Back to OrdersKey to Abbreviations, etc.
A - androecium, stamens.
A = K, A = 2xK - stamens the same number as sepals, twice as many as sepals.
APG - Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.
C - corolla, petals.
ca - circa, about.
cf. - compare.
E. - East.
ECM - ectomycorrhizae.
EM - ericoid mycorrhizae.
esp. - especially.
G - gynoecium.
G [2-5] - gynoecium with 2-5 connate (square brackets) and superior (underlining) carpels.
inc. - including
K - calyx, sepals.
many - over 15 or so.
m - metre.
mm - centimetre.
m.y.a. or m.y.o. or m.y. - million years ago, million years old, million years.
N. - North.
n - haploid chromosome number.
nodes 1:1, 3:3 - node one trace from one gap, three traces from three gaps, etc.
nom. cons. - nomen conservandum, nomenclaturally conserved name.
P - perianth.
S. - South.
s. l. - sensu lato (broad sense).
s. str. - sensu stricto (narrow/strict sense).
T - tepals.
usu. - usually.
V.A.M. - vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae.
W. - West.
[bold text] - inconsistently applied, refer to possible synapomorphies or derived characters.
x - base chromosome number for group.
+/0 - present/absent.
? - uncertain or unknown.
G[#] - carpels connate.
( ) - in text of order or other high level characterisations, feature of sporadic occurrence.
( ) - in text of lowest level characterisations, feature usually only occasional or rare, if common then not an apomorphy.
[ ] - in text of characterisations at all levels, containing a definition or gloss.
G (3-5) (example) - at various levels, range of variation, e.g. carpel and stamen numbers.
G (3-5) (example) - means that the carpels are connate and superior.
2/60 (example) - after characterisations, number of genera/number of species.