How to Arrange for Illustrations for Your BFNA Treatments
Richard H. Zander
Buffalo Museum of Science
1020 Humboldt Parkway
Buffalo, NY 14211
November 25, 2001

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How to Arrange for Illustrations
for Your BFNA Treatments

Illustration of other volumes of the Flora of North America is centralized at the Missouri Botanical Garden, but the three BFNA volumes are being illustrated at the Missouri Botanical Garden. We are doing this in much the same way that the Moss Flora of Mexico was illustrated, but will use email to speed up the process.

To the extent possible, all illustrations will be new; we will copy illustrations from other works only when absolutely necessary. We will illustrate one species in three (or portion thereof). Authors of treatments should preferably select rare taxa or those only poorly illustrated in the past or for which illustrations are difficult to obtain (this means, for example, that Western species are probably the ones most suitable to illustrate).

We can begin illustration as soon as you finish your treatment (or even before, if you know what species will be included), and may be able to finalize the illustrations by the time the review process is done.

Send specimens for habit illustration and slides of plant parts (well packaged to protect against breakage), along with a cover letter to:

P. M. Eckel, BFNA Illustrator
Missouri Botanical Garden
PO Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166-0299 USA


The recommended procedure for preparing bryophyte specimens to be used for illustration is:

1. Segregate a habit or two in a small packet for the artist to draw, or if the habit is very small, it can be mounted on a slide.

2. Everything else should be on slides. We recommend glycerin jelly (see Zander, R. H. 1997. On mounting delicate bryophytes in glycerol. Bryologist 100: 380--382), or you should make sure the Hoyer's solution mount is dry and solid before mailing. Mark the position of the leaves, amphigastria, thallus features, sections, peristomes, and other details to be drawn with a fine point Flair-type pen. For instance, you can mark each slide A, B, C, etc, then put a 1, 2, 3 and etc. on the appropriate slide and write instructions on a separate sheet for each species. You can also just put dots around items (2 or 3 or 4 or 5 dots) to mark items where there is no room for a circle.

3. Mail slides in a well padded box (they break very, very easily in the mails).

Note: If a plant part (e.g. a sporophyte) is unknown for the region of the flora, we will not illustrate it (from material from elsewhere).

The habit will be drawn from either a dry plant (after wetting it) or from a small entire plant mounted on a slide. All else should be on glass slides: leaves (preferably with adaxial side up) or adaxial or abaxial views of liverworts, and also if needed: close-ups of areolation, cross sections of leaf and stem, peristome, sexual features, propagula, and other character states.

The final published illustration will be rather small, about 3.5 inches wide and a little more than 4 inches high, so please recommend for illustration only those few character states that best separate this species from similar species (see already published illustrations on the Web site for examples). We will try to do a habit for every plate, though.

You can also send photographs or xerocopies of published illustrations to help explain what and how you want something illustrated, but will copy illustrations only in extreme cases. Please remember that the artist cannot draw a concept in an author's mind---she can draw only what is actually represented by the material sent in, as interpreted by the author's instructions.

Usually, each species will take up a whole plate (one-half of a FNA panel with two plates per panel). You can, if there is room, add to a plate of one species a feature or two of a second species that can be distinguished by those features. This can be discussed with the artist.

 As a rule for all authors working with artists for the Flora of North America, authors can request one (1) redrawing or correction of any particular illustration (a pencil sketch, a first inking, or a final inking). This rule is necessary to prevent many nearly useless redrawings for chronically unsatisfied, perfectionist authors (we know YOU are not one of these, but the artists at the Missouri Botanical Garden have some terrible tales about such authors).

This is the Standard Note about Illustrations: Authors must send specimens to the artist for illustration. The author should prepare microscope slides for any detailed morphology. Otherwise the artist will prepare a slide from the specimen and do the best possible, drawing exactly what is seen as guided by the manuscript and the author's instructions; in this case the author must accept the artist's selection and interpretation. Authors may expect to see (1) pencil sketches, then (2) a first inking, then (3) a final inked version for the Web site that will also be used in a high-resolution version for eventual publication in hard copy. These will be communicated, if possible, via email attachments.


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