Molecular Duckweed: 
References in Duckweed Genetics
Population Genetics and Clonal Differences Molecular Genetics Cell and Tissue Culture Duckweed Mutants


Population Genetics and Clonal Differences

Jordan, W.C., Courtney, M.W. and Neigel, J.E.

Low levels of intraspecific genetic variation at a rapidly evolving chloroplast DNA locus in North American duckweeds (Lemnaceae).
American journal of botany. Apr 1996. v. 83 (4) p. 430-439.
Crawford, D.J. and Landolt, E.
Allozyme studies in Spirodela (Lemnaceae): variation among conspecific clones and divergence among the species.
Systematic botany. July/Sept 1993. v. 18 (3) p. 389-394.
Crawford, D.J., Landolt, E. and Les, D.H.
An allozyme study of two sibling species of Lemna (Lemnaceae) with comments on their morphology, ecology and distribution.
Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. Jan/Mar 1996. v. 123 (1) p. 1-6.
Cole, C.T. and Voskuil, M.I.
Population genetic structure in duckweed (Lemna minor, Lemnaceae).
Canadian journal of botany = Journal canadien de botanique. Feb 1996. v. 74 (2) p. 222-230.
Vasseur, L., Aarssen, L.W. and Lefebvre, D.D.
Plasticity of morphological and isozymic traits in response to short-term environmental variation in Lemna minor L.
Écoscience. Écoscience (Sainte-Foy, Quebec) 1994. v. 1 (3) p. 259-264.
Vasseur, L., Aarssen, L.W. and Bennett, T.
Allozymic variation in local apomictic populations of Lemna minor (Lemnaceae).
American journal of botany. Aug 1993. v. 80 (8) p. 974-979.
Van Steveninck, R.F.M., Van Steveninck, M.E. and Fernando, D.R.
Heavy-metal (Zn, Cd) tolerance in selected clones of duck weed (Lemna minor).
Developments in plant and soil sciences. 1993. v. 50 p. 387-396.
Wimpee, C.F., Stiekema, W.J. and Tobin, E.M.
Sequence heterogeneity in the RuBP carboxylase small subunit gene family of Lemna gibba.
Cellular and molecular biology of plant stress. 1983. v. 12 p. 391-401.
Vasseur, L., Aarssen, L.W. and Lefebvre, D.D.
Allozymic and morphometric variation in Lemna minor (Lemnaceae).
Plant systematics and evolution. 1991. v. 177 (3/4) p. 139-148.
Cowgill, U.M., Milazzo, D.P. and Landenberger, B.D.
The sensitivity of Lemna gibba G-3 and four clones of Lemna minor to eight common chemicals using a 7-day test.
Research journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation. Nov/Dec 1991. v. 63 (7) p. 991-998.
Lange, L, de., Pieterse, A.H. and Baarsen-Beckers, I. van.
The occurrence of mixed populations of different genotypes of the Lemna gibba-Lemna minor complex.
Acta botanica Neerlandica. May 1981. v. 30 (3) p. 191-197.
Davidson, D. and Simon, J.P.
Thermal adaptation and acclimation of ecotypic populations of Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. (Lemnaceae): temperature dependency of Km of NAD malate dehydrogenase.
Journal of thermal biology. July 1983. v. 8 (3) p. 289-296.
Davidson, D. and Simon, J.P.
Thermal adaptation and acclimation of ecotypic populations of Spirodela polyrhiza (Lemnaceae): thermostability and apparent activation energy of NAD malate dehydrogenase.
Canadian journal of botany. = Journal canadien de botanique. June 1981. v. 59 (6) p. 1061-1068.
Datko, A.H., Mudd, S.H. and Giovanelli, J.
Lemna paucicostata Hegelm. 6746. Life cycle and characterization of the colony types in a population.
Plant physiology. May 1980. v. 65 (5) p. 913-923.
Also see this article on clonal differences in tissue culture response.

Molecular Genetics

Akhtar TA, Lampi MA, Greenberg BM.

 Identification of six differentially expressed genes in response to copper exposure in the aquatic plant Lemna gibba (Duckweed).
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005 Jul;24(7):1705-15.

Rothwell GW, Van Atta MR, Ballard HE Jr, Stockey RA.

Molecular phylogenetic relationships among Lemnaceae and Araceae using the chloroplast trnL-trnF intergenic spacer.
Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004 Feb;30(2):378-85.
Yamamoto YT, Rajbhandari N, Lin X, Bergmann BA, Nishimura Y, Stomp AM.
Genetic Transformation of Duckweed Lemna gibba and Lemna minor.
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology Plant 2001. 37:349-353.
Okubara, P.A., Williams, S.A., Doxsee, R.A. and Tobin, E.M.
Analysis of genes negatively regulated by phytochrome action in Lemna gibba and identification of a promoter region required for phytochrome responsiveness.
Plant physiology. Plant physiology (Lancaster, Pa.) Mar 1993. v. 101 (3) p. 915-924.
Posno, M.,  Vliet, A. van. and Groot, G.S.P.
Localization of chloroplast ribosomal protein genes on Spirodela oligorhiza chloroplast DNA.
Current genetics. 1986. v. 10 (12) p. 923-930.
Posno, M., Verweij, W.R., Dekker, I.C., Waard, P.M. de. and Groot, G.S.P.
The genes encoding chloroplast ribosomal proteins S7 and S12 are located in the inverted repeat of Spirodela oligorhiza chloroplast DNA.
Current genetics. 1986. v. 11 (1) p. 25-34.
Posno, M., Torenvliet, D.J., Lustig, H., Noort, M. van. and Groot, G.S.P.
Localization of three chloroplast ribosomal protein genes at the leaf junction of the large single copy region and the inverted repeat of Spirodela oligorhiza chloroplast DNA.
Current genetics. 1985. v. 9 (3) p. 211-219.
Karlin-Neumann, G.A. Kohorn, B.D., Thornber, J.P. and Tobin, E.M.
A chlorophyll a/b-protein encoded by a gene containing an intron with characteristics of a transposable element.
Journal of molecular and applied genetics. 1985. v. 3 (1) p. 45-61.
Heij, H.T. de., Lustig, H., Moeskops, D.J.M, Bovenberg, W.A. and Bisanz, C.
Chloroplast DNAs of Spinacia, Petunia and Spirodela have a similar gene organization.
Current genetics. 1983. v. 7 (1) p. 1-6.
Keus, R.J.A., Roovers, D.J., Heerikhuizen, H. van., and Groot, G.S.P.
Molecular cloning and characterization of the chloroplast ribosomal RNA genes from Spirodela oligorhiza  Aquatic plant .
Current genetics. 1983. v. 7 (1) p. 7-12.
Groot, G.S.P. and Harten-Loosbroek, N. van.
Physical mapping of 4S RNA genes on chloroplast DNA of Spirodela oligorhiza  Duckweed .
Current genetics. 1981. v. 4 (3) p. 187-190.

Cell and Tissue Culture

 Li J, Jain M, Vunsh R, Vishnevetsky J, Hanania U, Flaishman M, Perl A, Edelman M
 Callus induction and regeneration in Spirodela and Lemna.
 Plant Cell Reports. 2004 22(7): 457-464
Moon HK, Rajbhandari N and Stomp AM 
Effect of media components and phytohormones on in vitro frond proliferation of Lemna gibba G3 and 24 additional L. gibba strains.
Plant Res. 1998 1(2): 98-104.
Moon, H.K. and Stomp, A.M.
Effects of medium components and light on callus induction, growth, and frond regeneration in Lemna gibba (duckweed).
In vitro cellular & developmental biology. Plant : journal of the Tissue Culture Association. Jan/Mar 1997. v. 33 (1) p. 20-25.
Frick, H. and Morley, K.
Metabolism of lactose by Lemna minor L. (duckweed) callus.
Process biochemistry. Process biochemistry (Barking, London, England) 1995. v. 30 (1) p. 57-62.
Slovin, J.P. and Cohen, J.D.
Levels of indole-3-acetic acid in Lemna gibba G-3 and in a large Lemna mutant regenerated from tissue culture.
Plant physiology. Feb 1988. v. 86 (2) p. 522-526.

Revised:  November 1, 2005