19. MANSOA A. DC., Biblioth. Universelle Genéve ser. 2, 17: 128. 1838.

Pachyptera DC. ex Meisn., Pl. Vasc. Gen. 1: 299; 2: 207. 1840.
Pseudocalymma A. Samp. & Kuhlm., O Campo (Rio de Janeiro) 4(11): 15. 1933.
Onohualcoa Lundell, Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 7: 52. 1942.

Lianas, the branchlets terete to subtetragonal, with or without interpetiolar glandular fields; pseudostipules short and obtuse-conical to vertically 2- or 3-seriate. Leaves 2- or 3-foliolate, sometimes with a trifid (rarely simple and disk-tipped) tendril. Inflorescence an axillary or terminal raceme or panicle. Calyx cupular to campanulate, truncate or 5-dentate, the teeth sometimes subulate and elongated; corolla white to magenta, tubular-campanulate to tubular-funnel-shaped, puberulous outside at least on lobes. Anthers glabrous or villous, the thecae straight or curved, divaricate. Ovary cylindric, ± glandular-papillose to inconspicuously puberulous; ovules 2-4-seriate in each locule. Fruit a linear to linear-oblong compressed capsule or oblong-elliptic and not compressed, the valves parallel to septum, varying from extremely flat to thick, woody and not at all compressed, sometimes tuberculate. Seeds usually thin and 2-winged with membranous wings, sometimes thick and essentially wingless.

Mexico to northern Argentina; 15 species, 5 in Venezuela, 4 of these in the flora area.

Key to the Species of Mansoa

1. Pseudostipules acute, vertically 3-seriate; thecae curved, villous; inflorescence a short-pedicellate raceme ..... M. kerere

1. Pseudostipules short, obtuse, relatively inconspicuous; thecae straight, glabrous; inflorescence a panicle or open few-flowered raceme ..... 2

2(1). Vegetative parts with conspicuous onion or garlic odor; petiolar and interpetiolar glandular fields present; calyx truncate, without teeth; fruit smooth-surfaced ..... M. standleyi

2. Vegetative parts without garlic odor; petiolar and interpetiolar glandular fields lacking; calyx 5-dentate or 5-denticulate; fruit tuberculate ..... 3

3(2). Corolla tube mostly glabrous, slightly puberulous only near apex; leaflets pinnately veined; capsule slender, subwoody, less than 15 mm wide ..... M. onohualcoides

3. Corolla tube puberulous; leaflets 3-veined from base; capsule thick, woody, > 23 mm wide ..... M. verrucifera

Mansoa kerere (Aubl.) A.H. Gentry, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 66: 783. 1979. -Bignonia kerere Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 644, t. 260. 1775, non Lindl. -Petastoma kerere (Aubl.) Schnee in Pittier et al., Cat. Fl. Ven. 2: 404. 1947.

Adenocalymna symmetricum Rusby, Descr. S. Amer. Pl. 122. 1920.

Liana. Mostly swampy or riverside forests. Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, French Guiana, Ecuador, Amazonian Peru, Amazonian Brazil, Bolivia; 2 varieties, both in the flora area.

The 2 varieties are poorly differentiated.

Key to the Varieties of M. kerere

1. Capsule valves thick, but plane or slightly thicker along margin, the midline inconspicuous; seeds thin, 2-winged, with membranous wings ..... var. incarnata

1. Capsule valves thick, woody, convex, with a conspicuously raised midline; seeds thick, essentially wingless ..... var. kerere

M. kerere var. incarnata (Aubl.) A.H. Gentry, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 66: 783. 1979. -Bignonia incarnata Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane 645, t. 261, 262, fig. 1-8. 1775. -Pachyptera kerere var. incarnata (Aubl.) A.H. Gentry, Brittonia 25: 235. 1973.

Ca. 100 m; Amazonas (Raudal del Zamuro near Puerto Ayacucho). Amazonian Brazil.

M. kerere var. kerere

50-200 m; northern Delta Amacuro, northern Bolívar, western Amazonas. Anzoátegui, Apure, Mérida; Central America, Colombia, French Guiana, Ecuador, Amazonian Peru, Amazonian Brazil, Bolivia. Fig. 388.

Mansoa onohualcoides A.H. Gentry, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63: 63. 1976.

Liana. Probably nonflooded evergreen lowland forests, ca. 100 m; Amazonas (Río Mavaca). Suriname, Brazil (Ceará, Espírito Santo, Maranh“o).

Mansoa onohualcoides is known in Venezuela from a single collection (Lizot 90, VEN), and it is unclear if it is conspecific with the northeastern Brazilian type. It is possible that the fruit differences that are the primary distinction between M. onohualcoides and M. verrucifera are too variable to be of much significance taxonomically.

Mansoa standleyi (Steyerm.) A.H. Gentry, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 66: 783. 1979. -Pseudocalymma standleyi Steyerm., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 23: 235. 1947. -Pachyptera standleyi (Steyerm.) A.H. Gentry, Brittonia 25: 236. 1973.

Pseudocalymma alliaceum var. macrocalyx Sandwith, Kew Bull. 1953: 468. 1954.

Liana. Moist and wet nonflooded evergreen lowland forests, 100-300 m; Delta Amacuro (Serranía de Imataca), Bolívar (Río Chiguao, lower Río Paragua, Serranía de Imataca). Guatemala to Amazonian Peru and Brazil.

Mansoa verrucifera (Schltdl.) A.H. Gentry, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63: 62. 1976. -Bignonia verrucifera Schltdl., Linnaea 26: 655. 1853.

Liana. Semideciduous forests, 50-500 m; Delta Amacuro (Serranía de Imataca), northern Bolívar, Amazonas (Río Ocamo). Widespread elsewhere in Venezuela; southern Mexico to Guyana to southern Bolivia and adjacent Brazil.

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