US Government-Sponsored Research
NASA research on duckweeds for use in advanced life
systems for human exploration and development of
systems will be
required for missions to the planets.
NIH supports research on duckweeds as a model system
gene regulation, biosynthesis of essential nutrients,
NSF sponsors fundamental research in areas of biology
supported by NIH.
USDA employs duckweeds as model systems for basic plant
research and in
of alternative treatment systems for animal waste.
EPA reports that duckweeds are very promising for
to detoxify pesticide residues in the environment.
Biological Resources Division (BRD) supports work on
treatment, wetlands, and global environmental change.
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Companies: Putting Duckweeds to Work
Pittsboro, NC - Pharmaceutical proteins. "Biolex
is focused on developing the next generation of patented,
protein production technologies in a plant based
foundation of Biolex
technology is its patented Lemna System™. This system
characteristics of the green plant, Lemna, with advanced
and protein recovery methods to create a recombinant protein
On July 28, 2005 Biolex announced it has has purchased LemnaGene S.A., a
French start-up biotechnology company researching potential
applications of Lemna and Spirodela to produce
[ Read more about
Waste Management, Armidale, NSW, Australia "BTWM
low-cost solution to the wastewater treatment problems of many
and rural industries. The BTWM system uses duckweed, a small
plant, to remove nitrogen, phosphorus and excess mineral
effluent and other forms of wastewater." Check
"...the protein yield of a hectare of duckweed is worth in
of [AUD$] $12,000 per annum."
in North Carolina in 1998 to commercialize its patented
for treatment of agricultural wastewater. A system
Hookerton, North Carolina is expected to be up and
running in July
2005. The Aquameal System is a significant
earlier commercial designs and has been approved by the
Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
continuous growth and harvest of duckweed biomass, the
reported to effectively strip nutrients from
additional claimed benefit is that it avoids
accumulation of unwanted
Photo: Aquameal plant in Hookerton, NC.
Australia, Wastewater Treatment Consultants.
Duckweed in an early peak growth phase
(approx 57% increase of mass per
day) under optimum conditions on a Domestic Waste Water
in the Great Southern Region approx 100 km north of
|An actual visual comparison of
Domestic waste effluent water, with
photos taken before and after using Duckweed as the
GmbH, Würselen, Germany. LemnaTec develops
analysis of standard duckweed toxicity bioassays. These
commonly used in safety evaluations of environmental chemicals
- "A Lemna Duckweed System is an effective biological
to enhance lagoon-based wastewater treatment facilities."
- Lemna Technologies works in North America in industrial
and municipal wastewater treatment and offers design,
equipment supply and
technical support, including installation assistance
Lemna Technologies has developed a number of innovative
- "Lemna International works around the world in all
of infrastructure projects, from hospitals to hotels,
potable water treatment and
supply to power plants, from wastewater collection and
roads and manufacturing facilities. Lemna International
offers a full
of project development, design and implementation services,
using Lemna is performed by many companies, both for
use and for registration of products with regulatory
number of companies perform these tests for clients on a
basis. Note: If your company provides such tests for
please send me
information and I will
add it to my list.
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Revised: March 21, 2006