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Articles or books by two or more authors are cited as follows. When there are two authors, citation is alphabetical after the second author's name. When there are three or more authors, references are cited in the body of the text as (e.g.) Chase et al. 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, and are listed following these sometimes alphabetically qualified dates of publication immediately after all the single- or two-authored articles by the first author.

Aagard, J. A. [et al. 2005], Olmstead, R. G., Willis, J. H., & Phillips, P. C. 2005. Duplication of floral regulatory genes in Lamiales. American J. Bot. 92: 1284-1293.

Aagesen, L. 1999. Phylogeny of the tribe Colletieae, Rhamnaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 131: 1-43.

Aagesen, L., & Sanso, A. M. 2003. The phylogeny of the Alstroemeriaceae, based on morphology, rps16 intron, and rbcL sequence data. Syst. Bot. 28: 47-69.

Aagesen, L. [et al. 2005], Medan, D., Kellermann, J., & Hilger, H. H. 2005. Phylogeny of the tribe Colletieae (Rhamnaceae) - a sensitivity analysis of the plastid region trnL-trnF combined with morphology. Plant Syst. Evol. 250: 197-214.

Aagesen, L. [et al. 2016], Biganzoli, F., Bena, J., Godoy-Bürki, A. C., Reinheimer, R., & Zuloaga, F. O. 2016. Macro-climatic distribution limits show both niche expansion and niche specialization among C4 panicoids. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0151075.

Aanen, D. K. [et al. 2007], Ros, V. I. D., Licht, H. H. de F., Mitchell, J., de Beer, Z. W., Slippers, B., Rouland-LeFevre, C., & Boomsma, J. J. 2007. Patterns of interaction specificty of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa. BMC Evol. Biol. 7:115. doi:10.1186/1471-2i48-7-115

Abbasi, M. [et al. 2005], Goodwin, S. B., & Scholler, M. 2005. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and distribution of Puccinia graminis, the black stem rust: New insights based on rDNA sequence data. Mycoscience 46: 241-247.

Abbe, E. C. 1935. Studies in the phylogeny of the Betulaceae. I. Floral and inflorescence anatomy and morphology. Bot. Gaz. 97: 1-67.

Abbe, E. C. 1974. Flowers and inflorescences of the "Amentiferae". Bot. Review 40: 159-261.

Abbott, J. R. 2011. Notes on the disintegration of Polygala (Polygalaceae), with four new genera for the Flora of North America. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 5: 125-137.

Abbott, J. R. [et al. 2013], Neubig, K., & Carlsward, B. 2013. Further insight into the disintegration of the polyphyletic mess that was Polygala s.l. (Polygalaceae). P. 254, in Botany 2013. Celebrating Diversity! July 27-31 - New Orleans. Abstracts.

Abdallah, J. M., & Monela, G. G. 2007. Overview of the Miombo woodlands in Tanzania. Finnish Forest. Res. Inst. 50: 9-23.

Abdallah, M. S. 1967. The Resedaceae: A taxonomical revision of the family. Meded. Landbouwhoog. Wageningen 67(8): 1-98, fig. 2-17. [Reprint: Belmontia N.S. 8, 1978.]

Abdallah, M. S., & de Wit, H. C. D. 1978. The Resedaceae: A taxonomical revision of the family (final instalment). Meded. Landbouwhoog. Wageningen 78(14): 96-416, fig. 1, 18-91. [Reprint: Belmontia N.S. 8, 1978.]

Abdelaziz, M. [et al. 2019], Bakkali, M., Gómez, M., Olivieri, E., & Perfectti, F. 2019. Anther rubbing, a new mechanism that actively promotes selfing in plants. American Naturalist 193: 140-147.

Abdelgaleil, S. A. M., & Hashinaga, F. 2007. Allelopathic potential of two sequiterpene lactones from Magnolia grandiflora L. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 35: 737-742.

Abdel Khalik, K. [et al. 2008], Abd El-Ghani, M., & El Kordy, A. 2008. Fruit and seed morphology in Galium (Rubiaceae) and its importance for taxonomic identification. Act. Bot. Croatica 67: 1-20.

Abdillahi, H. S. [et al. 2010], Stafford, G. I., Finnie, J. F., & van Stade, J. 2010. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Podocarpus sensu latissimo. South African J. Bot. 76: 1-24.

Abe, J. P. 2005. An arbuscular mycorrhizal genus in the Eriaceae. Inoculum 56(4): 6.

Abe, K. 1972a. Contribution to the embryology of the family Orchidaceae. VI. Development of the embryo sac in 15 species of orchids. Sci. Reports Tôhoko Univ. Ser. IV Biol., 36: 135-178.

Abe, K. 1972b. Contribution to the embryology of the family Orchidaceae. VII. A comparative study of the orchid embryo sac. Sci. Reports Tôhoko Univ. Ser. IV Biol., 36: 179-201.

Abele, D. [et al. 2005], Rudolph, B., Thiede, J., & Schirarend, C. 2005. Phylogeny of the genus Masdevallia Ruiz & Pav. based on morphological and molecular data. Pp. 111-116, in Raynal-Roques, A., Roguenant, A., & Prat, D. (eds), Proceedings of the 18th World Orchid Conferemnce. Naturalia Publications, Turriers, France.

Abercrombie, J. M. [et al. 2011], O'Meara, B. C., Moffatt, A. R., & Williams, J. H. 2011. Developmental evolution of flowering plant pollen tube cell walls: Callose synthase (CalS) gene expression pattern. EvoDevo 2011, 2:14. doi: 10.1186/2041-9139-2-14

Aberhan, M., & Kiessling, W. 2015. Persistent ecological shifts in marine molluscan assemblages across the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 112: 7207-7212.

Abraham, Y., & Elbaum, R. 2013. Hygroscopic movements in Geraniaceae: The structural variations that are responsible for coiling or bending. New Phytol. 199: 584-594.

Abrahamczyk, S., & Renner, S. S. 2015. The temporal build-up of hummingbird/plant mutualisms in North America and temperate South America. BMC Evol. Biol. 15:104.

Abrahamczyk, S. [et al. 2014], Souto-Vilarós, D., & Renner, S. S. 2014. Escape from extreme specialization: Passionflowers, bats and the sword-billed hummingbird. Proc. R. Soc. B 281:20140888.

Abrahamczyk, S. [et al. 2015], Souto-Vilarós, D., McGuire, J. A., & Renner, S. S. 2015. Diversity and clade ages of West Indian hummingbirds and the largest plant clades dependent on them: A 5-9 Myr young mutualistic system. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 114: 848-859.

Abrahamczyk, S. [et al. 2016], Kessler, M., Hanley, D., Karger, D. N., Müller, M. P. J., Knauer, A. C., Keller, F., Schwerdtfeger, M., & Humphreys, A. M. 2016. Pollinator adaptation and the evolution of floral nectar sugar concentration. J. Evol. Biol. 30: 112-127.

Abrahamczyk, S. [et al. 2017a], Poretschkin, C., & Renner, S. S. 2017a. Evolutionary flexibility in five hummingbird/plant mutualistic systems: Testing temporal and geographic matching. J. Biogeog. 44: 1847-1855.

Abrahamczyk, S. [et al. 2017b], Lozada-Gobilard, S., Ackermann, M., Fischer, E., Krieger, V., Redling, A., & Weigend, M. 2017b. A question of data quality - testing pollination syndromes in Balsaminaceae. PLoS ONE 12(10):e0186125.

Abrahamson W. G., & Weis A. E. 1997. Evolutionary Ecology Across Three Trophic levels: Goldenrods, Gallmakers, and Natural Enemies. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Abrahamson, W. G. [et al. 1998], Melika, G., Scrafford, R., & Csóka, G. 1998. Gall-inducing insects provide insights into plant systematic relationships. American J. Bot. 85: 1159-1165.

Abrams, M. 1895. Bau und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Wandverdickungen in den Samenoberhautzellen einiger Cruciferen. Jahrb. Wissens. Bot. 16: 599-637.

Abrams, M. D. 1992. Fire and the development of oak forests. BioScience 42: 346-353.

Abrams, M. D. 1996. Distribution, historical development and ecophysiological attributes of oak species in the eastern United States. Ann. Sci. Forest. 53: 487-512.

Abrams, M. D. 2003. Where has all the white oak gone? BioScience 53: 927-939.

Abril, A. The leaf cutting ant-plant interaction from a microbial ecology perspective. Pp. 39-63, in Seckbach, J., & Dubinsky, Z. (eds), All Flesh is Grass: Plant-Animal Interrelationships. Springer, Dordrecht.

Abrouk, M. [et al. 2010], Murat, F., Pont, C., Messing, J., Jackson, S., Faraut, T., Tannier, F., Plomion, C., Cooke, R., Feuillet, C., & Salse, J. 2010. Palaeogenomics of plants: Synteny-based models of extinct ancestors. Trends Plant Sci. 15: 479-487.

Accorsi, W. R. A. 1949. Características morfólogicas, anatómicas e citológicas da epiderme inferior da folha das Rubiaceae. Lilloa 16: 5-59.

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. [et al. 2011], van Welzen, P. C., Adema, F., & van der Ham, R. W. J. M. 2011. Sapindaceae. Pp. 357-407, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Flowering Plants. X. Flowering Plants: Eudicots. Sapindales, Cucurbitales, Myrtaceae. Springer, Berlin.

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. [et al. 2017], Wurdack, K. J., Ferrucci, M. S., Johnson, G., Dias, P., Coelho, R. G., Somner, G. V., Steinmann, V. W., Zimmer, E. A., & Strong, M. T. 2017. Genetic relationships and classification of tribe Paullinieae (Sapindaceae) with a new concept of supertribe Paulliniodae. Syst. Bot. 42: 96-114.

Acevedo-Rosas, R. [et al. 2004], Cameron, K., Sosa, V., & Pell, S. 2004. A molecular phylogenetic study of Graptopetalum (Crassulaceae) based on ETS, ITS, rpl16 and trnL-F nucleotide sequences. American J. Bot. 91: 1099-1104.

Achille, F. [et al. 2006], Motley, T. J., Lowry, P. P. II, & Jérémie, J. 2006. Polyphyly in Guettarda L. (Rubiaceae, Guettardeae) based on nrDNA ITS sequence data. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 93: 103-121.

Ackerley, D. 2009. Conservatism and diversification of plant functional traits: Evolutionary rates versus phylogenetic signal. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 106, suppl. 2: 19699-19706.

Ackerman, J. D. 1983. Specificity and mutual dependency of the orchid-euglossine bee interaction. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 20: 301-314.

Ackerman, J. D. 1985. Euglossine bees and their nectar hosts. Pp. 225-233, in D'Arcy, W. G., & Correa, M. D. (eds), The Botany and Natural History of Panama. Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis.

Ackerman, J. D. 1986. Mechanisms and evolution of food-deceptive pollination systems in orchids. Lindleyana 1: 108-113.

Ackerman, J. D. 1995. Convergence of filiform pollen morphologies in seagrasses: Functional mechanisms. Evol. Ecol. 9: 139-153.

Ackerman, J. D. 2006. Sexual reproduction in seagrasses: Pollination in the marine context. Pp. 89-109, in Larkum, A. W. D., Orth, R. J., & Duarte, C. M. (eds), Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology and Conservation. Springer, Dordrecht.

Ackerman, J. D., & Roubik, D. W. 2012. Can extinction risk help explain plant-pollinator specificity among euglossine bee pollinated plants? Oikos 121: 1821-1827.

Ackerman, J. D., & Williams, N. H. 1980. Pollen morphology of the tribe Neottieae and its impact on the classification of the Orchidaceae. Grana 19: 7-18.

Ackermann, M., & Weigend, M. 2006. Nectar, floral morphology and pollination syndrome in Loasaceae subfamily Loasoideae (Cornales). Ann. Bot. 98: 503-514.

Ackery, P. R. 1988. Hostplants and classification: A review of nymphalid butterflies. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 33: 95-203.

Ackery, P. R. 1991. Hostplant utilization by African and Australian butterflies. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 44: 335-351.

Ackery, P. R., & Vane-Wright, R. I. 1984. Milkweed Butterflies: Their Cladistics and Biology. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Acosta, M. C. [et al. 2006], Ordóñez, A. del V., Cocucci, A. A., & Moscone, E. A. 2006. Chromosome reports in South American Nicotaneae (Solanaceae), with particular reference to Nierembergia. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 93: 634-646.

Acosta, J. M. [et al. 2009], Perreta, M., Amsler, A., & Vegetti, A. C. 2009. The flowering unit in the synflorescences of Amaranthaceae. Bot. Review 75: 365-376.

Acosta, J. M. [et al. 2019], Zuloaga, F. O., & Reinheimer, R. 2019 Nuclear phylogeny and hypothesized allopolyploidization events in the subtribe Otachyriinae (Paspaleae, Poaceae). Syst. Biodiv. 17: 277-294.

Ács, Z. [et al. 2009], Challis, R. J., Bihari, P., Blaxter, M., Hayward, A., Melika, G., Csóka, G., Pénzes, Z., Pujade-Villar, J., Nieves-Aldrey, J.-L., Schönrogge, K., & Stone, G. N. 2010 [= 2009]. Phylogeny and DNA barcoding of inquiline oak gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) of the Western Palaearctic. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 55: 210-225.

Acuña, R. [et al. 2017], Fließwasser, S., Ackermann, M., Henning, T., Luebert, F., & Weigend, M. 2017. Phylogenetic relationships and generic re-arrangements in "South Andean loasas" (Loasaceae). Taxon 66: 385-378.

Acuña Castillo, R. [et al. 2019], Luebert, F., Henning, T., & Weigend, M. 2019. Major lineages of Loasaceae subfam. Loasoideae diversified during the Andean uplift. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 141:106616.

Adachi, J. [et al. 1995], Kosuge, K., Denda, T., & Watanabe, K. 1995. Phylogenetic relationships of the Berberidaceae based on partial sequences of the gapA gene. Pp. 351-353, in Jensen, U., & Kadereit, J. W. (eds.), Systematics and Evolution of the Ranunculiflorae. Springer, Vienna. [Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 9.]

Adachi, S. A. [et al. 2015], Machado, S. R., & Guimarães, E. 2015. Structural and ultrastructural characterization of the floral lip in Gongora bufonia (Orchidaceae): Understanding the slip-and-fall pollination mechanism. Botany 93: 759-768.

Adam, H. [et al. 2007], Jouannic, S., Morcillo, F., Verdeil, J.-L., Duval, Y., & Tregear, J. W. 2007. Determination of flower structure in Elaeis guineensis: Do palms use the same homeotic genes as other species? Ann. Bot. 100: 1-12.

Adamczyk, B. [et al. 2010], Smolander, A., Kitunen, V., & Godlewski, M. 2010. Proteins as nitrogen source for plants. A short story about exudation of proteases by plant roots. Plant Signall. Behav. 5: 817-819.

Adamec, L. 2009. Ecophysiological investigation on Drosophyllum lusitanicum: Why doesn't the plant dry out? Carniv. Plant Newsl. 38: 71-74.

Adamec, L. 2011a. Functional characteristics of traps of aquatic carnivorous Utricularia species. Aquatic Bot. 95: 226-233.

Adamec, L. 2011b. Ecophysiological look at plant carnivory. Why are plants carnivorous? Pp. 457-489, in Seckbach, J., & Dubinsky, Z. (eds), All Flesh is Grass: Plant-Animal Interrelationships. Springer, Dordrecht.

Adamec, L. 2012. News in ecophysiological research on aquatic Utricularia traps. Carniv. Plants Newsl. 41: 92-104.

Adamec, L., & Poppinga, S. 2016. Measurement of critical negative pressure inside traps of aquatic carnivorous Utricularia species. Aquatic Bot. 133: 10-16.

Adamec, L. [et al. 2006], Kohout, P., & Benes, K. 2006. Root anatomy of three carnivorous plant species. Carniv. Plant Newsl. 35: 19-22.

Adams, D. G. 2002. Cyanobacteria in symbiosis with hornworts and liverworts. Pp. 117-135, in Rai, A. N., Bergman, B., & Rasmussen, U. (eds), Cyanobacteria in Symbiosis. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Adams, D. G., & Duggan, P. S. 2008. Cyanobacteria–bryophyte symbioses. J. Experim. Bot. 59: 1047-1058.

Adams, D. G. [et al. 2006], Bergman, B., Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A., Rai, A. N., & Schubler, A. 2006. Cyanobacterial-plant symbioses. Pp. 331-363, in Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H., & Stackebrandt, E. (eds), The Prokaryotes, Vol. 1. Springer, New York.

Adams, F. [et al. 2006], Reddell, P., Webb, M. J., & Shipton, W. A. 2006. Arbuscular mycorrhizas and ectomycorrhizas on Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) trees and seedlings in native forests of tropical north-eastern Australia. Australian J. Bot. 54: 271-281.

Adams, K. L., & Palmer, J. D. 2003. Evolution of mitochondrial gene content: Gene loss and transfer to the nucleus. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 29: 380-395.

Adams, K. L., & Wendel, J. F. 2005. Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 8: 135-141.

Adams, K. L. [et al. 2001], Rosenblueth, M., Qiu, Y.-L., & Palmer, J. D. 2001. Multiple losses and transfers to the nucleus of two mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase genes during angiosperm evolution. Genetics 158: 1289-1300.

Adams, K. L. [et al. 2002a], Daly, D. O, Whelan, J., & Palmer, J. D. 2002a. Genes for two mitochondrial ribosomal proteins in flowering plants are derived from their chloroplast or cytosolic counterparts. Plant Cell 14: 931-943.

Adams, K. L. [et al. 2002b], Qiu, Y.-L., Stoutemyer, M., & Palmer, J. D. 2002b. Punctuated evolution of mitochondrial gene content: High and variable rates of mitochondrial gene loss and transfer to the nucleus during angiosperm evolution. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 99: 9905-9912.

Adams, J. E. 1949. Studies in the comparative anatomy of the Cornaceae. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 65: 219-244.

Adams, J. M. [et al. 2011], Ahn, S., Ainuddin, N., & Lee, M.-L. 2011. A further test of a palaeoecological thermometer: Tropical rainforests have more herbivore damage than temperate forests. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 164: 60-66.

Adams, L. G. 1987. Philydraceae. Pp. 40-45, in George, A. S. (ed.), Flora of Australia. Volume 35. Hydatellaceae to Liliaceae. Australian Government, Canberra.

Adams, M. A. [et al. 2016], Turnbull, T. N., Sprent, J. I., & Buchmann, N. 2016. Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 113: 4098-4103.

Adams, N. F. [et al. 2016], Collinson, M. E., Smith, S. Y., Bamford, M. K., Forest, F., Malakasi, P., Marone, F., & Sykes, D. 2016. X-rays and virtual taphonomy resolve the first Cissus (Vitaceae) macrofossils from Africa as early-diverging members of the genus. American J. Bot.

Adams, P. [et al. 1998], Nelson, D. E., Yamada, S. Chmara, W., Jensen, R. G., Bohnert, H. J. ,& Griffiths, H. 1998. Growth and development of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (Aizoaceae). New Phytol. 138: 171-190.

Adams, P. B. 2011. Systematics of Dendrobiinae (Orchidaceae) with special reference to Australian taxa. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 166: 105-126.

Adams, R. P. 2010. Junipers of the World: The Genus Juniperus. Ed. 3. Trafford, Bloomington, IN.

Adams, R. P. 2019. Inheritance of chloroplasts and mitochondria in conifers: A review of paternal, maternal, leakage and facultative inheritance. Phytologia 101: 134-138.

Adams, R. P., & Schwarzbach, A. 2013. Phylogeny of Juniperus using nrDNA and four cpDNA regions. Phytologia 95: 179-187.

Adams, S. P. [et al. 2001], Hartman, T. P. V., Lim, K. Y., Chase, M. W., Bennett, M. D., Leitch, I. J., & Leitch, A. R. 2001. Loss and recovery of Arabidopsis-type telomere repeat sequences 5'-(TTTAGGG)n-3' in the evolution of a major radiation of flowering plants. Proc. Royal Soc. B, 268: 1541-1546.

Adamson, R. S. 1958a. The South African species of Aizoaceae. IV. Mollugo, Pharnaceum, Coelanthum and Hypertelis. J. South African Bot. 24: 11-65.

Adamson, R. S. 1958b. The South African species of Aizoaceae. V. Corbichonia. J. South African Bot. 24: 67-69.

Adamson, R. S. 1959. The South African species of Aizoaceae. VI. Acrosanthes. J. South African Bot. 25: 23-28.

Adatia, R. D., & Gavde, S. G. 1962. Embryology of the Celastraceae. Pp. 1-11, in Maheshwari, P. (ed.), Plant Embryology - a Symposium. CSIR, New Delhi.

Addo-Fordjour, P., & Rahmad, Z. B. 2015. Liana assemblages in tropical forests of Africa and Southeast Asia: Diversity, abundance and management. Pp. 81-98, in Parthasaranthy, N. (ed.), Biodiversity of Lianas. Springer, Heidelberg.

Adhikari, B. [et al. 2015], Milne, R., Pennington, R. T., Särkinen, T., & Pendry, C. A. 2015. Systematics and biogeography of Berberis s.l. inferred from nuclear ITS and chloroplast ndhF gene sequences. Taxon 64: 39-48.

Adie, H., & Lawes, M. J. 2011. Podocarps in Africa: Temperate zone relicts or rainforest survivors? Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 45: 79-100.

Adjoud-Sadadou, D., & Halli-Hargas, R. 2000. Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhiza on aged Eucalyptus. Mycorrhiza 9: 287-290.

Adlassnig, W. [et al. 2005], Peroutka, M., Lambers, H., & Lichtscheidl, I. K. 2005. The roots of carnivorous plants. Plant and Soil 274: 127-140.

Adlassnig, W. [et al. 2011], Peroutka, M., & Lendl, T. 2011. Traps of carnivorous pitcher plants as a habitat: Composition of the fluid, biodiversity and mutualistic activities. Ann. Bot. 107: 181-194.

Adler, I [et al. 1997], Barabé, D., & Jean, R. V. 1997. A history of the study of phyllotaxis. Ann. Bot. 80: 231-244.

Adler, L. S. 2000. Alkaloid uptake increases fitness in a hemiparasitic plant via reduced herbivory and increased pollination. American Naturalist 156: 92-99.

Adler, L. S. 2002. Host effects on herbivory and pollination in a hemiparasitic plant. Ecology 83: 2700-2710.

Adler, L. S. 2003. Host species affects herbivory, pollination, and reproduction in experiments with parasitic Castilleja. Ecology 84: 2083-2091.

Adler, L. S., & Wink, M. 2001. Transfer of quinolizidine alkaloids from hosts to hemiparasites in two Castilleja-Lupinus associations: Analysis of floral and vegetative tissues. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 29: 551-561.

Adler, P. B. [et al 2006], HilleRisLambers, J., Kyriakidis, P. C., Guan, G., & Levine, J. M. 2006. Climate variability has a stabilizing effect on the coexistence of prairie grasses. Proc. National Acad. Sci. 102: 12793–12798. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0600599103

Adler, P. B. [et al. 2011], Seabloom, E. W., Borer, E. T., Hillebrand, H., Hautier, Y., Hector, A., Harpole, W. S., O'Halloran, L. R., Grace, J. B., Anderson, T. M., Bakker, J. D., Biederman, L. A., Brown, C. S., Buckley, Y. M., Calabrese, L. B., Chu, C.-J., Cleland, E. S., Collins, S. L., Cottingham, K. L., Crawley, M. J., Damschen, E. I., Davies, K. F., DeCrappeo, N. M., Fay, P. A., Firn, J., Frater, P., Gasarch, E. I., Gruner, D. S., Nagenah, N., HilleRisLambers, J., Humphries, H., Jin, V. L., Kay, A. D., Kirkman, K. P., Klein, J. A., Knops, J. M. H., La Pierre, K. J., Lambrinos, J. G., Li, W., Macdougall, A. S., McCulley, R. L., Melbourne, B. A., Mitchell, C. E., Moore, J. L., Morgan, J. W., Mortenson, B., Orrock, J. L., Prober, S. M., Pyke, D. A., Risch, A. C., Schuetz, M., Stevens, C. J., Sullivan, L. L., Wang, G., Wragg, P. D., Wright, J. P., & Yang, L. H. 2011. Productivity is a poor predictor of plant species richness. Science 333: 1750-1753.

Adsersen, A. [et al. 2007], Smitt, U. W., Simonsen, H. T., Christensen, S. B., & Jaroszewski, J. W. 2007. Prenylated acetophenones from Melicope obscura and Melicope obtusifolia ssp. obtusifolia var. arborea and their disribution in Rutaceae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol 35: 447-453.

Aedo, C. [et al. 1998], Garmendia, F. M., & Pando, F. 1998. World checklist of Geranium L. (Geraniaceae). An. Jard. Bot. Madrid 56: 211-252.

Aedo, C. [et al. 2005], Navarro, C., & Alarcón, M. L. 2005. Taxonomic revision of Geranium sections Andina and Chilensia (Geraniaceae). Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 149: 1-68.

Aerne-Hains, L., & Simpson, M. G. 2017 [= 2016]. Vegetative anatomy of the Haemodoraceae and its phylogenetic significance. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 178: 117-156.

Affenzeller, M. [et al. 2018], Kadereit, J. W., & Comes, H. P. 2018. Parallel bursts of recent and rapid radiation in the Mediterranean and Eritreo-Arabian biodiversity hotspots as revealed by Globularia and Campylanthus (Plantaginaceae). J. Biogeogr. 45: 552-566.

Afkhami, M. E. 2012. Fungal endophyte-grass symbioses are rare in the California floristic province and other regions with Mediterranean-influenced climates. Fungal Ecol. 5: 345-352.

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Carlquist, S. 1960. Anatomy of Guyana Xyridaceae: Abolboda, Orectanthe, and Achlyphila. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 10: 65-117.

Carlquist, S. 1961. Pollen morphology of Rapateaceae. Aliso 5: 39-66.

Carlquist, S. 1964. Morphology and relationships of Lactoridaceae. Aliso 5: 421-435.

Carlquist, S. 1965. Island Life: A Natural History of the Islands of the World. The Natural History Press, Garden City, NY.

Carlquist, S. 1966. Anatomy of Rapateaceae. Roots and stems. Phytomorph. 16: 17-38.

Carlquist, S. 1969a. Studies in Stylidiaceae: New taxa, field observations, evolutionary tendencies. Aliso 7: 13-64.

Carlquist, S. 1969b. Wood anatomy of Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae). Biotropica 1: 47-72.

Carlquist, S. 1970a. Hawaii a Natural History. Geology, Climate, Native Flora and Fauna Above the Shoreline. Natural History Press, Garden City, NY.

Carlquist, S. 1969 [= 1970b]. Toward acceptable evolutionary interpretations of floral anatomy. Phytomorph. 19: 332-362.

Carlquist, S. 1974. Island Biology. Columbia University Press, New York.

Carlquist, S. 1976a. Tribal interrelationships and phylogeny of the Asteraceae. Aliso 8: 465-492.

Carlquist, S. 1976b. Wood anatomy of Myrothamnus flabellifolia (Myrothamnaceae) and the problem of multiperforate perforation plates. J. Arnold Arbor. 57: 119-126.

Carlquist, S. 1976c. Alexgeorgea, a bizarre new genus of Restionaceae from West Australia. Australian J. Bot. 24: 281-295.

Carlquist, S. 1977a. A revision of Grubbiaceae. J. South African Bot. 43: 115-128.

Carlquist, S. 1977b. Wood anatomy of Grubbiaceae. J. South African Bot. 43: 129-144.

Carlquist, S. 1978a. Vegetative anatomy and systematics of Grubbiaceae. Bot. Notis. 131: 117-126.

Carlquist, S. 1978b. Wood anatomy of Bruniaceae: Correlations with ecology, phylogeny, and organography. Aliso 9: 323-364.

Carlquist, S. 1980. Anatomy and systematics of Balanopaceae. Allertonia 2: 191-246.

Carlquist, S. 1981a. Types of cambial activity and wood anatomy of Stylidium (Stylidiaceae). American J. Bot. 68: 778-785.

Carlquist, S. 1981b. Studies in Stylidiaceae: monocotyly in the family; nomenclatural change. Aliso 10: 35-38.

Carlquist, S. 1981c. Wood anatomy of Cephalotaceae. IAWA Bull. N.S. 2: 175-183.

Carlquist, S. 1982. Wood anatomy of Dipsacaceae. Taxon 31: 443-450.

Carlquist, S. 1984. Wood anatomy of Loasaceae with relation to systematics, habit, and ecology. Aliso 10: 583-602.

Carlquist, S. 1985a. Vegetative anatomy and familial placement of Tovaria. Aliso 11: 69-76.

Carlquist, S. 1985b. Wood anatomy and familial status of Viviana. Aliso 12: 159-165.

Carlquist, S. 1985c. Wood and stem anatomy of Misodendraceae: Systematic and ecological conclusions. Brittonia 37: 58-75.

Carlquist, S. 1986. Wood anatomy of Stilbaceae and Retziaceae: ecological and systematic implications. Aliso 11: 294-316.

Carlquist, S. 1987a. Wood anatomy of Nolanaceae. Aliso 11: 463-471.

Carlquist, S. 1987b. Wood anatomy of Martyniaceae and Pedaliaceae. Aliso 11: 473-483.

Carlquist, S. 1988a. Wood anatomy and relationships of Duckeodendraceae and Goetzeaceae. IAWA Bull. N.S. 9: 3-12.

Carlquist, S. 1988b. Comparative Wood Anatomy. Springer, Berlin.

Carlquist, S. 1989. Wood anatomy and relationships of Montinia. Aliso 12: 369-378.

Carlquist, S. 1990a. Leaf anatomy of Geissolomataceae and Myrothamnaceae as a possible indicator of relationships to Bruniaceae. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 117: 420-428.

Carlquist, S. 1990b. Wood anatomy and relationships of Lactoridaceae. American J. Bot. 77: 1498-1505.

Carlquist, S. 1991a. Wood and bark anatomy of Ticodendron: Comments on relationships. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 78: 97-104.

Carlquist, S. 1991b. Anatomy of vine and liana stems: A review and synthesis. Pp. 53-71, in Putz, F. E., & Mooney, H. A. (eds), The Biology of Vines. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Carlquist, S. 1992a. Wood anatomy and stem of Chloranthus; summary of wood anatomy of Chloranthaceae, with comments on relationships, vessellessness, and the origin of monocotyledons. IAWA Bull. N.S. 13: 3-16.

Carlquist, S. 1992b. Wood anatomy of sympetalous dicotyledon families: A summary, with comments on systematic relationships end evolution of the woody habit. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 303-332.

Carlquist, S. 1992c. Wood anatomy of selected Cucurbitaceae and its relation to habit and systematics. Nordic J. Bot. 12: 347-355.

Carlquist, S. 1992d. Wood anatomy of Solanaceae: A survey. Allertonia 6: 279-326.

Carlquist, S. 1993. Wood and bark anatomy of Aristolochiaceae; systematic and habital correlations. IAWA J. 14: 341-357.

Carlquist, S. 1995a. Wood and bark anatomy of Ranunculaceae (including Hydrastis) and Glaucidiaceae. Aliso 14: 65-103.

Carlquist, S. 1995b. Wood anatomy of Ranunculiflorae: A summary. Pp. 11-24, in Jensen, U., & Kadereit, J. W. (eds.), Systematics and Evolution of the Ranunculiflorae. Springer, Vienna. [Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 9.]

Carlquist, S. 1996. Wood, bark, and stem anatomy of Gnetales: A summary. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 157 (6 Suppl.): S58-67.

Carlquist, S. 1996 [= 1997a.] Wood anatomy of Akaniaceae and Bretschneideraceae: A case of near-identity and its systematic implications. Syst. Bot. 21: 607-616.

Carlquist, S. 1997b. Pentaphragma: A unique wood and its significance. IAWA Bull. N.S. 18: 3-12.

Carlquist, S. 1996 [= 1997c]. Wood anatomy of Buddlejaceae. Aliso 15: 41-56.

Carlquist, S. 1998a. Wood anatomy of Resedaceae. Aliso 16: 127-135.

Carlquist, S. 1998b. Wood anatomy of Portulacaceae and Hectorellaceae: Ecological, habital and systematic implications. Aliso 16: 137-153.

Carlquist, S. 1998c. Wood and bark anatomy of Caricaceae; correlations with systematics and habit. IAWA J. 19: 191-206.

Carlquist, S. 1999. Wood, stem and root anatomy of Basellaceae with relation to habit, systematics, and cambial variants. Flora 194: 1-12.

Carlquist, S. 2000a. Wood and stem anatomy of Sarcobatus (Caryophyllales): Systematic and ecological implications. Taxon 49: 27-34.

Carlquist, S. 2000b. Wood and stem anatomy of phytolaccoid and rivinoid Phytolaccaeae (Caryophyllales): Ecology, systematics, nature of successive cambia. Aliso 19: 13-29.

Carlquist, S. 2000c. Wood and bark anatomy of Achatocarpaceae. Sida 19: 71-78.

Carlquist, S. 2001a. Observations on the vegetative anantomy of Austrobaileya: Habital, organographic and phylogenetic conclusions. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 135: 1-11.

Carlquist, S. 2001b. Comparative Wood Anatomy: Systematic, Ecological, and Evolutionary Aspects of Dicotyledon Wood. Ed. 2. Springer, Berlin.

Carlquist, S. 2002a. Wood anatomy of Salvadoraceae: Ecology, relationships, histology of interxylary phloem. J. Torrey Bot. Club 129: 10-20.

Carlquist, S. 2002b. Wood anatomy and successive cambia in Simmondsia (Simmondsiaceae): Evidence for inclusion in Caryophyllales s.l. Madroño 49: 158-164.

Carlquist, S. 2002c. Wood and bark anatomy of Myricaceae: Relationships, generic definitions, and ecological interpretations. Aliso 21: 7-29.

Carlquist, S. 2003a. Wood anatomy of Polygonaceae: Analysis of a family with exceptional wood diversity. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 141: 25-51.

Carlquist, S. 2003b. Wood anatomy of Aextoxicaceae and Berberidopsidaceae is compatible with their inclusion in Berberidopsidales. Syst. Bot. 28: 317-325.

Carlquist, S. 2003c. Wood and stem anatomy of woody Amaranthaceae s.s.: Ecology, systematics and the problem of defining rays in dicotyledons. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 143: 1-19.

Carlquist, S. 2004. Lateral meristems, successive cambia and their products: A reinterpretation based on roots and stems of Nyctaginaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 146: 129-143.

Carlquist, S. 2005a. Wood and bark anatomy of Muntingiaceae: A phylogenetic comparison within Malvales s.l. Brittonia 57: 59-67.

Carlquist, S. 2005b. Wood anatomy of Krameriaceae with comparisons with Zygophyllaceae: Phylesis, ecology and systematics. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 149: 257-270.

Carlquist, S. 2006. Asteropeia and Physena (Caryophyllales): A case study in comparative wood anatomy. Brittonia 58: 301-313.

Carlquist, S. 2007a. Successive cambia in Aizoaceae: Products and process. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 153: 141-155.

Carlquist, S. 2007b. Successive cambia revisited: Ontogeny, histology, diversity and functional significance. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134: 301-332.

Carlquist, S. 2007c. Wood anatomy of Crossosomatales: Patterns of wood evolution with relation to phylogeny and ecology. Aliso 24: 1-18.

Carlquist, S. 2009. Xylem heterochrony: An unappreciated key to angiosperm origin and diversifications. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 161: 26-65.

Carlquist, S. 2010. Caryophyllales: A key group for understanding wood anatomy character states and their evolution. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 164: 342-393.

Carlquist, S. 2012a. Monocot xylem revisited: New information, new paradigms. Bot. Review 78: 87-150.

Carlquist, S. 2012b. Wood anatomy of Gnetales in a functional, ecological, and evolutionary context. Aliso 30: 33-47.

Carlquist, S. 2012c. How wood evolves: A new synthesis. Botany 90: 901-940.

Carlquist, S. 2013a. Interxylary phloem: Diversity and functions. Brittonia 65: 477-495.

Carlquist, S. 2013b. More woodiness/less woodiness: Evolutionary avenues, ontogenetic mechanisms. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 174: 964-991.

Carlquist, S. 2015a. Living cells in wood. 1. Absence, scarcity, and histology of axial parenchyma as keys to function. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 177: 291-321.

Carlquist, S. 2015b. Living cells in wood. 2. Raylessness: Histology and evolutionary significance. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 178: 529-555.

Carlquist, S. 2016. Wood anatomy of Brassicales: New information, new evolutionary concepts. Bot. Review 82: 24-90.

Carlquist, S. 2017a. What the Penaeaceae alliance (Myrtales) tells us about the nature of vestured pits in xylem. Brittonia 69: 276–294.

Carlquist, S. 2017b. Vestured pits in Echium (Boraginaceae): Island woodiness revisited. Aliso 35: 28-40.

Carlquist, S. 2018a. Living cells in wood 3. Overview; functional anatomy of the parenchyma network. Bot. Review 84: 242-294.

Carlquist, S. 2018b. "Primitive" wood characters are adaptive: Examples from Paracryphiaceae. Aliso 36:.

Carlquist, S. 2018c. Wood anatomy of Atherospermataceae and allies: Strategies of wood evolution in basal angiosperms. Allertonia 17: 1-52.

Carlquist, S., & Boggs, C. J. 1996. Wood anatomy of Plumbaginaceae. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 123: 135-147.

Carlquist, S., & Donald, C. J. 1996. Wood anatomy of Limnanthaceae and Tropaeolaceae in relation to habit and phylogeny. Sida 17: 333-342.

Carlquist, S., & Eckhart, V. M. 1984. Wood anatomy of Hydrophyllaceae. II. Genera other than Eriodictyon, with comments on parenchyma bands containing vessels with large pits. Aliso 10: 527-546.

Carlquist, S., & Grant, J. R. 2005. Wood anatomy of Gentianaceae, tribe Helieae in relation to ecology, habit, systematics, and sample diameter. Brittonia 57: 276-291.

Carlquist, S., & Guilliams, C. M. 2017. Distinctive wood anatomy of the root-parasitic family Lennoaceae (Boraginales). IAWA J. 38: 3-12.

Carlquist, S., & Hoekman, D. A. 1985. Wood anatomy of Staphyleaceae: Ecology, statistical correlations, and systematics. Flora 177: 195-216.

Carlquist, S., & Hoekman, D. A. 1986. Wood anatomy of Myoporaceae: Ecological and systematic considerations. Aliso 11: 317-344.

Carlquist, S., & Lowrie, A. 1989. Two new species of Stylidium from Western Australia. Phytologia 67: 368-376.

Carlquist, S., & Miller, R. B. 1999. Vegetative anatomy and relationships of Setchellanthus caeruleus (Setchellanthaceae). Taxon 48: 289-302.

Carlquist, S., & Miller, R. B. 2001. Wood anatomy of Corynocarpaceae is consistent with its cucurbitalean placement. Syst. Bot. 26: 54-65.

Carlquist, S., & Raven, P. H. 1966. The systematics and anatomy of Gongylocarpus (Onagraceae). American J. Bot. 53: 378-390.

Carlquist, S., & Raven, P. H. 2018. Vestured pits in wood of Onagraceae: Correlations with ecology, habit, and phylogeny. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 103: 443-461.

Carlquist, S., & Schneider, E. L. 1997. Origin and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. I. Acorus. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 158: 51-56.

Carlquist, S., & Schneider, E. L. 2001. Vegetative anatomy of the New Caledonian endemic Amborella trichopoda: Relationships with the Illiciales and implications for vessel origin. Pacific Sci. 55: 305-312.

Carlquist, S., & Schneider, E. L. 2004. Pit membrane remnants in perforation plates of Hydrangeales with comments on pit membrane remnant occurrence, physiological significance and phylogenetic distribution in dicotyledons. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 146: 41-51.

Carlquist, S., & Schneider, E. L. 2005. Vestigial pit membrane remnants in perforation plates and helical thickening in vessels of Ericaceae. Nordic J. Bot. 23: 353-363.

Carlquist, S., & Schneider, E. L. 2009. Do tracheid microstructure and presence of minute crystals link Nymphaeaceae, Cabombaceae and Hydatellaceae? Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 159: 572-582.

Carlquist, S., & Schneider, E. L. 2010. Origin and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 11. Primary xylem microstructure, with examples from Zingiberales. Internat. J. Plant Sci. 171: 258-266.

Carlquist, S., & Schneider, E. L. 2013. Origin and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 14. Vessellessness in Orontioideae (Araceae): Adaptation or relictualism? Pp. 93-94, in Botany 2013. Celebrating Diversity! July 27-31 - New Orleans. Abstracts.

Carlquist, S., & Schneider, E. L. 2014. Origin and nature of vessels in monocotyledons. 14. Vessellessness in Orontioideae (Araceae): Adaptation or relictualism? Nordic J. Bot. 32: 493-502.

Carlquist, S., & Zona, S. 1988. Wood anatomy of Papaveraceae, with comments on vessel restriction patterns. IAWA Bull. n.s. 9: 253-267.

Carlquist, S. [et al. 1993], Morrell, P. L., & Manchester, S. R. 1993. Wood anatomy of Sabiaceae (s.l.): Ecological and systematic implications. Aliso 13: 521-549.

Carlquist, S. [et al. 1994], Schneider, E. L., & Miller, R. B. 1994. Wood and bark anatomy of Argemone (Papaveraceae). IAWA J. 15: 247-255.

Carlquist, S. [et al. 1995], Dauer, K., & Nishimura, S. Y. 1995. Wood and stem anatomy of Saururaceae with reference to ecology, phylogeny, and origin of the monocotyledons. IAWA Bull. 16: 133-150.

Carlquist, S. [et al. 2004], Baldwin, B. G., & Carr, G. D. (eds). 2004. Tarweeds and Silverswords: Evolution of the Madiinae (Asteraceae). Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis (See also Madiinae Showcase:

Carlquist, S. [et al. 2014], Hansen, B. F., Iltis, H. H., Olson, M. E., & Geiger, D. L. 2013 [= 2014]. Forchhammeria and Stixis (Brassicales): Stem and wood anatomical diversity, ecological and phylogenetic significance. Aliso 31: 59-75.

Carlsen, M. M., & Croat, T. B. 2013. The molecular phylogeny of the species-rich neotropical genus Anthurium (Araceae) based on combined chloroplast and nuclear DNA. Syst. Bot. 38: 576-588.

Carlsen, M. M., & Croat, T. B. 2019. An analysis of the sectional classification of Anthurium (Araceae): Comparing infrageneric groupings and their diagnostic morphology with a molecular phylogeny of the genus. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 104: 69-82.

Carlsen, M. [et al. 2018], Fér, T., Schmickl, R., Leong-Skornicková, J., Newman, M., & Kress, W. J. 2018. Resolving the rapid plant radiation of early diverging lineages in the tropical Zingiberales: Pushing the limits of genomic data. Molec. Phyl. Evol. 128: 55-68.

Carlsen, T. [et al. 2009], Bleeker, W., Hurka, R., Elven, R., & Brochmann, C. 2009. Biogeography and phylogeny of Cardamina (Brassicaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 96: 215-236.

Carlson, J. E., & Harms, K. E. 2007. The benefits of bathing buds: Water calyces protect flowers from a microlepidopteran hebivore. Biol. Letters 3: 405-407.

Carlson, M. C. 1945. Megasporogenesis and development of the emnbryo sac of Cypripedium parviflorum. Bot. Gaz. 101: 107-114.

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Carlson, S. E. [et al. 2012], Linder, H. P., & Donoghue, M. J. 2012. The historical biogeography of Scabiosa (Dipsacaceae): Implications for Old World plant disjunctions. J. Biogeog. 39: 1086-1100.

Carlsson, G., & Huss-Danell, K. 2003. Nitrogen fixation in perennial forage legumes in the field. Plant and Soil 253: 353-372.

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