Practical Duckweed: 
Procedures for Environmental Testing
Environmental Test Procedures
 Automated testing
Airborne Monitoring
Foliar Spray

Environmental Test Procedures

Automated testing

  • LemnaTec GmbH, Labor für Elektronische Maschinen zur Natur Analyse, Würselen, Germany.
  • LemnaTec Logo "Image processing for biology"  Matthias Eberius of LemnaTec writes,  "We have developed a computerized image analysis system for the Lemna growth inhibition test (as standardized by ASTM, OECD and soon by ISO).  The core of the LemnaTec Scanalyzer is software to quantify Lemna images, including their number, color, frond area and other measures. The system provides GLP-compliant documentation and will support the overall management of the bioassay.  The use of this system raises data quality and reduces the costs of measurement and documentation.  For cost-effective and flexible use, our clients can choose from purchase of the complete system or image analysis service on a confidential fee-for-service basis.  High quality digital images may be sent to us via the Internet for analysis, which eliminates the need for purchase of a complete system.  Tools for analysis of other bioassays are also available."

    Image analysis Duckweed FAQ Reports

     "The Lemna-Test is the most standardized test using higher plants in bio testing. Till present it is applied mainly for testing of chemicals (OECD-REVISED DRAFT DOCUMENT 221) and sewage water (ISO/WD 20079, DIN-Normung)  for possible adverse effects on higher plants."
    Reports on the following topics are available online in Adobe Acrobat format:

    1. Comparison of the sensitivity algae vs. Duckweed:  A simulation study
    2. Duckweed growth inhibition tests and standardisation
    3. Using the Duckweed Growth Inhibition Test to detect and evaluate soil contamination
    4. Observation Parameters of the Duckweed Growth Inhibition Test Frond number - Total Frond Area - Dry weight
    5. Observation Parameters in the Duckweed Growth Inhibition Test:  The Colour of duckweed
    Answers to other frequently-asked questions and other topics also are available [ link ].

    Lemnatec GmbH invites potential clients to send images from their own Lemna growth inhibition bioassays for sample analysis.

    Airborne Monitoring of Duckweed

  •   Synoptics, Inc., Netherlands


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    Revised:  August 13, 2013