Images courtesy of Sr. Alberto Godoy, Panama City, Panama
photographed in shallow water.
dorsal view from a scanner.
ventral view from a scanner.
Landoltia (Spirodela) punctata is a small floating plant
can grow into dense masses in still water. The photos at
single plants, but this species usually has two or more fronds
together as in the photo on the left. Landoltia
be easily confused with Spirodela, but there are some
The leaves are more oval or shoe-shaped than Spirodela,
shape makes it resemble a large Lemna species. There are
descending from each frond. Spirodela usually has
roots (up to 9) on each mature frond (1, 2). Landoltia
punctata flowers more commonly than Spirodela (3).
In the United States L. punctata is considered a nonindigenous
species, since it is considered to have originated in Asia and
(1) University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive
"Particulars and Photographs, Landoltia punctata (Spirodela
(2) USGS Florida Caribbean Science Center, "Landoltia punctata", in Nonindigenous Aquatic Species, (01 February 2000).
(3) Landolt, E. 1986. The family of Lemnaceae - a monographic study. Vol 1. In: Biosystematic Investigations in the Family of Duckweeds (Lemnaceae). Veroff. Geobot. Inst. ETH, Stiftung Rubel. No. 71.
(4) US Geological Survey Florida Caribbean Science Center. Summary report of nonindigenous aquatic species in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 4. March 2001. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/publications/R4finalreport.pdf (downloaded 03 August 2013).
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Last revised: August 03, 2013