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Field Techniques Used by Missouri Botanical Garden

RECOMMENDED READING

Compiled by Mary Susan Taylor, Missouri Botanical Garden, 1990.

Standard References

  • Fosberg, F. R. & M. Sachet. 1965. Manual for tropical herbaria. I.B.P.T. and N. Regnum Veget. 39: 1-132.
  • Hicks, A. J. & P. H. Hicks. 1978. A selected bibliography of plant collection and herbarium curation. Taxon 27(1): 63-99.
  • Jain, S. K. 1977. A handbook of field and herbarium methods. Today and Tomorrow Printers & Publ., New Delhi. 157 p.
  • Letouzey, R. (trans. R. Huggett). 1986. Manual of forest botany. Tropical Africa, vol. 1; general botany. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent- sur-Marne, France.
  • Lot, A. & F. Chang. 1986. Manual de herbario, administracion y manejo de colecciones, tecnicas de recoleccion y preparacion de ejemplares bot nicos. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de Mexico, Mexico. 142 pp.
  • Saville, D. B. O. 1962. Collection and care of botanical specimens. Canad. Dept. Agric., Publ. Res. Branch 1113: 1-124.
  • Skvortsov, A. K. 1977. The herbarium; handbook of methods and techniques. Acad. Sci. USSR, Moscow. 200 pp. (in Russian).
  • Wagstaffe, R. & J. H. Fidler. 1968. The preservation of natural history specimens. Vol. 2, Part 3 - Botany. H. F. and G. Witherby Ltd., London. 404 p.
  • Womersley, J. S. 1980. Manual for plant collecting and herbarium development. FAO, Field Doc. 23: 1-147. 1981: FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 33: 1-l37.

    Collecting

  • Archer, W. A. 1945. Collecting data and specimens for study of economic plants. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Misc. Publ. 568: 1-52.
  • Barghoorn, E. S. 1943. Collecting and preserving botanical materials of archaeological interest. American Antiquity 9: 289-294.
  • Bogyo, Thomas P. et al. 1980. Analysis of sampling strategies for collecting genetic material. Econ. Bot. 34(2): 160-174.
  • Collins, D. G. & J. W. E. Harris. 1973. Line throwing gun and cutter for obtaining branches from tree crowns. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research 3: 149-154.
  • Corner, E. J. H. 1940. Botanical monkeys. M.A.H.A. Magazine 10: 147-149. 1946: Zoo Life, Bull. Zool. Soc. London 1: 89-93.
  • Coville, F. V. n.d. Directions for collecting specimens and information illustrating the aboriginal uses of plants. U.S. National Museum, Bull. 39(Part J): 1-8.
  • Culberson, W. L. 1976. Water purification for field botanists. Systematic Botany 1: 194.
  • Derr, H. B. & C. H. Lane. 1914. Collection and preservation of plant material for use in the study of agriculture. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Farmer's Bull. 586: 1-24.
  • Englemann, G. 1986. Instructions for the collection and preservation of botanical specimens. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 504-507.
  • Fosberg, F. R. 1939. A collection manual for field anthropologists. Philadelphia, PA. 22 pp.
  • Fosberg, F. R. 1960. Plant collecting as an anthropological field method. El Palacio 67(4): 125-139.
  • Hyland, B. P. M. 1972. A technique for collecting botanical specimens in rain forest. Flora Meles. Bull. 26: 2038-2040.
  • Kajewski, S. F. 1933. Botanical collecting in the tropics. Contributions Arnold Arboretum 4: 103-108.
  • Malcolm, C. V. & A. J. Clarke. 1970. Plant collecting for saltland revegetation and soil conservation. W. Australia Agric. Tech. Bull. 21.
  • McCain, J. W. & J. F. Hennen. 1986. Collection and plant materials damaged by pathogens: an expression of support. Taxon 35(1): 119-121.
  • Mirov, N. T. & C. J. Kraebel. 1939. Collecting and handling seeds of wild plants. Civilian Conservation Corps, Forestry Publ. 5: 1-42, Washington, D.C.
  • Mori, S. A. 1984. Use of 'swiss tree grippers' for making botanical collections of tropical trees. Biotropica 16: 79-80.
  • Oskins, W. 1982. Collecting plant specimens (an outline with appendices). Erigenia 1: 9-21.
  • Polunin, N. 1949. Instructions for collecting and preserving plant specimens in the Arctic and Subarctic. Arctic Unfolding: 308-312.
  • Robertson, K. R. 1980. Observing, photographing and collecting plants. Circ. Illinois Nat. Hist. Surv. 55: 1-62.
  • Saville, D. B. O. 1962. Collection and care of botanical specimens. Canad. Dept. Agric., Publ. Res. Branch 1113: 1-124.
  • Thomas, R. D. l971. Collecting vascular plants in the habitat near the ground, or, locating and collecting belly plants. Castanea 36(2): 148-149.

    Pressing

  • B, M. S. 1876. How to apply pressure in making botanical specimens. Botanical Gazette 1(6): 21.
  • Bessey, E. 1886. Disposition of thick specimens. Botanical Gazette 11(6):157.
  • Chmielewski, J. G. & G. S. Ringius. 1986. Polyurethane foam: an alternative plant pressing material especially suitable for population-based studies. Taxon 35(1): 106-107.
  • DeLanghe, J. E. 1972. Preparation of thick or succulent plants for the herbarium. Nat. Belg. 53: 508-509.
  • Logan, J. 1986. A pre-pressing treatment for Begonia species and succulents. Taxon 35(4): 671.
  • Nichols, G. S. & H. St. John. 1918. Pressing plants with double-faced corrugated paper boards. Rhodora 20: 153-160.
  • Stevens, F. L. 1926. Corrugated aluminium sheets for the botanists press. Botanical Gazette 82: 104-106.

    Drying Plants

  • Bacci, M. & M. R. Palandri. 1985. Microwave drying of herbarium specimens. Taxon 34(4): 649-653.
  • Beard, J. S. 1968. Drying specimens in humid weather. Taxon 17: 744.
  • Botha, D. J. & J. Coetzee. 1976. A portable drier for herbarium specimens. South African Journal of Botany 42: 41-44.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1931. A practical drier for botanical specimens. Transactions Illinois Academy of Science 24: 103-107.
  • Croat, T. B. 1979. Use of a portable propane gas oven for field drying plants. Taxon 28: 573-580.
  • DeWit, H. C. D. 1980. Drying herbarium specimens in moist tropical conditions. Bol. Soc. Brot., ser. 2, 53: 549-553.
  • Fuller, T. C. & G. D. Barbe. 1981. Drying herbarium specimens in moist tropical conditions. Bol. Soc. Brot, ser. 2, 53: 549-553.
  • Gates, B. N. 1950. An electrical drier for herbarium specimens. Rhodora 52: 129-134.
  • Hale, A. M. 1976. A portable electric herbarium dryer. Rhodora 78: 135-140.
  • Halle, N. 1961. Un s‚choir … gas butane pour la preparation des herbiers. JATBA 8: 70-71.
  • Jenne, G. 1968. A portable forced air plant dryer. Taxon 17: 184-185.
  • Leuenberger, B. E. 1982. Microwaves: a modern aid in preparing herbarium specimens of succulents. Cact. Succul. J. (Great Britain) 44: 42-43.
  • MacDaniels, L. H. 1930. A portable plant drier for tropical climates. Amer. J. Bot. 17: 669-670.
  • Motley, J. 1857. Drying of fleshy plants. Hooker's Journal of Botany Kew Gardens Miscellany 9: 149.
  • Perdue, R. E., Jr., 1982. Field drying plant material collected for chemical and biological screening, I. Portable facility for sun drying. Econ. Bot. 36(4): 369-372.
  • Sinnott, Q. P. 1983. A solar thermoconvective plant drier. Taxon 32: 611-613.
  • Tillett, S. S. 1977. Technical aids for systematic botany: new models of plant-press driers. Taxon 26: 553-556.
  • Van der Merwe, P. & P. J. Grobler. 1969. Electric drying press for herbarium specimens. Plant Life 25: 132-135.

    Collecting and Pressing Specific Plants

  • Ceska, A. & O. Ceska. 1986. More on the techniques for collecting aquatic and marsh plants. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 825-827.
  • Croat, T.B. 1985. Collecting and preparing specimens of Araceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 72: 252-8.
  • Dransfield, J. 1986. A guide to collecting palms. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 166-76.
  • Griffiths, D. 1907. Preparation of specimens of Opuntia. Plant World 9: 278-284.
  • Hammel, B. E. 1987. The origami of Botany: A guide to collecting and mounting specimens of Cyclanthaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74: 897-902.
  • Haynes, R. R. 1984. Techniques for collecting aquatic and marsh plants. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71: 229-231.
  • Jorgensen, P. M., J. E. Lawesson & L. B. Holm-Nielsen. 1984. A guide to collecting passionflowers. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71: 1172-1174.
  • Jorgensen, V. 1972. The preparing, pressing and mountingof bromeliads. J. Bromel. Soc. 23(6): 211-214.
  • Logan, J. 1986. A pre-pressing treatment for Begonia species and succulents. Taxon 35(4): 671.
  • MacDougall, T. 1947. A method for pressing cactus flowers. Cactus and Succulent Journal 19: 188.
  • Major, A. P. 1975. Collecting and studying mushrooms, toadstools and fungi. J. Bartholomew, Edinburgh. 268 pp.
  • Mori, S. & G. T. Prance. 1987. A guide to collecting Lecythidaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74: 321-30.
  • Soderstrom, T. R. & S. M. Young. 1983. A guide to collecting bamboos. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 128-136.
  • Stone, B. C. 1983. A guide to collecting Pandanaceae (Pandanus, Freycinetia, and Sararanga). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 137-145.

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