute or gradually to abruptly short-acuminate, rarely cucullate; costa strong, reaching 0.6--0.8\x leaf length, ending in an abaxial spine; basal cells somewhat shorter than cells above, 10--13 \um wide, thick-walled; alar cells short-rectangular, enlarged, to 30 x 12--16 \um, moderately thick-walled, forming a rather conspicuous, although relatively small pellucid group not reaching the leaf margin, gradually differentiated; laminal cells elongate, rhombic-elongate distally, often distinctly flexuose, 20--40 x 4---6 \um, variable among different leaves on the same plant, ranging from 3--8:1, usually strongly prorate to prorate-papillose on abaxial surface. Branch leaves smaller and rather uniform in size, ovate-lanceolate, often with short, twisted acumens, more strongly serrate, costa with stronger spine and cells more strongly prorate-papillose. Seta 10--20 mm. Capsule inclined to horizontal, slightly curved, 1.5--2 mm; operculum high-conic to shortly and broadly rostrate. Spores 14--18 \um.
Soil, sometimes rocks, rotten logs, wet shady places, forest, along small brooks, wet places on slopes; 0--1900 m; N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld., Labr.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que.; Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., Ga., Ill., Ind., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.; Europe; e Asia.
Bryhnia novae-angliae is a common plant in eastern North
America, reaching south into
3. Bryhnia hultenii E. B. Bartram in A. J. Grout, Moss Fl. No. Amer. 3: 264. 1934
Plants medium-sized, in moderately loose to dense tufts, light green or yellowish to brownish green. Stems 2.5--7 cm, prostrate to dendroid-arching, terete-foliate, with rather numerous sub-dendroid sympodial branches, occasionally with rather regular pinnate branching; branches to 6 mm, straight to slightly curved, terete- to complanate-foliate. Stem leaves julaceous, broadly ovate-triangular, broadest at ca. 1/7 of leaf length or below, strongly concave, slightly plicate, 0.7--1.2 x 0.8--1.2 mm, often shorter than 1 mm and shorter than broad; apices broadly acute to rounded-truncate and short-apiculate, often cucullate, rounded to base, broadly and long-decurrent; margins plane or partially recurved, serrulate to near base; costa weak, reaching 0.4--0.7\x the leaf length, lacking an abaxial spine; basal cells shorter and wider in 2--3 rows, indistinctly delimited from cells above, to 15 \um wide, thick-walled; alar cells subquadrate to short-rectangular, usually enlarged, up to 45 x 25 \um, forming a pellucid group of 5--7 x 8--14 cells, moderately thin-walled, reaching 1/2--4/5\x distance to the costa, distinctly delimited; laminal cells elongate to rhombic, strongly flexuose, 15--40 x 6--12 \um, thick-walled, slightly prorate to prorate-papillose on abaxial surface. Branch leaves smaller, rounded-ovate, about 0.6 x 0.5 mm, with smaller cells and almost undifferentiated basal cells. Sexual condition dioicous. [Capsule inclined to horizontal, slightly curved, ca. 1.5 mm; operculum conic.]
Soil and rocks at cliff bases, under dense Alnus canopy, bottom of gullies, sides of brooks, moderate to strong shade, wet to mesic places; 0--300 m; B.C.; Alaska; ne Asia.
description of the capsules of Bryhnia
hultenii is from Asian collections, as no sporophytes have been found in
1991. Illustrated moss flora of
Robinson, H. 1962 . Generic revisions of North American Brachytheciaceae. Bryologist 65: 73--146.