The Western Species of Nepenthes


Nepenthes madagascariensis Poir.

Paleochorological analysis reveals that Nepenthes was originally a Laurasian element surviving in Europe into the lower Miocene, at the same time as it arrived in Borneo (Krutzsch 1989). The small seeds of Nepenthes are undoubtedly easily dispersed, and one could envision long distance dispersal from Malesia to Madagascar. Nevertheless, Schmid-Hollinger (1979) has suggested that the Western Indian Ocean species of Nepenthes (N. distillatoria - Sri Lanka; N. pervillei - Seychelles; N. madagascariensis and N. masoalensis - Madagascar) form a closely-related group, implying a single initial dispersal event from Malesia.

Additional possible examples of "Lemurian Stepping-stones" dispersal: Anisophyllea (Anisophylleaceae); Fernandoa (Bignoniaceae); some Clusiaceae (?) - Calophyllum; some Euphorbiaceae (?) - Claoxylon, Macaranga; Homalium, Scolopia (Flacourtiaceae); Hugonia (Hugoniaceae); Foetidia (Lecythidaceae); Leea (Leeaceae); Medinilla, Memecylon (Melastomataceae); Turraea (Meliaceae); Streblus (Moraceae); Ardisia (Myrsinaceae); Paropsia (Passifloraceae); Gaertnera, Ixora, Psychotria, Pyrostria (Rubiaceae).

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